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[#68990-63-6] Shark liver oil Shark liver oil

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(1) Synthesis of Alkyl-Glycerolipids Standards for Gas Chromatography Analysis: Application for Chimera and Shark Liver Oils.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29570630
Publication Date : //
Natural -alkyl-glycerolipids, also known as alkyl-ether-lipids (AEL), feature a long fatty alkyl chain linked to the glycerol unit by an ether bond. AEL are ubiquitously found in different tissues but, are abundant in shark liver oil, breast milk, red blood cells, blood plasma, and bone marrow. Only a few AEL are commercially available, while many others with saturated or mono-unsaturated alkyl chains of variable length are not available. These compounds are, however, necessary as standards for analytical methods. Here, we investigated different reported procedures and we adapted some of them to prepare a series of 1--alkyl-glycerols featuring mainly saturated alkyl chains of various lengths (14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 19:0, 20:0, 22:0) and two monounsaturated chains (16:1, 18:1). All of these standards were fully characterized by NMR and GC-MS. Finally, we used these standards to identify the AEL subtypes in shark and chimera liver oils. The distribution of the identified AEL were: 14:0 (20-24%), 16:0 (42-54%) and 18:1 (6-16%) and, to a lesser extent, (0.2-2%) for each of the following: 16:1, 17:0, 18:0, and 20:0. These standards open the possibilities to identify AEL subtypes in tumours and compare their composition to those of non-tumour tissues.

Authors : Pinault Michelle, Guimaraes Cyrille, Couthon Hélène, Thibonnet Jérôme, Fontaine Delphine, Chantôme Aurélie, Chevalier Stephan, Besson Pierre, Jaffrès Paul-Alain, Vandier Christophe,



(2) Effects of antioxidative substances from seaweed on quality of refined liver oil of leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus during an accelerated stability study.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29389635
Publication Date : //
Crude liver oil of leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus was clarified by sequential degumming, decolorization and vacuum deodorization. The refined oil was added with ethyl acetate extract of seaweeds and various physiochemical parameters were evaluated in a time-reliant accelerated storage study. Significantly greater induction time was observed for the oil supplemented with Sargassum wightii and Sargassum ilicifolium (>4.5h) than other seaweed extracts and control oil (~1h). Among different seaweeds, the ethylacetate extracts of S. wightii maintained the oxidation indices of the refined oil below the marginal limits after the study period. No significant reduction in C long chain fatty acids (1.19%) in the refined oil added with S. wightii was apparent, and was comparable with the synthetic antioxidants (1.07-1.08%). Spectroscopic fingerprint analysis of marker compounds responsible to cause rancidity signified the efficacy of S. wightii to arrest the development of undesirable oxidation products in the refined oil during storage. The antioxidant compounds, 15-(but-19-enyl)-hexahydro-13,16-dimethyl-11-oxo-1H-isochromen-8-yl benzoate (1) and 10-(but-13-en-12-yl)-5-((furan-3-yl)propyl)-dihydrofuran-9(3H)-one (2) isolated from S. wightii appeared to play a major role to deter the oxidative degradation of refined oil thereby enhancing the storage stability.

Authors : Chakraborty Kajal, Joseph Dexy,



(3) Production and Biotechnological Application of Extracellular Alkalophilic Lipase from Marine Macroalga-Associated Shewanella algae to Produce Enriched C n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrate.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29082477
Publication Date : //
An extracellular alkalophilic lipase was partially purified from heterotrophic Shewanella algae (KX 272637) associated with marine macroalgae Padina gymnospora. The enzyme possessed a molecular mass of 20 kD, and was purified 60-fold with a specific activity of 36.33 U/mg. The enzyme exhibited V and K of 1000 mM/mg/min and 157 mM, respectively, with an optimum activity at 55 °C and pH 10.0. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was improved by Ca and Mg ions, and the enzyme showed a good tolerance towards organic solvents, such as methanol, isopropanol, and ethanol. The purified lipase hydrolyzed the refined liver oil from leafscale gulper shark Centrophorus squamosus, yielding a total C n-3 PUFA concentration of 34.99% with EPA + DHA accounting the major share (34% TFA), after 3 h of hydrolysis. This study recognized the industrial applicability of the thermostable and alkalophilic lipase from marine macroalga-associated bacterium Shewanella algae to produce enriched C n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate.

