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[#68990-63-6] Shark liver oil Shark liver oil

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(1) Enhanced squalene biosynthesis in Yarrowia lipolytica based on metabolically engineered acetyl-CoA metabolism.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29986837
Publication Date : //
As a bioactive triterpenoid, squalene is widely used in the food industry, cosmetics, and pharmacology. Squalene's major commercial sources are the liver oil of deep-sea sharks and plant oils. In this study, we focused on the enhancement of squalene biosynthesis in Yarrowia lipolytica, with particular attention to the engineering of acetyl-CoA metabolism based on genome-scale metabolic reaction network analysis. Although the overexpression of the rate-limiting endogenous ylHMG1 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene) could improve squalene synthesis by 3.2-fold over that by the control strain, the availability of the key intracellular precursor, acetyl-CoA, was found to play a more significant role in elevating squalene production. Analysis of metabolic networks with the newly constructed genome-scale metabolic model of Y. lipolytica iYL_2.0 showed that the acetyl-CoA pool size could be increased by redirecting carbon flux of pyruvate dehydrogenation towards the ligation of acetate and CoA or the cleavage of citrate to form oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. The overexpression of either acetyl-CoA synthetase gene from Salmonella enterica (acs*) or the endogenous ATP citrate lyase gene (ylACL1) resulted in a more than 50% increase in the cytosolic acetyl-CoA level. Moreover, iterative chromosomal integration of the ylHMG1, asc*, and ylACL1 genes resulted in a significant improvement in squalene production (16.4-fold increase in squalene content over that in the control strain). We also found that supplementation with 10 mM citrate in a flask culture further enhanced squalene production to 10 mg/g DCW. The information obtained in this study demonstrates that rationally engineering acetyl-CoA metabolism to ensure the supply of this key metabolic precursor is an efficient strategy for the enhancement of squalene biosynthesis.

Authors : Huang Yu-Ying, Jian Xing-Xing, Lv Yu-Bei, Nian Ke-Qing, Gao Qi, Chen Jun, Wei Liu-Jing, Hua Qiang,



(2) Biophysical characterization of asolectin-squalene liposomes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29960216
Publication Date : //
Liposomes are shell nanoparticles able to embed hydrophobic molecules into their lipid layers to be released to cells. In pharmaceutical sciences, liposomes remain the delivery system with the highest biocompatibility, stability, loading characteristics, tunable physicochemical properties. Squalene is a natural, water insoluble, lipid, abundant in olive oil and shark liver. Studies in vitro and in animal models suggest protective and inhibitory effects of squalene against cancer. To study its effect on cells, and to overcome its insolubility in water, we have designed and produced large unilamellar liposomes containing different quantities of this terpene (0%, 2.8%, 5% w/w). Liposomes have been characterized by different biophysical techniques. Size-exclusion and affinity chromatography showed a unimodal size distribution and confirmed the squalene loaded dose. Laurdan fluorescence evidenced the changes in the hydration of the external layer of liposomes as a function of squalene concentration. Dynamic light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering revealed squalene induced structural differences in the hydrodynamic radius distribution and in the bilayer thickness respectively. Finally, preliminary experiments on the effects of liposome-delivered squalene on tumor and non-tumor cell lines showed time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on LAN5 tumor cells and no effect on NIH-3T3 normal cells.

Authors : Costa Maria Assunta, Mangione Maria Rosalia, Santonocito Radha, Passantino Rosa, Giacomazza Daniela, Librizzi Fabio, Moran Oscar, Carrotta Rita,



(3) A study on food-medicine continuum among the non-institutionally trained siddha practitioners of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29954417
Publication Date : //
Medicinal properties of the food species are one of the poorly documented and important areas of ethnopharmacology. The present survey quantitatively documented the medicinal foods prescribed by the non-institutionally trained siddha practitioners of Tiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu.

