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Custom Anti_Peptide antibodies (peptide up to 20_aa, conjugation, 1 sheep, ELISA); Add $895 for additional sheep

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[#ABPEP-20S] Custom Anti_Peptide antibodies (peptide up to 20_aa, conjugation, 1 sheep, ELISA); Add $895 for additional sheep


ABPEP-20S | Custom Anti_Peptide antibodies (peptide up to 20_aa, conjugation, 1 sheep, ELISA); Add $895 for additional sheep, 1
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(1) Hepcidin, Cathelicidin-1 and IL-8 as immunological markers of responsiveness in early developmental stages of rainbow trout.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27106706
Publication Date : //
During the early developmental stage of salmonids, high mortality occurs largely as a result of pathogens. These cause low immune competence in fry, producing disease, decreasing production and finally leading to economic losses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the developmental stages in which rainbow trout acquires immune response capability when challenged with LPS from Pseudomona aeruginosa for 8 h, studying the hepcidin, cathelicidin-1 and IL-8. Total RNA was extracted from fry at 34, 42, 56 and 66 days post hatching (dph). Hepcidin and cathelicidin-1 transcripts were detected only at days 34 and 42, whereas the IL-8 transcript was detected from day 34 to day 66. To analyse the protein expression in the fry, polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies were generated in rabbit. These three immune sera demonstrated the ability to recognise the whole molecule in biological samples. Immunofluorescence showed that skin, gills and intestine mainly responded to the LPS challenge, indicating that these portals of pathogen entry are capturing LPS. This study constitutes a valuable approach, since it has the potential to identify molecules with biological activity that can be used to evaluate the status of fry in culture.

Authors : Santana Paula A, Guzmán Fanny, Forero Juan C, Luna Omar F, Mercado Luis,

(2) A comparative antibody analysis of pannexin1 expression in four rat brain regions reveals varying subcellular localizations.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23390418
Publication Date : //
Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels release cytosolic ATP in response to signaling pathways. Panx1 is highly expressed in the central nervous system. We used four antibodies with different Panx1 anti-peptide epitopes to analyze four regions of rat brain. These antibodies labeled the same bands in Western blots and had highly similar patterns of immunofluorescence in tissue culture cells expressing Panx1, but Western blots of brain lysates from Panx1 knockout and control mice showed different banding patterns. Localizations of Panx1 in brain slices were generated using automated wide field mosaic confocal microscopy for imaging large regions of interest while retaining maximum resolution for examining cell populations and compartments. We compared Panx1 expression over the cerebellum, hippocampus with adjacent cortex, thalamus, and olfactory bulb. While Panx1 localizes to the same neuronal cell types, subcellular localizations differ. Two antibodies with epitopes against the intracellular loop and one against the carboxy terminus preferentially labeled cell bodies, while an antibody raised against an N-terminal peptide highlighted neuronal processes more than cell bodies. These labeling patterns may be a reflection of different cellular and subcellular localizations of full-length and/or modified Panx1 channels where each antibody is highlighting unique or differentially accessible Panx1 populations. However, we cannot rule out that one or more of these antibodies have specificity issues. All data associated with experiments from these four antibodies are presented in a manner that allows them to be compared and our claims thoroughly evaluated, rather than eliminating results that were questionable. Each antibody is given a unique identifier through the NIF Antibody Registry that can be used to track usage of individual antibodies across papers and all image and metadata are made available in the public repository, the Cell Centered Database, for on-line viewing, and download.

