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Hsp70 Host Species Rabbit Species Reactivity Human, mouse, rat, beluga, cow, dog, fish (carp), guinea pig, hamster, monkey, pig, sheep, coral, tomato, tobacco, spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias

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[#SPC-103D] Hsp70 Host Species Rabbit Species Reactivity Human, mouse, rat, beluga, cow, dog, fish (carp), guinea pig, hamster, monkey, pig, sheep, coral, tomato, tobacco, spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias


SPC-103D | Hsp70 Host Species Rabbit Species Reactivity Human, mouse, rat, beluga, cow, dog, fish (carp), guinea pig, hamster, monkey, pig, sheep, coral, tomato, tobacco, spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias, 100ul
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(1) Ectromelia virus upregulates the expression of heat shock protein 70 to promote viral replication.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29749430
Publication Date : //
The ectromelia virus (ECTV) is a mouse specific Orthopoxvirus that causes lethal infection in some mouse strains. ECTV infection of these mouse strains has been used as a valuable model for understanding the interplay between Orthopoxvirus species and their hosts, including variola virus in humans. Although poxviruses encode numerous proteins required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and are less dependent on host functions than other DNA viruses, a detailed understanding of the host factors required for the replication of poxviruses is lacking. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) isoforms have been reported to serve various roles in the replication cycle of numerous viruses. In the present study, microarray and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were conducted to investigate the host gene expression profiles following ECTV infection in mice and cell cultures. The results indicated that one Hsp70 isoform, Hsp70 member 1B (Hspa1b), was highly upregulated during ECTV infection in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, overexpression of Hspa1b protein and small interfering RNA‑mediated gene silencing of Hspa1b revealed that Hspa1b is required for efficient replication of ECTV. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that ECTV replication may be significantly suppressed by two chemical Hspa1b inhibitors: Quercetin and VER155008. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrated that ECTV infection upregulates the expression of Hspa1b in order to promote its replication. The dependence on Hsp70 may be used as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of Orthopoxvirus infection.

Authors : Cheng Wenyu, Jia Huaijie, Wang Xiaoxia, He Xiaobing, Jin Qiwang, Cao Jingxin, Jing Zhizhong,

(2) MoYvh1 subverts rice defense through functions of ribosomal protein MoMrt4 in Magnaporthe oryzae.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29684060
Publication Date : //
The accumulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rice is important in its interaction with the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae during which the pathogen scavenges ROS through the production of extracellular enzymes that promote blast. We previously characterized the MoYvh1 protein phosphatase from M. oryzae that plays a role in scavenging of ROS. To understand the underlying mechanism, we found that MoYvh1 is translocated into the nucleus following oxidative stress and that this translocation is dependent on MoSsb1 and MoSsz1 that are homologous to heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) proteins. In addition, we established a link between MoYvh1 and MoMrt4, a ribosome maturation factor homolog whose function also involves shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, we found that MoYvh1 regulates the production of extracellular proteins that modulate rice-immunity. Taking together, our evidence suggests that functions of MoYvh1 in regulating ROS scavenging require its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the partner proteins MoSsb1 and MoSsz1, as well as MoMrt4. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanism by which M. oryzae responds to and subverts host immunity through the regulation of ribosome biogenesis and protein biosynthesis.

Authors : Liu Xinyu, Yang Jie, Qian Bin, Cai Yongchao, Zou Xi, Zhang Haifeng, Zheng Xiaobo, Wang Ping, Zhang Zhengguang,