Authors : Esakkimuthu S, Sylvester Darvin S, Mutheeswaran S, Gabriel Paulraj M, Pandikumar P, Ignacimuthu S, Al-Dhabi N A,



(4) Current Insights into the Biological Action of Squalene.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29883523
Publication Date : //
Squalene is a triterpenic compound found in a large number of plants and other sources with a long tradition of research since it was first reported in 1926. Herein a systematic review of studies concerning squalene published in the last 8 years is presented. These studies have provided further support for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic properties in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, an antineoplastic effect in nutrigenetic-type treatments, which depends on the failing metabolic pathway of tumors, has also been reported. The bioavailability of squalene in cell cultures, animal models, and in humans has been well established, and further progress has been made in regard to the intracellular transport of this lipophilic molecule. Squalene accumulates in the liver and decreases hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides, with these actions being exerted via a complex network of changes in gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Its presence in different biological fluids has also been studied. The combination of squalene with other bioactive compounds has been shown to enhance its pleiotropic properties and might lead to the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals to control oxidative stress and, therefore, numerous age-related diseases in human and veterinary medicine.

Authors : Lou-Bonafonte José M, Martínez-Beamonte Roberto, Sanclemente Teresa, Surra Joaquín C, Herrera-Marcos Luis V, Sanchez-Marco Javier, Arnal Carmen, Osada Jesús,



(5) Synthesis of Alkyl-Glycerolipids Standards for Gas Chromatography Analysis: Application for Chimera and Shark Liver Oils.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29570630
Publication Date : //
Natural -alkyl-glycerolipids, also known as alkyl-ether-lipids (AEL), feature a long fatty alkyl chain linked to the glycerol unit by an ether bond. AEL are ubiquitously found in different tissues but, are abundant in shark liver oil, breast milk, red blood cells, blood plasma, and bone marrow. Only a few AEL are commercially available, while many others with saturated or mono-unsaturated alkyl chains of variable length are not available. These compounds are, however, necessary as standards for analytical methods. Here, we investigated different reported procedures and we adapted some of them to prepare a series of 1--alkyl-glycerols featuring mainly saturated alkyl chains of various lengths (14:0, 16:0, 17:0, 19:0, 20:0, 22:0) and two monounsaturated chains (16:1, 18:1). All of these standards were fully characterized by NMR and GC-MS. Finally, we used these standards to identify the AEL subtypes in shark and chimera liver oils. The distribution of the identified AEL were: 14:0 (20-24%), 16:0 (42-54%) and 18:1 (6-16%) and, to a lesser extent, (0.2-2%) for each of the following: 16:1, 17:0, 18:0, and 20:0. These standards open the possibilities to identify AEL subtypes in tumours and compare their composition to those of non-tumour tissues.

Authors : Pinault Michelle, Guimaraes Cyrille, Couthon Hélène, Thibonnet Jérôme, Fontaine Delphine, Chantôme Aurélie, Chevalier Stephan, Besson Pierre, Jaffrès Paul-Alain, Vandier Christophe,



(6) Effects of antioxidative substances from seaweed on quality of refined liver oil of leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus during an accelerated stability study.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29389635
Publication Date : //
Crude liver oil of leafscale gulper shark, Centrophorus squamosus was clarified by sequential degumming, decolorization and vacuum deodorization. The refined oil was added with ethyl acetate extract of seaweeds and various physiochemical parameters were evaluated in a time-reliant accelerated storage study. Significantly greater induction time was observed for the oil supplemented with Sargassum wightii and Sargassum ilicifolium (>4.5h) than other seaweed extracts and control oil (~1h). Among different seaweeds, the ethylacetate extracts of S. wightii maintained the oxidation indices of the refined oil below the marginal limits after the study period. No significant reduction in C long chain fatty acids (1.19%) in the refined oil added with S. wightii was apparent, and was comparable with the synthetic antioxidants (1.07-1.08%). Spectroscopic fingerprint analysis of marker compounds responsible to cause rancidity signified the efficacy of S. wightii to arrest the development of undesirable oxidation products in the refined oil during storage. The antioxidant compounds, 15-(but-19-enyl)-hexahydro-13,16-dimethyl-11-oxo-1H-isochromen-8-yl benzoate (1) and 10-(but-13-en-12-yl)-5-((furan-3-yl)propyl)-dihydrofuran-9(3H)-one (2) isolated from S. wightii appeared to play a major role to deter the oxidative degradation of refined oil thereby enhancing the storage stability.