Authors : Cone Angela C, Ambrosi Cinzia, Scemes Eliana, Martone Maryann E, Sosinsky Gina E,

(3) Antigen targeting to major histocompatibility complex class II with streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z-2 M1, a superantigen-based vaccine carrier.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22301693
Publication Date : //
Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z-2 (SMEZ-2) is a streptococcal superantigen that primarily stimulates human T cells bearing Vβ8 and mouse T cells bearing Vβ11. Mutagenesis of T cell receptor (TCR)-binding residues (W75L, K182Q, D42C) produced a mutant called M1 that was >10(5)-fold less active toward human peripheral blood lymphocytes and splenocytes from transgenic mice that express human CD4 and either human HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8. Similarly, cytokine production in response to M1 in lymphocyte culture was rendered undetectable, and no change in the frequency of Vβ11-bearing T cells in mice receiving M1 was observed. M1 toxoid was tested as a potential vaccine conjugate. Vaccination with 1 to 10 μg M1 conjugated to ovalbumin (M1-ovalbumin) resulted in more rapid and quantitatively higher levels of anti-ovalbumin IgG, with endpoint titers being 1,000- to 10,000-fold greater than those in animals immunized with unconjugated ovalbumin. Substantially higher levels of anti-ovalbumin IgG were observed in mice transgenic for human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Substitution of M1 with an MHC class II binding mutant (DM) eliminated enhanced immunity, suggesting that M1 enhanced the delivery of antigen via MHC class II-positive antigen-presenting cells that predominate within lymphoid tissue. Immunization of animals with a conjugate consisting of M1 and ovalbumin peptide from positions 323 to 339 generated levels of anti-peptide IgG 100-fold higher than those in animals immunized with peptide alone. Coupling of a TCR-defective superantigen toxoid presents a new strategy for conjugate vaccines with the additional benefit of targeted delivery to MHC class II-bearing cells.

Authors : Radcliff Fiona J, Loh Jacelyn M S, Ha Birgit, Schuhbauer Diana, McCluskey James, Fraser John D,

(4) Fusion intermediates of HIV-1 gp41 as targets for antibody production: design, synthesis, and HR1-HR2 complex purification and characterization of generated antibodies.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :20922745
Publication Date : //
The objective of this project was to study the interaction between HR1 and HR2, the stability of the complex formed, and to characterize the antibodies produced against monomeric HR1 and HR2 peptides as well as the HR1-HR2 complex. In this work, HR1 was mimicked by peptide N36, and HR2 was mimicked by peptide C34L and its analogues C34M2, C34M3, and C34D. Whereas C34M2 and C34M3 are partially composed of D-amino acids, C34D has same sequence as C34L, but is assembled entirely of D-amino acids. Using CD analysis, SPR assays, and gel filtration chromatography, we demonstrate the physical interaction between N36 and C34L and its analogues C34M2 and C34M3, but not C34D. We show that the HR1-HR2 complex is formed rapidly (<1 min) and remains stable, as demonstrated by its inability, in contrast to each free peptide, to inhibit the formation of syncytia. To generate antibodies with predetermined specificity against the transiently exposed intermediate that corresponds to the six-helix bundle structure, purified preformed HR1-HR2 complex was used, in parallel with monomeric HR1 and HR2 peptides, as immunogens in mice. Although the produced antibodies recognize total HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins in ELISA, they are unable to neutralize HIV-1-mediated fusion at 37 °C. However, if the incubation with these antibodies is carried out at 27 °C, a temperature that allows stabilization of the transient intermediate complex, anti-peptide antibodies are able to bind their corresponding domains in HeLa cells expressing HIV-1 gp41 in co-culture with HeLa CD4-CCR5/CXCR4 during the dynamic mechanism of membrane fusion. In agreement with the latter results, these antibodies, if previously incubated for 2 h at 27 °C, are able to strongly neutralize HIV-1 entry by membrane fusion, as shown by their ability to block the formation of syncytia.

Authors : Mzoughi Olfa, Gaston Fabrice, Granados Giovana C, Lakhdar-Ghazal Faouzi, Giralt Ernest, Bahraoui Elmostafa,

(5) Preparation and application of polyclonal and monoclonal sequence-specific anti-phosphoamino acid antibodies.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :18429250
Publication Date : //
This unit discusses the issues that must be considered in the design, production, and characterization of polyclonal and monoclonal sequence-specific anti-phosphoamino acid antibodies. Protocols are provided for generating and purifying such antibodies, and methods are also provided for producing useful polyclonal antibodies in a non-purified form. Support protocols describe coupling of peptides or phosphotyrosine to a solid support for use in affinity chromatography. An example of the generation, purification, and characterization of two sequence-specific anti-phosphopeptide antibodies specific for different sequences of a single phosphoprotein is described. The cross-reactivity of such antibodies, which is a common problem with anti-peptide antibodies, is also discussed.