(3) Trypanosoma rangeli is phylogenetically closer to Old World trypanosomes than to Trypanosoma cruzi.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29544703
Publication Date : //
Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi are generalist trypanosomes sharing a wide range of mammalian hosts; they are transmitted by triatomine bugs, and are the only trypanosomes infecting humans in the Neotropics. Their origins, phylogenetic relationships, and emergence as human parasites have long been subjects of interest. In the present study, taxon-rich analyses (20 trypanosome species from bats and terrestrial mammals) using ssrRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH), heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) and Spliced Leader RNA sequences, and multilocus phylogenetic analyses using 11 single copy genes from 15 selected trypanosomes, provide increased resolution of relationships between species and clades, strongly supporting two main sister lineages: lineage Schizotrypanum, comprising T. cruzi and bat-restricted trypanosomes, and Tra[Tve-Tco] formed by T. rangeli, Trypanosoma vespertilionis and Trypanosoma conorhini clades. Tve comprises European T. vespertilionis and African T. vespertilionis-like of bats and bat cimicids characterised in the present study and Trypanosoma sp. Hoch reported in monkeys and herein detected in bats. Tco included the triatomine-transmitted tropicopolitan T. conorhini from rats and the African NanDoum1 trypanosome of civet (carnivore). Consistent with their very close relationships, Tra[Tve-Tco] species shared highly similar Spliced Leader RNA structures that were highly divergent from those of Schizotrypanum. In a plausible evolutionary scenario, a bat trypanosome transmitted by cimicids gave origin to the deeply rooted Tra[Tve-Tco] and Schizotrypanum lineages, and bat trypanosomes of diverse genetic backgrounds jumped to new hosts. A long and independent evolutionary history of T. rangeli more related to Old World trypanosomes from bats, rats, monkeys and civets than to Schizotrypanum spp., and the adaptation of these distantly related trypanosomes to different niches of shared mammals and vectors, is consistent with the marked differences in transmission routes, life-cycles and host-parasite interactions, resulting in T. cruzi (but not T. rangeli) being pathogenic to humans.

Authors : Espinosa-Álvarez Oneida, Ortiz Paola A, Lima Luciana, Costa-Martins André G, Serrano Myrna G, Herder Stephane, Buck Gregory A, Camargo Erney P, Hamilton Patrick B, Stevens Jamie R, Teixeira Marta M G,

(4) The Exported Chaperone PfHsp70x Is Dispensable for the Intraerythrocytic Life Cycle.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28959740
Publication Date : //
Export of parasite proteins into the host erythrocyte is essential for survival of during its asexual life cycle. While several studies described key factors within the parasite that are involved in protein export, the mechanisms employed to traffic exported proteins within the host cell are currently unknown. Members of the Hsp70 family of chaperones, together with their Hsp40 cochaperones, facilitate protein trafficking in other organisms, and are thus likely used by in the trafficking of its exported proteins. A large group of Hsp40 proteins is encoded by the parasite and exported to the host cell, but only one Hsp70, Hsp70x (PfHsp70x), is exported with them. PfHsp70x is absent in most species and is found only in and closely related species that infect apes. Herein, we have utilized clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in to investigate the essentiality of PfHsp70x. We show that parasitic growth was unaffected by knockdown of PfHsp70x using both the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-based destabilization domain and the ribozyme system. Similarly, a complete gene knockout of PfHsp70x did not affect the ability of to proceed through its intraerythrocytic life cycle. The effect of PfHsp70x knockdown/knockout on the export of proteins to the host red blood cell (RBC), including the critical virulence factor erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), was tested, and we found that this process was unaffected. These data show that although PfHsp70x is the sole exported Hsp70, it is not essential for the asexual development of . Half of the world's population lives at risk for malaria. The intraerythrocytic life cycle of spp. is responsible for clinical manifestations of malaria; therefore, knowledge of the parasite's ability to survive within the erythrocyte is needed to combat the deadliest agent of malaria, . An outstanding question in the field is how undertakes the essential process of trafficking its proteins within the host cell. In most organisms, chaperones such as Hsp70 are employed in protein trafficking. Of the species causing human disease, the chaperone PfHsp70x is unique to , and it is the only parasite protein of its kind exported to the host (S. Külzer et al., Cell Microbiol 14:1784-1795, 2012). This has placed PfHsp70x as an ideal target to inhibit protein trafficking and kill the parasite. However, we show that PfHsp70x is not required for export of parasite effectors and it is not essential for parasite survival inside the RBC.

Authors : Cobb David W, Florentin Anat, Fierro Manuel A, Krakowiak Michelle, Moore Julie M, Muralidharan Vasant,

