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Shark cartilage shark cartilage

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[#305838-77-1] Shark cartilage shark cartilage

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(1) Evaluation of Differentiated Bone Cells Proliferation by Blue Shark Skin Collagen via Biochemical for Bone Tissue Engineering.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30257422
Publication Date : //
Collagen from a marine resource is believed to have more potential activity in bone tissue engineering and their bioactivity depends on biochemical and structural properties. Considering the above concept, pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) and acid soluble collagen (ASC) from blue shark () skin were extracted and its biochemical and osteogenic properties were investigated. The hydroxyproline content was higher in PSC than ASC and the purified collagens contained three distinct bands α₁, α and β dimer. The purity of collagen was confirmed by the RP-HPLC profile and the thermogravimetric data showed a two-step thermal degradation pattern. ASC had a sharp decline in viscosity at 20⁻30 °C. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed the fibrillar network structure of collagens. Proliferation rates of the differentiated mouse bone marrow-mesenchymal stem (dMBMS) and differentiated osteoblastic (dMC3T3E1) cells were increased in collagen treated groups rather than the controls and the effect was dose-dependent, which was further supported by higher osteogenic protein and mRNA expression in collagen treated bone cells. Among two collagens, PSC had significantly increased dMBMS cell proliferation and this was materialized through increasing RUNX2 and collagen-I expression in bone cells. Accordingly, the collagens from blue shark skin with excellent biochemical and osteogenic properties could be a suitable biomaterial for therapeutic application.

Authors : Elango Jeevithan, Lee Jung Woo, Wang Shujun, Henrotin Yves, de Val José Eduardo Maté Sánchez, M Regenstein Joe, Lim Sun Young, Bao Bin, Wu Wenhui,



(2) Isolation and Chemical Characterization of Chondroitin Sulfate from Cartilage By-Products of Blackmouth Catshark ().[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30241332
Publication Date : //
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan actively researched for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and tissue engineering applications. CS extracted from marine animals displays different features from common terrestrial sources, resulting in distinct properties, such as anti-viral and anti-metastatic. Therefore, exploration of undescribed marine species holds potential to expand the possibilities of currently-known CS. Accordingly, we have studied for the first time the production and characterization of CS from blackmouth catshark (), a shark species commonly discarded as by-catch. The process of CS purification consists of cartilage hydrolysis with alcalase, followed by two different chemical treatments and ending with membrane purification. All steps were optimized by response surface methodology. According to this, the best conditions for cartilage proteolysis were established at 52.9 °C and = 7.31. Subsequent purification by either alkaline treatment or hydroalcoholic alkaline precipitation yielded CS with purities of 81.2%, 82.3% and 97.4% respectively, after 30-kDa membrane separation. The molecular weight of CS obtained ranges 53⁻66 kDa, depending on the conditions. Sulfation profiles were similar for all materials, with dominant CS-C (GlcA-GalNAc6S) units (55%), followed by 23⁻24% of CS-A (GlcA-GalNAc4S), a substantial amount (15⁻16%) of CS-D (GlcA2S-GalNAc6S) and less than 7% of other disulfated and unsulfated disaccharides.

Authors : Vázquez José Antonio, Fraguas Javier, Novoa-Carvallal Ramón, Reis Rui L, Antelo Luis T, Pérez-Martín Ricardo I, Valcarcel Jesus,



(3) Structural characterization and in vitro antioxidant activities of chondroitin sulfate purified from Andrias davidianus cartilage.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29891311
Publication Date : //
Origin and manufacturing process are key factors affecting the biological activities of chondroitin sulfate (CS), which can be utilized as a nutraceutical in dietary supplements. Herein, we extracted and purified CS from the cartilage of artificially breeding Andrias davidianus (ADCS), i.e., Chinese giant salamander (CGS), one of the prospective functional food source materials in China. Low molecular weight CS (LMWADCS) was then prepared by free radical depolymerization of ADCS. High-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) analysis showed that the average molecular weight (Mw) of ADCS was 49.2 kDa, while the Mw of LMWADCS was 6.4 kDa. After the eliminative degradation of ADCS by chondroitinase ABC, strong anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) analysis showed that the disaccharide composition of ADCS was 14.6% ΔDi0S, 60.9% ΔDi6S and 24.5% ΔDi4S. Then, in vitro antioxidant assays were performed with ADCS, LMWADCS and CS from a commercial source. Our results showed that LMWADCS exerted the highest total antioxidant activity out of the total antioxidant capacity, including the capacity of scavenging DPPH radicals, hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion radicals. From the results of this study, we can conclude that the Mw and composition of ADCS are different from those reported for bovine and shark CS, and LMWADCS can be utilized as a valuable and potential nutraceutical for the functional food industry.