Authors : Sun Tong, Arlinghaus Ralph B,

(6) Antibodies to a nonconjugated prion protein peptide 95-123 interfere with PrP( Sc ) propagation in prion-infected cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :17205391
Publication Date : //
1. Vaccination-induced anti-prion protein antibodies are presently regarded as a promising approach toward treatment of prion diseases. Here, we investigated the ability of five peptides corresponding to three different regions of the bovine prion protein (PrP) to elicit antibodies interfering with PrP(Sc) propagation in prion-infected cells.2. Rabbits were immunized with free nonconjugated peptides. Obtained immune sera were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot for their binding to recombinant PrP and cell-derived pathogenic isoform (PrP(Sc)) and normal prion protein (PrP(c)), respectively. Sera positive in all tests were chosen for PrP(Sc) inhibition studies in cell culture.3. All peptides induced anti-peptide antibodies, most of them reacting with recombinant PrP. Moreover, addition of the serum specific to peptide 95-123 led to a transient reduction of PrP(Sc) levels in persistently prion-infected cells.4. Thus, anti-PrP antibodies interfering with PrP(Sc) propagation were induced with a prion protein peptide nonconjugated to a protein carrier. These results point to the potential application of the nonconjugated peptide 95-123 for the treatment of prion diseases.

Authors : Oboznaya Maria B, Gilch Sabine, Titova Maia A, Koroev Dmitry O, Volkova Tatyana D, Volpina Olga M, Schätzl Hermann M,

(7) Increased expression and secretion of r-Gsp protein, rat counterpart of complement C1s precursor, during cyclic AMP-induced differentiation in rat C6 glioma cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :12393260
Publication Date : //
The gene, termed r-gsp, was originally isolated during identification of differentiation-associated molecules in rat C6 glial cells. Its mRNA expression was markedly increased during cAMP-induced glial cell differentiation. The deduced amino acid sequence of r-gsp was homologous to those of complement C1s precursors of hamsters and humans. In the present study, we raised anti-peptide antibody against r-Gsp protein and analyzed its change during cAMP-induced differentiation. The 90-kDa r-Gsp protein increased time-dependently and reached the maximal level ( approximately 7.6-fold increase) at 24 h in response to dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) and theophylline. Moreover, it was secreted into the medium and then was cleaved to form disulfide-linked fragments, one of which was 30 kDa, similar to C1s, suggesting its processing in the extracellular space. In fact, the partially purified r-Gsp from culture medium was cleaved by active human C1r to form a 30-kDa polypeptide. Moreover, secreted r-Gsp protein cleaved human C4alpha to yield C4alpha' and associated with human serum C1-esterase inhibitor, strongly suggesting that r-Gsp protein is rat C1s. However, in C6 cells overexpressing r-Gsp, their morphology and proliferation rate were similar to those in parent C6 cells. These results suggest that r-Gsp protein could not induce glial differentiation alone, and suggest that r-Gsp protein was secreted as a proenzyme and processed in culture medium. Its possible role in glial cell differentiation will be discussed.

Authors : Nakagawa Masanori, Nakashima Shigeru, Banno Yoshiko, Yamada Jun, Sawada Motoshi, Yoshimura Shin ichi, Kaku Yasuhiko, Iwama Toru, Shinoda Jun, Sakai Noboru,

