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GSK3ß (Glycogen Synthetase Kinase ß), Clone 1H8, Mab anti_Human, Rat, Xenopus laevis, paraffin, IHC_ELISA_WB_flow_IP

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[#YVG0011-A] GSK3ß (Glycogen Synthetase Kinase ß), Clone 1H8, Mab anti_Human, Rat, Xenopus laevis, paraffin, IHC_ELISA_WB_flow_IP

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YVG0011-A | GSK3ß (Glycogen Synthetase Kinase ß), Clone 1H8, Mab anti_Human, Rat, Xenopus laevis, paraffin, IHC_ELISA_WB_flow_IP, 100 µg.
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(1) miR-34a Regulates Sperm Motility in Zebrafish.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29232857
Publication Date : //
Increasing attention has been focused on the role of microRNAs in post-transcription regulation during spermatogenesis. Recently, the miR-34 family has been shown to be involved in the spermatogenesis, but the clear function of the miR-34 family in spermatogenesis is still obscure. Here we analyzed the function of miR-34a, a member of the miR-34 family, during spermatogenesis using miR-34a knockout zebrafish generated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system. miR-34a knockout zebrafish showed no obvious defects on testis morphology and sperm quantity. However, we found a significant increase in progressive sperm motility that is one of the pivotal factors influencing in vitro fertilization rates, in the knockout zebrafish. Moreover, breeding experiments showed that, when miR-34a-knockout male zebrafish mated with the wide-type females, they had a higher fertilization rate than did the wide-type males. Glycogen synthase kinase-3a (), a potential sperm motility regulatory gene was predicted to be targeted by miR-34a, which was further supported by luciferase reporter assays, since a significant decrease of luciferase activity was detected upon ectopic overexpression of miR-34a. Our findings suggest that miR-34a downregulates by targeting its 3' untranslated region, and miR-34a/ interaction modulates sperm motility in zebrafish. This study will help in understanding in the role of the miR-34 family during spermatogenesis and will set paths for further studies.

Authors : Guo Wenjie, Xie Binyue, Xiong Shuting, Liang Xufang, Gui Jian-Fang, Mei Jie,



(2) Phosphoproteomics reveals that glycogen synthase kinase-3 phosphorylates multiple splicing factors and is associated with alternative splicing.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28916722
Publication Date : //
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that regulates multiple signaling pathways. kinase assays and genetic and pharmacological manipulations of GSK-3 have identified more than 100 putative GSK-3 substrates in diverse cell types. Many more have been predicted on the basis of a recurrent GSK-3 consensus motif ((pS/pT)(S/T)), but this prediction has not been tested by analyzing the GSK-3 phosphoproteome. Using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) and MS techniques to analyze the repertoire of GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we found that ∼2.4% of (pS/pT)(S/T) sites are phosphorylated in a GSK-3-dependent manner. A comparison of WT and knock-out ( DKO) ESCs revealed prominent GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation of multiple splicing factors and regulators of RNA biosynthesis as well as proteins that regulate transcription, translation, and cell division. DKO reduced phosphorylation of the splicing factors RBM8A, SRSF9, and PSF as well as the nucleolar proteins NPM1 and PHF6, and recombinant GSK-3β phosphorylated these proteins RNA-Seq of WT and DKO ESCs identified ∼190 genes that are alternatively spliced in a GSK-3-dependent manner, supporting a broad role for GSK-3 in regulating alternative splicing. The MS data also identified posttranscriptional regulation of protein abundance by GSK-3, with ∼47 proteins (1.4%) whose levels increased and ∼78 (2.4%) whose levels decreased in the absence of GSK-3. This study provides the first unbiased analysis of the GSK-3 phosphoproteome and strong evidence that GSK-3 broadly regulates alternative splicing.

Authors : Shinde Mansi Y, Sidoli Simone, Kulej Katarzyna, Mallory Michael J, Radens Caleb M, Reicherter Amanda L, Myers Rebecca L, Barash Yoseph, Lynch Kristen W, Garcia Benjamin A, Klein Peter S,



(3) GSK-3α Is a Novel Target of CREB and CREB-GSK-3α Signaling Participates in Cell Viability in Lung Cancer.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27049759
Publication Date : //
Overexpression or activation of cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) has been known to be involved in several human malignancies, including lung cancer. Genes regulated by CREB have been reported to suppress apoptosis, induce cell proliferation, inflammation, and tumor metastasis. However, the critical target genes of CREB in lung cancer have not been well understood. Here, we identified GSK-3α as one of the CREB target genes which is critical for the viability of lung cancer cells. The CREB knockdown significantly reduced the expression of GSK-3α and the direct binding of CREB on the promoter of GSK3A was identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a public database showed a prognostic significance of aberrant GSK-3α expression in lung cancer. Inhibition of GSK-3α suppressed cell viability, colony formation, and tumor growth. For the first time, we demonstrated that GSK-3α is regulated by CREB in lung cancer and is required for the cell viability. These findings implicate CREB-GSK-3α axis as a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer treatment.