Authors : Joseph Dexy, Chakraborty Kajal,



(4) Dioxin concentrations in dietary supplements containing animal oil on the Japanese market between 2007 and 2014.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29059558
Publication Date : //
We determined the concentrations of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls) in 46 dietary supplement products, containing the oil of fish, marine mammals, or egg yolk, on the Japanese market between 2007 and 2014. Dioxins were detected in 43 of the 46 products tested at concentrations from 0.00015 to 67 pg TEQ/g. The highest concentration of dioxins was found in a shark liver oil product which varied insignificantly in five batches collected over a two-year period. The dioxin intakes from these five batches reached 2.3-2.8 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, or 58%-70%, respectively, of the Japanese tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. However, the dioxin intakes from most of the other products tested were less than 5% of the TDI. Although rare, supplements based on animal oils may contain relatively high concentrations of dioxins, leading to a substantial increase in dioxin intakes.

Authors : Tsutsumi Tomoaki, Takatsuki Satoshi, Teshima Reiko, Matsuda Rieko, Watanabe Takahiro, Akiyama Hiroshi,



(5) The Economy of Shark Conservation in the Northeast Pacific: The Role of Ecotourism and Citizen Science.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29056141
Publication Date : //
Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season. However with the development of the SCUBA diving industry, and ecotourism in general, increased awareness of the role sharks play in marine ecosystems has resulted in changes in how they are perceived and utilized. Despite an ongoing harvest of sharks such as the North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), sharks now generate economic value through SCUBA diving enthusiasts who travel the globe to see, swim with, and photograph them. The use of digital cameras and other digital media has brought sharks into households around the world and increased awareness of the conservation issues facing many species. This renewed appreciation has led to a better understanding of sharks by the public, resulting in advocates calling for better protections and conservation. In particular, a growing part of the SCUBA diving community wants to contribute to conservation and research projects, which has led to participation in citizen science projects. These projects provide scientific data but also gain ground as ecotourism activities, thus adding to both economic value of tourism and conservation efforts.

Authors : Mieras Peter A, Harvey-Clark Chris, Bear Michael, Hodgin Gina, Hodgin Boone,



(6) A multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay to identify processed shark products in the global trade.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29020095
Publication Date : //
Protecting sharks from overexploitation has become global priority after widespread population declines have occurred. Tracking catches and trade on a species-specific basis has proven challenging, in part due to difficulties in identifying processed shark products such as fins, meat, and liver oil. This has hindered efforts to implement regulations aimed at promoting sustainable use of commercially important species and protection of imperiled species. Genetic approaches to identify shark products exist but are typically based on sequencing or amplifying large DNA regions and may fail to work on heavily processed products in which DNA is degraded. Here, we describe a novel multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay based on two short fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. This assay can identify to species all sharks currently listed on the Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) and most shark species present in the international trade. It achieves species diagnosis based on a single PCR and one to two downstream DNA sequencing reactions. The assay is capable of identifying highly processed shark products including fins, cooked shark fin soup, and skin-care products containing liver oil. This is a straightforward and reliable identification method for data collection and enforcement of regulations implemented for certain species at all governance levels.

Authors : Cardeñosa Diego, Fields Andrew, Abercrombie Debra, Feldheim Kevin, Shea Stanley K H, Chapman Demian D,



(7) DNA analysis of traded shark fins and mobulid gill plates reveals a high proportion of species of conservation concern.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28842669
Publication Date : //
Continuously increasing demand for plant and animal products causes unsustainable depletion of biological resources. It is estimated that one-quarter of sharks and rays are threatened worldwide and although the global fin trade is widely recognized as a major driver, demand for meat, liver oil, and gill plates also represents a significant threat. This study used DNA barcoding and 16 S rRNA sequencing as a method to identify shark and ray species from dried fins and gill plates, obtained in Canada, China, and Sri Lanka. 129 fins and gill plates were analysed and searches on BOLD produced matches to 20 species of sharks and five species of rays or - in two cases - to a species pair. Twelve of the species found are listed or have been approved for listing in 2017 in the appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES), including the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), which was surprisingly found among both shark fin and gill plate samples. More than half of identified species fall under the IUCN Red List categories 'Endangered' and 'Vulnerable', raising further concerns about the impacts of this trade on the sustainability of these low productivity species.