(5) Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Anncaliia azovica sp. n. (Microsporidia) Infecting Niphargogammarus intermedius (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from the Azov Sea.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28922521
Publication Date : //
Five out of one hundred adults of Niphargogammarus intermedius caught at the Azov sea shore were found to be infected with microsporidia. The infection was found in the subcuticular fat body and myocytes. Parasites developed in direct contact with host cells, displayed a disporoblastic sporogony and diplokaryotic arrangement of nuclei at all stages. Spores were oval, 4.6-5.8 × 2.6-3.0 μm. Exospore appendages, vesicular-tubular secretions, and the anisofilar polar filament indicated a similarity to Anncaliia species. Sporont surfaces displayed ridges of amorphous material. Meronts and sporonts formed protoplastic extensions, similar to A. vesicularum and A. meligheti. Mature spores possessed a bipartite polaroplast. The polar tube was arranged in one row of 13-18 coils including 0-3 distal coils of lesser diameter. Partial sequencing of SSU, ITS, and LSU regions of rRNA gene (GenBank accessions: KY288064-KY288065) confirmed this new species to be congeneric with A. algerae (#AF069063) and A. meligheti (#AY894423). The SSU gene of this novel microsporidium shared 99.4% sequence similarity to A. algerae and 98.9% to A. meligheti. Genes for HSP70 and RPB1 amplified with primers designed for A. algerae orthologs displayed 99.7% and 97.4% similarity, respectively, between A. algerae and the novel microsporidium. A new species, Anncaliia azovica, is described based on morphological and molecular characterization.

Authors : Tokarev Yuri S, Sokolova Yuliya Y, Vasilieva Aleksandra A, Issi Irma V,

(6) The composition of the vaginal microbiome in first trimester pregnant women influences the level of autophagy and stress in vaginal epithelial cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28915448
Publication Date : //
Epithelial cells lining the vagina are major components of genital tract immunity. The influence of the vaginal microbiome on properties of host epithelial cells is largely unexplored. We evaluated whether differences in the most abundant lactobacilli species or bacterial genera in the vagina of first trimester pregnant women were associated with variations in the extent of stress and autophagy in vaginal epithelial cells. Vaginal swabs from 154 first trimester pregnant women were analyzed for bacterial composition by amplification and sequencing of the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Vaginal epithelial cells were lysed and autophagy quantitated by measurement of p62. Intracellular levels of the inducible 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70), an indicator of cell stress and an autophagy inhibitor, were determined. When Lactobacillus crispatus was the most abundant member of the vaginal microbiota, epithelial p62 and hsp70 levels were lowest as compared to when other bacterial taxa were most abundant. The highest concentrations of p62 and hsp70 were associated with Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium abundance. The p62 level associated with Gardnerella abundance was lower than that observed when lactobacilli other than L. crispatus were most abundant. In conclusion, in the first trimester of pregnancy the abundance of different bacterial taxa is associated with variations in autophagy and magnitude of the stress response in vaginal epithelial cells.

Authors : Nasioudis Dimitrios, Forney Larry J, Schneider G Maria, Gliniewicz Karol, France Michael T, Boester Allison, Sawai Mio, Scholl Jessica, Witkin Steven S,

(7) Hsp70/J-protein machinery from Glossina morsitans morsitans, vector of African trypanosomiasis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28902917
Publication Date : //
Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the sole vectors of the protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, the causative agents of African Trypanosomiasis. Species of Glossina differ in vector competence and Glossina morsitans morsitans is associated with transmission of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which causes an acute and often fatal form of African Trypanosomiasis. Heat shock proteins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that play critical roles in proteostasis. The activity of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is regulated by interactions with its J-protein (Hsp40) co-chaperones. Inhibition of these interactions are emerging as potential therapeutic targets. The assembly and annotation of the G. m. morsitans genome provided a platform to identify and characterize the Hsp70s and J-proteins, and carry out an evolutionary comparison to its well-studied eukaryotic counterparts, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, as well as Stomoxys calcitrans, a comparator species. In our study, we identified 9 putative Hsp70 proteins and 37 putative J-proteins in G. m. morsitans. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three evolutionarily distinct groups of Hsp70s, with a closer relationship to orthologues from its blood-feeding dipteran relative Stomoxys calcitrans. G. m. morsitans also lacked the high number of heat inducible Hsp70s found in D. melanogaster. The potential localisations, functions, domain organisations and Hsp70/J-protein partnerships were also identified. A greater understanding of the heat shock 70 (Hsp70) and J-protein (Hsp40) families in G. m. morsitans could enhance our understanding of the cell biology of the tsetse fly.