Authors : Park Sin-Aye, Lee Jong Woo, Herbst Roy S, Koo Ja Seok,



(4) Loss of glycogen synthase kinase 3 isoforms during murine oocyte growth induces offspring cardiac dysfunction.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25833158
Publication Date : //
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a constitutively active serine threonine kinase with 1) two isoforms (GSK3A and GSK3B) that have unique and overlapping functions, 2) multiple molecular intracellular mechanisms that involve phosphorylation of diverse substrates, and 3) implications in pathogenesis of many diseases. Insulin causes phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3 and mammalian oocytes have a functional insulin-signaling pathway whereby prolonged elevated insulin during follicle/oocyte development causes GSK3 hyperphosphorylation, reduced GSK3 activity, and altered oocyte chromatin remodeling. Periconceptional diabetes and chronic hyperinsulinemia are associated with congenital malformations and onset of adult diseases of cardiovascular origin. Objectives were to produce transgenic mice with individual or concomitant loss of GSK3A and/or GSK3B and investigate the in vivo role of oocyte GSK3 on fertility, fetal development, and offspring health. Wild-type males bred to females with individual or concomitant loss of oocyte GSK3 isoforms did not have reduced fertility. However, concomitant loss of GSK3A and GSK3B in the oocyte significantly increased neonatal death rate due to congestive heart failure secondary to ventricular hyperplasia. Individual loss of oocyte GSK3A or GSK3B did not induce this lethal phenotype. In conclusion, absence of oocyte GSK3 in the periconceptional period does not alter fertility yet causes offspring cardiac hyperplasia, cardiovascular defects, and significant neonatal death. These results support a developmental mechanism by which periconceptional hyperinsulinemia associated with maternal metabolic syndrome, obesity, and/or diabetes can act on the oocyte and affect offspring cardiovascular development, function, and congenital heart malformation.

Authors : Monteiro da Rocha André, Ding Jun, Slawny Nicole, Wolf Amber M, Smith Gary D,



(5) Epigenetic regulation in human melanoma: past and future.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25587943
Publication Date : //
The development and progression of melanoma have been attributed to independent or combined genetic and epigenetic events. There has been remarkable progress in understanding melanoma pathogenesis in terms of genetic alterations. However, recent studies have revealed a complex involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression, including methylation, chromatin modification and remodeling, and the diverse activities of non-coding RNAs. The roles of gene methylation and miRNAs have been relatively well studied in melanoma, but other studies have shown that changes in chromatin status and in the differential expression of long non-coding RNAs can lead to altered regulation of key genes. Taken together, they affect the functioning of signaling pathways that influence each other, intersect, and form networks in which local perturbations disturb the activity of the whole system. Here, we focus on how epigenetic events intertwine with these pathways and contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma.

Authors : Sarkar Debina, Leung Euphemia Y, Baguley Bruce C, Finlay Graeme J, Askarian-Amiri Marjan E,



(6) Targeted disruption of glycogen synthase kinase 3A (GSK3A) in mice affects sperm motility resulting in male infertility.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25568307
Publication Date : //
The signaling enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) exists as two isoforms-GSK3A and GSK3B. Protein phosphorylation by GSK3 has important signaling roles in several cells. In our past work, we found that both isoforms of GSK3 are present in mouse sperm and that catalytic GSK3 activity correlates with motility of sperm from several species. Here, we examined the role of Gsk3a in male fertility using a targeted gene knockout (KO) approach. The mutant mice are viable, but have a male infertility phenotype, while female fertility is unaffected. Testis weights of Gsk3a(-/-) mice are normal and sperm are produced in normal numbers. Although spermatogenesis is apparently unimpaired, sperm motility parameters in vitro are impaired. In addition, the flagellar waveform appears abnormal, characterized by low amplitude of flagellar beat. Sperm ATP levels were lower in Gsk3a(-/-) mice compared to wild-type animals. Protein phosphatase PP1 gamma2 protein levels were unaltered, but its catalytic activity was elevated in KO sperm. Remarkably, tyrosine phosphorylation of hexokinase and capacitation-associated changes in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins are absent or significantly lower in Gsk3a(-/-) sperm. The GSK3B isoform was present and unaltered in testis and sperm of Gsk3a(-/-) mice, showing the inability of GSK3B to substitute for GSK3A in this context. Our studies show that sperm GSK3A is essential for male fertility. In addition, the GSK3A isoform, with its highly conserved glycine-rich N terminus in mammals, may have an isoform-specific role in its requirement for normal sperm motility and fertility.

