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Shark cartilage shark cartilage

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[#305838-77-1] Shark cartilage shark cartilage

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(1) Structural characterization and in vitro antioxidant activities of chondroitin sulfate purified from Andrias davidianus cartilage.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29891311
Publication Date : //
Origin and manufacturing process are key factors affecting the biological activities of chondroitin sulfate (CS), which can be utilized as a nutraceutical in dietary supplements. Herein, we extracted and purified CS from the cartilage of artificially breeding Andrias davidianus (ADCS), i.e., Chinese giant salamander (CGS), one of the prospective functional food source materials in China. Low molecular weight CS (LMWADCS) was then prepared by free radical depolymerization of ADCS. High-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) analysis showed that the average molecular weight (Mw) of ADCS was 49.2 kDa, while the Mw of LMWADCS was 6.4 kDa. After the eliminative degradation of ADCS by chondroitinase ABC, strong anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) analysis showed that the disaccharide composition of ADCS was 14.6% ΔDi0S, 60.9% ΔDi6S and 24.5% ΔDi4S. Then, in vitro antioxidant assays were performed with ADCS, LMWADCS and CS from a commercial source. Our results showed that LMWADCS exerted the highest total antioxidant activity out of the total antioxidant capacity, including the capacity of scavenging DPPH radicals, hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion radicals. From the results of this study, we can conclude that the Mw and composition of ADCS are different from those reported for bovine and shark CS, and LMWADCS can be utilized as a valuable and potential nutraceutical for the functional food industry.

Authors : Zhu Wenming, Ji Yang, Wang Yi, He Dong, Yan Yishu, Su Nan, Zhang Chong, Xing Xin-Hui,



(2) Structural Characterization and Interaction with RCA of a Highly Sulfated Keratan Sulfate from Blue Shark (Prionace glauca) Cartilage.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29662015
Publication Date : //
As an important glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate (KS) mainly exists in corneal and cartilage, possessing various biological activities. In this study, we purified KS from blue shark () cartilage and prepared KS oligosaccharides (KSO) through keratanase II-catalyzed hydrolysis. The structures of KS and KSO were characterized using multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Shark cartilage KS was highly sulfated and modified with ~2.69% -acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) through α(2,3)-linked to galactose. Additionally, KS exhibited binding affinity to agglutinin I (RCA) in a concentration-dependent manner, a highly toxic lectin from beans of the castor plant. Furthermore, KSO from dp2 to dp8 bound to RCA in the increasing trend while the binding affinity of dp8 was superior to polysaccharide. These results define novel structural features for KS from cartilage and demonstrate the potential application on ricin-antidote exploitation.

Authors : Li Qinying, Li Guoyun, Zhao Xiaoliang, Shan Xindi, Cai Chao, Zhao Jing, Zhang Fuming, Linhardt Robert J, Yu Guangli,



(3) Occurrence of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and Isomers in Aquatic Environments and Aquatic Food Sources for Humans.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29443939
Publication Date : //
The neurotoxin β--methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid produced by terrestrial and aquatic cyanobacteria and by micro-algae, has been suggested to play a role as an environmental factor in the neurodegenerative disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Parkinsonism-Dementia complex (ALS-PDC). The ubiquitous presence of BMAA in aquatic environments and organisms along the food chain potentially makes it public health concerns. However, the BMAA-associated human health risk remains difficult to rigorously assess due to analytical challenges associated with the detection and quantification of BMAA and its natural isomers, 2,4-diamino butyric acid (DAB), β-amino--methyl-alanine (BAMA) and -(2-aminoethyl) glycine (AEG). This systematic review, reporting the current knowledge on the presence of BMAA and isomers in aquatic environments and human food sources, was based on a selection and a score numbering of the scientific literature according to various qualitative and quantitative criteria concerning the chemical analytical methods used. Results from the best-graded studies show that marine bivalves are to date the matrix containing the higher amount of BMAA, far more than most fish muscles, but with an exception for shark cartilage. This review discusses the available data in terms of their use for human health risk assessment and identifies knowledge gaps requiring further investigations.

Authors : Lance Emilie, Arnich Nathalie, Maignien Thomas, Biré Ronel,



(4) An early chondrichthyan and the evolutionary assembly of a shark body plan.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29298937
Publication Date : //
Although relationships among the major groups of living gnathostomes are well established, the relatedness of early jawed vertebrates to modern clades is intensely debated. Here, we provide a new description of , a Middle Devonian (Givetian approx. 385-million-year-old) stem chondrichthyan from Germany, and one of the very few early chondrichthyans in which substantial portions of the endoskeleton are preserved. Tomographic and histological techniques reveal new details of the gill skeleton, hyoid arch and jaws, neurocranium, cartilage, scales and teeth. Despite many features resembling placoderm or osteichthyan conditions, phylogenetic analysis confirms as a stem chondrichthyan and corroborates hypotheses that all acanthodians are stem chondrichthyans. The unfamiliar character combination displayed by , alongside conditions observed in acanthodians, implies that pre-Devonian stem chondrichthyans are severely under-sampled and strongly supports indications from isolated scales that the gnathostome crown group originated at the latest by the early Silurian (approx. 440 Ma). Moreover, phylogenetic results highlight the likely convergent evolution of conventional chondrichthyan conditions among earliest members of this primary gnathostome division, while skeletal morphology points towards the likely suspension feeding habits of , suggesting a functional origin of the gill slit condition characteristic of the vast majority of living and fossil chondrichthyans.