Authors : Steinke Dirk, Bernard Andrea M, Horn Rebekah L, Hilton Paul, Hanner Robert, Shivji Mahmood S,



(8) Synergistic Activity for Natural and Synthetic Inhibitors of Angiogenesis Induced by Murine Sarcoma L-1 and Human Kidney Cancer Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28456932
Publication Date : //
Tumor angiogenesis is an important link in the process of tumor growth and metastasis. A number of substances with an anti-angiogenic activity has been described, but their efficiency remains low. Many researchers believe that a better therapeutic effect could be achieved using a cocktail of several anti-angiogenic agents, having different points of action. A lot of synthetic and natural products of plant and animal origin have anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some combinations of angiogenesis inhibitors on the growth and neovascularization of murine sarcoma L-1 , and on angiogenesis induced in the mouse skin by grafting of human renal cancer. The influence of theobromine, sulindac and its metabolite sulindac sulfone, chlorogenic acid, and shark liver oil on the afferent and efferent angiogenesis pathways was tested. Individually, all of these substances suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis. Synergy was found for a combination of theobromine, sulindac, and chlorogenic acid (L-1 sarcoma tumor growth), and for theobromine with sulindac sulfone or with shark liver oil, which were given to the mice grafted with human renal cancer cells (angiogenesis). No synergistic effects were shown after preincubation with tumor cells and inhibitors.

Authors : Bałan Barbara J, Siwicki Andrzej K, Pastewka Krzysztof, Demkow Urszula, Skopiński Piotr, Skopińska-Różewska Ewa, Lewicki Sławomir, Zdanowski Robert,



(9) Biochemical Characterization of Liver Oil of Echinorhinus brucus (Bramble Shark) and Its Cytotoxic Evaluation on Neuroblastoma Cell Lines (SHSY-5Y).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27340593
Publication Date : //
The objective of the present study was to characterize the liver oil extracted from the deep sea shark, Echinorhinus brucus, caught from Central Indian Ocean and to evaluate its cytotoxic effect on neuroblastoma cell line (SHSY-5Y). Characterization of liver oil of Echinorhinus brucus revealed the presence of palmitic acid (15%), oleic acid (12%), stearic acid (8%), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (18%), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (16%). It was also found to be a good source of squalene (38.5%) and fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, and K (vitamin A: 17.08 mg/100 g of oil, vitamin D: 15.04 mg/100 g oil, and vitamin K: 11.45 mg/100 g oil). Since it was found to be rich in essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins, and squalene, it can be considered as better dietary supplement. The oil of Echinorhinus brucus also showed high in vitro cytotoxic effect against the human neuroblastoma cell line (SHSY-5Y) and the IC50 value laid between 35 and 45 ng.

Authors : Venugopal Vishnu, Kumaran Ajeeshkumar Kizhakkepurath, Sekhar Chatterjee Niladri, Kumar Suvanish, Kavilakath Shyni, Nair Jayarani Ramachandran, Mathew Suseela,



(10) Alkylglycerols reduce serum complement and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor in obese individuals.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27188987
Publication Date : //
Alkylglycerols (AKGs), isolated or present in shark liver oil have anti-inflammatory properties. Complement 3 (C3) and 4 (C4) participate in lipid metabolism and in obesity, contributing to the metabolic syndrome and to the low-grade inflammation associated with obesity. In a randomized, controlled, crossover study, 26 non-diabetes obese individuals were assigned two preparations with low (LAC, 10 mg AKGs) and high (HAC, 20 mg AKGs) AKG content. Intervention periods were of 3 weeks preceded by 2-week washout periods in which shark liver oil was avoided. Cholesterol, C3, C4, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) decreased in a linear trend (P < 0.01) from baseline (control) to LAC and HAC. Values after HAC were significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus both baseline and after LAC. No adverse effects were observed or reported. Data from this pilot study open a promising field for the study of the beneficial effects of AKGs on cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals.

Authors : Parri A, Fitó Montserrat, Torres C F, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Schröder H, Cano J F, Vázquez L, Reglero G, Covas María-Isabel,