Authors : Chakraborty Kajal, Joseph Dexy,



(7) Production and Biotechnological Application of Extracellular Alkalophilic Lipase from Marine Macroalga-Associated Shewanella algae to Produce Enriched C n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrate.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29082477
Publication Date : //
An extracellular alkalophilic lipase was partially purified from heterotrophic Shewanella algae (KX 272637) associated with marine macroalgae Padina gymnospora. The enzyme possessed a molecular mass of 20 kD, and was purified 60-fold with a specific activity of 36.33 U/mg. The enzyme exhibited V and K of 1000 mM/mg/min and 157 mM, respectively, with an optimum activity at 55 °C and pH 10.0. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was improved by Ca and Mg ions, and the enzyme showed a good tolerance towards organic solvents, such as methanol, isopropanol, and ethanol. The purified lipase hydrolyzed the refined liver oil from leafscale gulper shark Centrophorus squamosus, yielding a total C n-3 PUFA concentration of 34.99% with EPA + DHA accounting the major share (34% TFA), after 3 h of hydrolysis. This study recognized the industrial applicability of the thermostable and alkalophilic lipase from marine macroalga-associated bacterium Shewanella algae to produce enriched C n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate.

Authors : Joseph Dexy, Chakraborty Kajal,



(8) Dioxin concentrations in dietary supplements containing animal oil on the Japanese market between 2007 and 2014.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29059558
Publication Date : //
We determined the concentrations of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls) in 46 dietary supplement products, containing the oil of fish, marine mammals, or egg yolk, on the Japanese market between 2007 and 2014. Dioxins were detected in 43 of the 46 products tested at concentrations from 0.00015 to 67 pg TEQ/g. The highest concentration of dioxins was found in a shark liver oil product which varied insignificantly in five batches collected over a two-year period. The dioxin intakes from these five batches reached 2.3-2.8 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, or 58%-70%, respectively, of the Japanese tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. However, the dioxin intakes from most of the other products tested were less than 5% of the TDI. Although rare, supplements based on animal oils may contain relatively high concentrations of dioxins, leading to a substantial increase in dioxin intakes.

Authors : Tsutsumi Tomoaki, Takatsuki Satoshi, Teshima Reiko, Matsuda Rieko, Watanabe Takahiro, Akiyama Hiroshi,



(9) The Economy of Shark Conservation in the Northeast Pacific: The Role of Ecotourism and Citizen Science.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29056141
Publication Date : //
Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season. However with the development of the SCUBA diving industry, and ecotourism in general, increased awareness of the role sharks play in marine ecosystems has resulted in changes in how they are perceived and utilized. Despite an ongoing harvest of sharks such as the North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), sharks now generate economic value through SCUBA diving enthusiasts who travel the globe to see, swim with, and photograph them. The use of digital cameras and other digital media has brought sharks into households around the world and increased awareness of the conservation issues facing many species. This renewed appreciation has led to a better understanding of sharks by the public, resulting in advocates calling for better protections and conservation. In particular, a growing part of the SCUBA diving community wants to contribute to conservation and research projects, which has led to participation in citizen science projects. These projects provide scientific data but also gain ground as ecotourism activities, thus adding to both economic value of tourism and conservation efforts.

Authors : Mieras Peter A, Harvey-Clark Chris, Bear Michael, Hodgin Gina, Hodgin Boone,



(10) A multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay to identify processed shark products in the global trade.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29020095
Publication Date : //
Protecting sharks from overexploitation has become global priority after widespread population declines have occurred. Tracking catches and trade on a species-specific basis has proven challenging, in part due to difficulties in identifying processed shark products such as fins, meat, and liver oil. This has hindered efforts to implement regulations aimed at promoting sustainable use of commercially important species and protection of imperiled species. Genetic approaches to identify shark products exist but are typically based on sequencing or amplifying large DNA regions and may fail to work on heavily processed products in which DNA is degraded. Here, we describe a novel multiplex PCR mini-barcode assay based on two short fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. This assay can identify to species all sharks currently listed on the Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) and most shark species present in the international trade. It achieves species diagnosis based on a single PCR and one to two downstream DNA sequencing reactions. The assay is capable of identifying highly processed shark products including fins, cooked shark fin soup, and skin-care products containing liver oil. This is a straightforward and reliable identification method for data collection and enforcement of regulations implemented for certain species at all governance levels.

Authors : Cardeñosa Diego, Fields Andrew, Abercrombie Debra, Feldheim Kevin, Shea Stanley K H, Chapman Demian D,