Authors : Zhu Wenming, Ji Yang, Wang Yi, He Dong, Yan Yishu, Su Nan, Zhang Chong, Xing Xin-Hui,



(4) Structural Characterization and Interaction with RCA of a Highly Sulfated Keratan Sulfate from Blue Shark (Prionace glauca) Cartilage.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29662015
Publication Date : //
As an important glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate (KS) mainly exists in corneal and cartilage, possessing various biological activities. In this study, we purified KS from blue shark () cartilage and prepared KS oligosaccharides (KSO) through keratanase II-catalyzed hydrolysis. The structures of KS and KSO were characterized using multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Shark cartilage KS was highly sulfated and modified with ~2.69% -acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) through α(2,3)-linked to galactose. Additionally, KS exhibited binding affinity to agglutinin I (RCA) in a concentration-dependent manner, a highly toxic lectin from beans of the castor plant. Furthermore, KSO from dp2 to dp8 bound to RCA in the increasing trend while the binding affinity of dp8 was superior to polysaccharide. These results define novel structural features for KS from cartilage and demonstrate the potential application on ricin-antidote exploitation.

Authors : Li Qinying, Li Guoyun, Zhao Xiaoliang, Shan Xindi, Cai Chao, Zhao Jing, Zhang Fuming, Linhardt Robert J, Yu Guangli,



(5) Occurrence of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and Isomers in Aquatic Environments and Aquatic Food Sources for Humans.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29443939
Publication Date : //
The neurotoxin β--methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid produced by terrestrial and aquatic cyanobacteria and by micro-algae, has been suggested to play a role as an environmental factor in the neurodegenerative disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Parkinsonism-Dementia complex (ALS-PDC). The ubiquitous presence of BMAA in aquatic environments and organisms along the food chain potentially makes it public health concerns. However, the BMAA-associated human health risk remains difficult to rigorously assess due to analytical challenges associated with the detection and quantification of BMAA and its natural isomers, 2,4-diamino butyric acid (DAB), β-amino--methyl-alanine (BAMA) and -(2-aminoethyl) glycine (AEG). This systematic review, reporting the current knowledge on the presence of BMAA and isomers in aquatic environments and human food sources, was based on a selection and a score numbering of the scientific literature according to various qualitative and quantitative criteria concerning the chemical analytical methods used. Results from the best-graded studies show that marine bivalves are to date the matrix containing the higher amount of BMAA, far more than most fish muscles, but with an exception for shark cartilage. This review discusses the available data in terms of their use for human health risk assessment and identifies knowledge gaps requiring further investigations.

Authors : Lance Emilie, Arnich Nathalie, Maignien Thomas, Biré Ronel,



(6) An early chondrichthyan and the evolutionary assembly of a shark body plan.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29298937
Publication Date : //
Although relationships among the major groups of living gnathostomes are well established, the relatedness of early jawed vertebrates to modern clades is intensely debated. Here, we provide a new description of , a Middle Devonian (Givetian approx. 385-million-year-old) stem chondrichthyan from Germany, and one of the very few early chondrichthyans in which substantial portions of the endoskeleton are preserved. Tomographic and histological techniques reveal new details of the gill skeleton, hyoid arch and jaws, neurocranium, cartilage, scales and teeth. Despite many features resembling placoderm or osteichthyan conditions, phylogenetic analysis confirms as a stem chondrichthyan and corroborates hypotheses that all acanthodians are stem chondrichthyans. The unfamiliar character combination displayed by , alongside conditions observed in acanthodians, implies that pre-Devonian stem chondrichthyans are severely under-sampled and strongly supports indications from isolated scales that the gnathostome crown group originated at the latest by the early Silurian (approx. 440 Ma). Moreover, phylogenetic results highlight the likely convergent evolution of conventional chondrichthyan conditions among earliest members of this primary gnathostome division, while skeletal morphology points towards the likely suspension feeding habits of , suggesting a functional origin of the gill slit condition characteristic of the vast majority of living and fossil chondrichthyans.

Authors : Coates Michael I, Finarelli John A, Sansom Ivan J, Andreev Plamen S, Criswell Katharine E, Tietjen Kristen, Rivers Mark L, La Riviere Patrick J,



(7) Chondroitin sulfate from Scophthalmus maximus for treating osteoarthritis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29154876
Publication Date : //
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation. Chondroitin sulfate from shark (CS-S) has a good effect on OA in clinical, but due to source limited of CS from shark. Therefore, it is important to find a novel CS source with similar efficacy to CS-S in the treatment of OA. Herein, we reported a therapeutic effect of CS from scophthalmus maximus (CS-SM) for treating OA in rats. The OA model was established. After intervention with CS-SM by intragastric administration. Our results showed that CS-SM could protect articular cartilage in OA, inhibit the degradation of cartilage, decrease the apoptosis of chondrocytes, decline the content of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and Prostaglandins E in synovial fluid, down-regulate the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and up-regulate the protein expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. Our results suggest that oral CS from SM is a new potential therapy for OA.

Authors : Ren Zhenkun, Ji Yuanyuan, Wang Yi, Dong Liyuan,



(8) Moderators and mediators of effects of unloading shoes on knee pain in people with knee osteoarthritis: an exploratory analysis of the SHARK randomised controlled trial.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29128507
Publication Date : //
To investigate moderators and biomechanical mediators of effects of unloading shoes on knee pain in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Authors : Paterson K L, Kasza J, Bennell K L, Wrigley T V, Metcalf B R, Campbell P K, Hunter D J, Hinman R S,