Authors : Bhattacharjee Rahul, Goswami Suranjana, Dudiki Tejasvi, Popkie Anthony P, Phiel Christopher J, Kline Douglas, Vijayaraghavan Srinivasan,



(7) PCI-24781 down-regulates EZH2 expression and then promotes glioma apoptosis by suppressing the PIK3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25505847
Publication Date : //
PCI-24781 is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor that inhibits tumor proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. However, it is unclear whether PCI-24781 inhibits Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) expression in malignant gliomas. In this work, three glioma cell lines were incubated with various concentrations of PCI-24781 (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 μM) and analyzed for cell proliferation by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay and colony formation, and cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of EZH2 and apoptosis-related proteins was assessed by western blotting. Malignant glioma cells were also transfected with EZH2 siRNA to examine how PCI-24781 suppresses tumor cells. EZH2 was highly expressed in the three glioma cell lines. Incubation with PCI-24781 reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis by down-regulating EZH2 in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were simulated by EZH2 siRNA. In addition, PCI-24781 or EZH2 siRNA accelerated cell apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of AKT, mTOR, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k), glycogen synthase kinase 3A and B (GSK3a/b) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These data suggest that PCI-24781 may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating gliomas by down-regulating EZH2 which promotes cell apoptosis by suppressing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.

Authors : Zhang Wei, Lv Shengqing, Liu Jun, Zang Zhenle, Yin Junyi, An Ning, Yang Hui, Song Yechun,



(8) Glycogen synthase kinase 3α deficiency attenuates atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-fed low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25451156
Publication Date : //
Studies have implicated signaling through glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3α/β in the activation of pro-atherogenic pathways and the accelerated development of atherosclerosis. By using a mouse model, we examined the role of GSK3α in the development and progression of accelerated atherosclerosis. We crossed Gsk3a/GSK3α-knockout mice with low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) knockout mice. Five-week-old Ldlr(-/-);Gsk3a(+/+), Ldlr(-/-);Gsk3a(+/-), and Ldlr(-/-);Gsk3a(-/-) mice were fed a chow diet or a high-fat diet for 10 weeks and then sacrificed. GSK3α deficiency had no detectible effect on any measured parameters in chow-fed mice. High-fat-diet fed Ldlr(-/-) mice that were deficient for GSK3α had significantly less hepatic lipid accumulation and smaller atherosclerotic lesions (60% smaller in Ldlr(-/-);Gsk3a(+/-) mice, 80% smaller in Ldlr(-/-);Gsk3a(-/-) mice; P < 0.05), compared with Ldlr(-/-);Gsk3a(+/+) controls. GSK3α deficiency was associated with a significant increase in plasma IL-10 concentration and IL-10 expression in isolated macrophages. A twofold to threefold enhancement in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced IL-10 expression was observed in Thp-1-derived macrophages that were pretreated with the GSK3α/β inhibitor CT99021. Together, these results suggest that GSK3α plays a pro-atherogenic role, possibly by mediating the effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the activation of pro-atherogenic pathways.

Authors : Banko Nicole S, McAlpine Cameron S, Venegas-Pino Daniel E, Raja Preeya, Shi Yuanyuan, Khan Mohammad I, Werstuck Geoff H,



(9) GSK3A is redundant with GSK3B in modulating drug resistance and chemotherapy-induced necroptosis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24984063
Publication Date : //
Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 alpha (GSK3A) and beta (GSK3B) isoforms are encoded by distinct genes, are 98% identical within their kinase domain and perform similar functions in several settings; however, they are not completely redundant and, depending on the cell type and differentiative status, they also play unique roles. We recently identified a role for GSK3B in drug resistance by demonstrating that its inhibition enables necroptosis in response to chemotherapy in p53-null drug-resistant colon carcinoma cells. We report here that, similarly to GSK3B, also GSK3A silencing/inhibition does not affect cell proliferation or cell cycle but only abolishes growth after treatment with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In particular, blocking GSK3A impairs DNA repair upon exposure to DNA-damaging drugs. As a consequence, p53-null cells overcome their inability to undergo apoptosis and mount a necroptotic response, characterized by absence of caspase activation and RIP1-independent, PARP-dependent AIF nuclear re-localization. We therefore conclude that GSK3A is redundant with GSK3B in regulating drug-resistance and chemotherapy-induced necroptosis and suggest that inhibition of only one isoform, or rather partial inhibition of overall cellular GSK3 activity, is enough to re-sensitize drug-resistant cells to chemotherapy.

Authors : Grassilli Emanuela, Ianzano Leonarda, Bonomo Sara, Missaglia Carola, Cerrito Maria Grazia, Giovannoni Roberto, Masiero Laura, Lavitrano Marialuisa,



(10) Small molecule enhancers of rapamycin induce apoptosis in myeloma cells via GSK3A/B preferentially within a protective bone marrow microenvironment.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24916065
Publication Date : //

Authors : Nekova Tatyana S, Dotterweich Julia, Schütze Norbert, Einsele Hermann, Stuhler Gernot,