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Sea Lion Thyroxine (T4) ELISA kit, Species Sea Lion, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E15940Sl] Sea Lion Thyroxine (T4) ELISA kit, Species Sea Lion, Sample Type serum, plasma


CSB-E15940Sl | Sea Lion Thyroxine (T4) ELISA kit, Species Sea Lion, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Body condition and endocrine profiles of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups during the early postnatal period.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23313076
Publication Date : //
Body condition indices have been useful in assessing the health of domestic and free ranging populations of terrestrial mammals. Given the high energy demand and rapid growth during the postnatal period of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (SSL) pups, body condition was expected to be related to concentrations of a suite of hormones (cortisol, aldosterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, leptin) previously associated with changes in body mass and composition in developing pinnipeds. Blood samples were collected from free ranging SSL pups of known ages and sex. A body condition index (BCI) previously developed for SSL pups based on a mass and length relationship was applied to 61 SSL pups ranging in age from 5 to 38days old. BCI was not related to pup age. Overall, male pups were larger than females and older pups were larger than younger pups. Aldosterone was negatively correlated with BCI only in female pups, whereas no relationship was observed between aldosterone and BCI in males. Further, male pups had higher aldosterone concentrations than females. Concentrations of cortisol, total and free thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased when regressed against the elapsed time between researchers' arrival on the rookery and removal of pup from the holding corral for blood collection. While the overall variation attributed to the rookery disturbance was low (r(2)<0.293), it may be of significance for future studies on free ranging pinnipeds. This study adds to the current knowledge of the postnatal changes in free ranging SSL pups by providing ranges of the BCI and several hormone concentrations from an apparently stable population.

Authors : Keogh Mandy J, Atkinson Shannon, Maniscalco John M,

(2) Non-invasive measurement of thyroid hormone in feces of a diverse array of avian and mammalian species.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :20412809
Publication Date : //
We developed and validated a non-invasive thyroid hormone measure in feces of a diverse array of birds and mammals. An I(131) radiolabel ingestion study in domestic dogs coupled with High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis, showed that peak excretion in feces occurred at 24-48h post-ingestion, with I(131)-labelled thyroid hormone metabolites excreted primarily as triiodothyronine (T3) and relatively little thyroxine (T4), at all excretion times examined. The immunoreactive T3 profile across these same HPLC fractions closely corresponded with the I(131) radioactive profile. By contrast, the T4 immunoreactive profile was disproportionately high, suggesting that T4 excretion included a high percentage of T4 stores. We optimized and validated T3 and T4 extraction and assay methods in feces of wild northern spotted owls, African elephants, howler monkeys, caribou, moose, wolf, maned wolf, killer whales and Steller sea lions. We explained 99% of the variance in high and low T3 concentrations derived from species-specific sample pools, after controlling for species and the various extraction methods tested. Fecal T3 reflected nutritional deficits in two male and three female howler monkeys held in captivity for translocation from a highly degraded habitat. Results suggest that thyroid hormone can be accurately and reliably measured in feces, providing important indices for environmental physiology across a diverse array of birds and mammals.

Authors : Wasser Samuel K, Azkarate Jurgi Cristòbal, Booth Rebecca K, Hayward Lisa, Hunt Kathleen, Ayres Katherine, Vynne Carly, Gobush Kathleen, Canales-Espinosa Domingo, Rodríguez-Luna Ernesto,

(3) Fecal triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations change in response to thyroid stimulation in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :19941866
Publication Date : //
Variation in concentrations of thyroid hormones shed in feces may help to identify physiological states of animals, but the efficacy of the technique needs to be validated for each species. We determined whether a known physiological alteration to thyroid hormone production was reflected in hormone concentrations in the feces of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We quantified variation of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations in feces following two intramuscular injections of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) at 24h intervals in four captive female sea lions. We found fecal T3 concentrations increased 18-57% over concentrations measured in the baseline sample collected closest to the time of the first TSH injection (p=0.03) and 1-75% over the mean baseline concentration (p=0.12) for each animal of all samples collected prior to injections. Peak T3 concentrations were greater than the upper bound of the baseline 95% confidence interval for three animals. The peak T3 response occurred 48h post-injection in three animals and 71h in the fourth. Post-injection T4 concentrations did not differ between the baseline sample collected closest to the time of the first TSH injection (p=0.29) or the mean baseline concentration (p=0.23) for each animal. These results indicate that induced physiological alterations to circulating thyroid hormone concentrations can be adequately detected through analyses of fecal T3 concentrations and that the technique may provide a means of non-invasively detecting metabolic changes in Steller sea lions.

Authors : Keech A L, Rosen D A S, Booth R K, Trites A W, Wasser S K,

(4) The effects of age, season and geographic region on thyroid hormones in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :16815718
Publication Date : //
The purpose of this study was to investigate thyroid hormone concentrations, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in order to determine basal levels in Steller sea lions of different ages and over seasons. Serum concentrations of total T4 were highest in Steller sea lions followed by total T3 concentrations. Concentrations of free T4 and free T3 were three to four orders of magnitude lower. Concentrations for all four thyroid hormone measurements tended to a lower level as animals matured beyond the neonatal stage. When thyroid hormones from captive sea lions were evaluated across seasons, all thyroid hormones were highest in the July to September period. When compared across the geographic range, animals in southeast Alaska tended to have lower thyroid hormone levels, while the Steller sea lions west of Prince William Sound and animals from the Russian Far East had significantly higher concentrations. Significant inter-annual differences in concentrations were also observed across the geographic range. With an understanding of the basic changes in thyroid hormone concentrations, changes in plane of nutrition or life history states (i.e. fasting, pregnancy or lactation) can now be evaluated for their effect on the overall health of this endangered species.

Authors : Myers Matthew J, Rea Lorrie D, Atkinson Shannon,

(5) PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :15589659
Publication Date : //
Top-trophic predators like California sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins A and E disruption. We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on Año Nuevo Island, California, in 2002. We investigated the relationship between the contamination by PCBs and DDT and the circulating levels of vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3). Serum concentrations of total PCBs (sigmaPCBs) and total DDT were 14 +/- 9 mg/kg and 28 +/- 19 mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. PCB toxic equivalents (sigmaPCB TEQs) were 320 +/- 170 ng/kg lipid weight. Concentrations of sigmaPCBs and sigmaPCB TEQs in serum lipids were negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with serum vitamin A and T3, potentially reflecting PCB-related toxicity. A slight but not significant negative correlation (p < 0.1) was observed between serum T4 and the levels of sigmaPCBs and sigmaPCB TEQs. Conversely, no relationship was evident between the contaminant concentrations and vitamin E (p > 0.1). As juvenile California sea lions are useful sentinels of coastal contamination, the high levels encountered in their serum is cause for concern about the ecosystem health of the area.

Authors : Debier Cathy, Ylitalo Gina M, Weise Michael, Gulland Frances, Costa Daniel P, Le Boeuf Burney J, de Tillesse Tanguy, Larondelle Yvan,