(8) The putative androgen receptor-A form results from in vitro proteolysis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :11719283
Publication Date : //
Activation domains in the 114 kDa androgen receptor (AR) NH(2)- and carboxyl-terminal regions are thought to contribute to different extents to AR-mediated transactivation. We investigated using anti-peptide antibodies whether smaller AR forms that migrate like the previously described 87 kDa AR-A occur in vivo resulting in constitutive or increased gene activation. Immunoblots of prostate cancer and fibroblast cell culture extracts revealed 114 and 84 kDa AR forms. Antibody mapping indicated the 84 kDa AR lacked the ligand-binding domain and comigrated with the constitutively active AR fragment AR1-660. AR expressed in COS cells was 114 and 92 kDa. Migration of the 92 kDa AR was slightly slower than that of a 90 kDa expressed fragment that was designed to initiate at the second methionine (residue 189) and lacked the NH(2)-terminal FxxLF interaction sequence. The 92 kDa AR did not result from alternative initiation since it was observed when the second methionine was changed to alanine. Optimization of extraction conditions indicated that both 84 and 92 kDa forms resulted from in vitro proteolytic cleavage and that cleavage by caspase-3 could account for the 92 kDa form. The results suggest that AR forms with gel mobility similar to that of the previously described 87 kDa AR-A result from in vitro proteolytic cleavage of NH(2)- or carboxyl-terminal regions during cell extraction and storage and that smaller forms with increased transcriptional activity do not occur in vivo.

Authors : Gregory C W, He B, Wilson E M,

(9) Partial protection to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) elicited in mice by intranasal immunization using live staphylococci with surface-displayed RSV-peptides.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :10781862
Publication Date : //
A live bacterial vaccine-delivery system based on the food-grade bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus was used for delivery of peptides from the G glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus, subtype A (RSV-A). Three peptides, corresponding to the G protein amino acids, 144-159 (denoted G5), 190-203 (G9) and 171-188 (G4 S), the latter with four cysteine residues substituted for serines, were expressed by recombinant means as surface-exposed on three different bacteria, and their surface accessibility on the bacteria was verified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Intranasal immunization of mice with the live recombinant staphylococci elicited significant anti-peptide as well as anti-virus serum IgG responses of balanced IgG1/IgG2a isotype profiles, and upon viral challenge with 10(5) tissue culture infectious doses(50) (TCID(50)), lung protection was demonstrated for approximately half of the mice in the G9 and G4 S immunization groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which protective immunity to a viral pathogen has been evoked using food-grade bacteria as vaccine-delivery vehicles.

Authors : Cano F, Plotnicky-Gilquin H, Nguyen T N, Liljeqvist S, Samuelson P, Bonnefoy J, Stâhl S, Robert A,

(10) Physical characterization of the MUC5AC mucin: a highly oligomeric glycoprotein whether isolated from cell culture or in vivo from respiratory mucous secretions.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :10727399
Publication Date : //
We have isolated the high-M(r) mucins from growth medium of the early stage of an HT-29 cell culture by gel chromatography and isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The mucins (buoyant density 1.34-1.44 g/ml) were reactive with an anti-peptide antiserum (MAN-5ACI) raised against a sequence from within the MUC5AC mucin. Similar antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5B mucins were not reactive. The MUC5AC reduced-mucin subunits exhibited a homogeneous charge distribution on anion-exchange chromatography, but appeared as two bands, one major and one more minor, after agarose gel electrophoresis. The unreduced mucins had an average M(r) in excess of 40 MDa and were visualized in the electron microscope as large, fine filamentous threads (many microns in length) that after reduction were greatly reduced in size (number average length 570 nm). Agarose gel electrophoresis of unreduced MUC5AC mucins identified a major band just entering the gel with evidence of a 'ladder' of faster-migrating minor bands. Partial reduction of the mucins increased the proportion of the faster bands and at least 16 could be discriminated. M(r) measurements showed that these bands differed by single monomer units. The mucins behaved as very stiff extended structures in solution and this characteristic might explain the poor separation of different-sized oligomers in sedimentation-rate experiments. The cell-culture mucin preparation had similar characteristics of charge and buoyant density to MUC5AC mucins from respiratory secretions in vivo. In addition the MUC5AC mucin from respiratory tract secretions exhibited similar behaviour, reduced and unreduced on agarose gel electrophoresis, indicating that the mucin has a similar molecular phenotype in vivo and in vitro.

Authors : Sheehan J K, Brazeau C, Kutay S, Pigeon H, Kirkham S, Howard M, Thornton D J,