Authors : Coates Michael I, Finarelli John A, Sansom Ivan J, Andreev Plamen S, Criswell Katharine E, Tietjen Kristen, Rivers Mark L, La Riviere Patrick J,



(5) Chondroitin sulfate from Scophthalmus maximus for treating osteoarthritis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29154876
Publication Date : //
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation. Chondroitin sulfate from shark (CS-S) has a good effect on OA in clinical, but due to source limited of CS from shark. Therefore, it is important to find a novel CS source with similar efficacy to CS-S in the treatment of OA. Herein, we reported a therapeutic effect of CS from scophthalmus maximus (CS-SM) for treating OA in rats. The OA model was established. After intervention with CS-SM by intragastric administration. Our results showed that CS-SM could protect articular cartilage in OA, inhibit the degradation of cartilage, decrease the apoptosis of chondrocytes, decline the content of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and Prostaglandins E in synovial fluid, down-regulate the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and up-regulate the protein expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. Our results suggest that oral CS from SM is a new potential therapy for OA.

Authors : Ren Zhenkun, Ji Yuanyuan, Wang Yi, Dong Liyuan,



(6) Moderators and mediators of effects of unloading shoes on knee pain in people with knee osteoarthritis: an exploratory analysis of the SHARK randomised controlled trial.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29128507
Publication Date : //
To investigate moderators and biomechanical mediators of effects of unloading shoes on knee pain in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Authors : Paterson K L, Kasza J, Bennell K L, Wrigley T V, Metcalf B R, Campbell P K, Hunter D J, Hinman R S,



(7) Large batoid fishes frequently consume stingrays despite skeletal damage.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28989770
Publication Date : //
The shapes of vertebrate teeth are often used as hallmarks of diet. Here, however, we demonstrate evidence of frequent piscivory by cartilaginous fishes with pebble-like teeth that are typically associated with durophagy, the eating of hard-shelled prey. High-resolution micro-computed tomography observation of a jaw specimen from one batoid species and visual investigation of those of two additional species reveal large numbers of embedded stingray spines, arguing that stingray predation of a scale rivalling that of the largest carnivorous sharks may not be uncommon for large, predatory batoids with rounded, non-cutting dentition. Our observations demonstrate that tooth morphology is not always a reliable indicator of diet and that stingray spines are not as potent a deterrent to predation as normally believed. In addition, we show that several spines in close contact with the jaw skeleton of a wedgefish () have become encased in a disorganized mineralized tissue with a distinctive ultrastructure, the first natural and unequivocal evidence of a callus-building response in the tessellated cartilage unique to elasmobranch skeletons. Our findings reveal sampling and analysis biases in vertebrate ecology, especially with regard to the role of large, predatory species, while also illustrating that large body size may provide an escape from anatomical constraints on diet (e.g. gape size, specialist dentition). Our observations inform our concepts of skeletal biology and evolution in showing that tessellated cartilage-an ancient alternative to bone-is incapable of foreign tissue resorption or of restoring damaged skeletal tissue to its original state, and attest to the value of museum and skeletal specimens as records of important aspects of animal life history.

Authors : Dean Mason N, Bizzarro Joseph J, Clark Brett, Underwood Charlie J, Johanson Zerina,



(8) Effects of sample cleaning and storage on the elemental composition of shark vertebrae.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28940897
Publication Date : //
Application of vertebral chemistry in elasmobranchs has the potential to progress our understanding of individual migration patterns and population dynamics. However, the influence of handling artifacts such as sample cleaning and storage on vertebral chemistry is unclear and requires experimental investigation.

Authors : Mohan John A, TinHan Thomas C, Miller Nathan R, David Wells R J,



(9) Calcified cartilage or bone? Collagens in the tessellated endoskeletons of cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28923317
Publication Date : //
The primary skeletal tissue in elasmobranchs -sharks, rays and relatives- is cartilage, forming both embryonic and adult endoskeletons. Only the skeletal surface calcifies, exhibiting mineralized tiles (tesserae) sandwiched between a cartilage core and overlying fibrous perichondrium. These two tissues are based on different collagens (Coll II and I, respectively), fueling a long-standing debate as to whether tesserae are more like calcified cartilage or bone (Coll 1-based) in their matrix composition. We demonstrate that stingray (Urobatis halleri) tesserae are bipartite, having an upper Coll I-based 'cap' that merges into a lower Coll II-based 'body' zone, although tesserae are surrounded by cartilage. We identify a 'supratesseral' unmineralized cartilage layer, between tesserae and perichondrium, distinguished from the cartilage core in containing Coll I and X (a common marker for mammalian mineralization), in addition to Coll II. Chondrocytes within tesserae appear intact and sit in lacunae filled with Coll II-based matrix, suggesting tesserae originate in cartilage, despite comprising a diversity of collagens. Intertesseral joints are also complex in their collagenous composition, being similar to supratesseral cartilage closer to the perichondrium, but containing unidentified fibrils nearer the cartilage core. Our results indicate a unique potential for tessellated cartilage in skeletal biology research, since it lacks features believed diagnostic for vertebrate cartilage mineralization (e.g. hypertrophic and apoptotic chondrocytes), while offering morphologies amenable for investigating the regulation of complex mineralized ultrastructure and tissues patterned on multiple collagens.

Authors : Seidel Ronald, Blumer Michael, Pechriggl Elisabeth-Judith, Lyons Kady, Hall Brian K, Fratzl Peter, Weaver James C, Dean Mason N,