Authors : Bentley Stephen J, Boshoff Aileen,

(8) Leishmania (V.) braziliensis infecting bats from Pantanal wetland, Brazil: First records for Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28502644
Publication Date : //
In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals. Leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil are remarkably frequent, probably due to the abundance of its regional mastofauna. The recent record of L. braziliensis in bats from this state indicates the need to clarify the role of these mammals in the transmission cycle. In this study we evaluated the presence of Leishmania parasites in the skin of different species of bats, using PCR directed to Leishmania spp. kDNA for screening followed by PCR/RFLP analysis of the hsp70 gene for the identification of parasite species. Leishmania species identification was confirmed by PCR directed to the G6PD gene of L. braziliensis, followed by sequencing of the PCR product. Samples from 47 bats were processed, of which in three specimens (6.38%) was detected the presence of Leishmania sp. kDNA. PCR/RFLP and sequencing identified the species involved in the infection as L. braziliensis in all of them. This is the first report of Leishmania braziliensis in bats from Pantanal ecosystem and the first record of this species in Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris, bats with a wide distribution in South America. These results reinforce the need to deepen the knowledge about the possibility of bats act as reservoirs of Leishmania spp. especially considering their ability of dispersion and occupation of anthropic environments.

Authors : de Castro Ferreira Eduardo, Pereira Agnes Antônio Sampaio, Silveira Maurício, Margonari Carina, Marcon Glaucia Elisete Barbosa, de Oliveira França Adriana, Castro Ludiele Souza, Bordignon Marcelo Oscar, Fischer Erich, Tomas Walfrido Moraes, Dorval Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros, Gontijo Célia Maria Ferreira,

(9) Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of Eimeria tenella HSP70 partial gene.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28301667
Publication Date : //
Members of the Eimeria genus are protozoan parasites of the subphylum Apicomplexa (Eimeriidae family), and belong to the coccidia group. Eimeria tenella is one of the most pathogenic species owing to its ability to penetrate the mucosa, and cause inflammation and damage. It is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes disease by destroying the host cells during multiplication. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a molecular chaperone that prevents cellular stress. The objective of this study was to clone, sequence, and express E. tenella HSP70 protein. After selecting the region of highest hydrophilicity in the hsp70 gene, we cloned complementary DNA (cDNA) into a pTrcHis2-TOPO vector and transformed it into TOP10 Escherichia coli cells; after induction, the bacteria expressed a 23-kDa protein with insoluble expression levels of approximately 5 mg/L. In summary, the partial hsp70 gene was successfully expressed in E. coli, producing a 23-kDa protein under insoluble conditions, and the antigen characteristics predicted by hydrophilicity analysis suggest the development of a vaccine for use in avian coccidiosis.

Authors : Bogado A L G, Martins G F, Sasse J P, Guimarães J da S, Garcia J L,

(10) Role of PTEN in Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in the Liver of Whole-Body Pten Haplodeficient Mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27893783
Publication Date : //
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity are frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and with an elevated cancer incidence. The molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in this context are only partially understood. High blood insulin levels are typical in early T2DM and excessive insulin can cause elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and genomic instability. ROS are important for various cellular functions in signaling and host defense. However, elevated ROS formation is thought to be involved in cancer induction. In the molecular events from insulin receptor binding to genomic damage, some signaling steps have been identified, pointing at the PI3K/AKT pathway. For further elucidation Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (Pten), a tumour suppressor phosphatase that plays a role in insulin signaling by negative regulation of PI3K/AKT and its downstream targets, was investigated here. Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was used to detect ROS formation in immortalized human hepatocytes. Comet assay and micronucleus test were performed to investigate genomic damage in vitro. In liver samples, DHE staining and western blot detection of HSP70 and HO-1 were performed to evaluate oxidative stress response. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected by immunohistostaining. Inhibition of PTEN with the pharmacologic inhibitor VO-OHpic resulted in increased ROS production and genomic damage in a liver cell line. Knockdown of Pten in a mouse model yielded increased oxidative stress levels, detected by ROS levels and expression of the two stress-proteins HSP70 and HO-1 and elevated genomic damage in the liver, which was significant in mice fed with a high fat diet. We conclude that PTEN is involved in oxidative stress and genomic damage induction in vitro and that this may also explain the in vivo observations. This further supports the hypothesis that the PI3K/AKT pathway is responsible for damaging effects of high levels of insulin.

Authors : Bankoglu Ezgi Eyluel, Tschopp Oliver, Schmitt Johannes, Burkard Philipp, Jahn Daniel, Geier Andreas, Stopper Helga,