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Glutathione, Rat anti_; ELISA

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[#OBT7129] Glutathione, Rat anti_; ELISA

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(1) Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Aqueous Extract from Ipomoea asarifolia in DNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30545135
Publication Date : //
Inflammatory bowel disease is triggered by an uncontrolled immune response associated with genetic, environmental, and intestinal microbiota imbalance. Ipomoea asarifolia (IA), popularly known as "salsa" or "brave salsa", belongs to the Convolvulaceae family. The aim of this approach was to study the preventive effect of IA aqueous extract in 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Rats pretreated with IA extract or sulfasalazine (SSZ) received intracolonic instillation of DNBS in 50% ethanol (v/v). IA extract presented a protective effect against intestinal inflammation, with improvement in the disease activity index and macroscopic damage. IA or SSZ significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity, and also down-regulation of the gene expression of JNK1, NF-κβ-p65, STAT3, and decreased levels of TNFα, IL-1β, and increased IL-10, associated with a significant improvement of oxidative stress, in addition to a reduction in MDA and an increase of glutathione in colonic tissue. The protective effect of the extract was also confirmed in histological evaluation, showing preservation of the colonic cytoarchitecture. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed down-regulation of NF-κβ-p65, iNOS, IL-17, and up-regulation of SOCs-1 and MUC-2. IA extract presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intestinal properties, and proved to be a potential application for preventing damage induced by DNBS.

Authors : da Silva Valéria Costa, de Araújo Aurigena Antunes, de Souza Araújo Daline Fernandes, Souza Lima Maíra Conceição Jerônimo, Vasconcelos Roseane Carvalho, de Araújo Júnior Raimundo Fernandes, Langasnner Silvana Maria Zucolotto, de Freitas Fernandes Pedrosa Matheus, de Medeiros Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier, Guerra Gerlane Coelho Bernardo,



(2) The exogenous administration of CB2 specific agonist, GW405833, inhibits inflammation by reducing cytokine production and oxidative stress.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30542446
Publication Date : //
The present study aimed to investigate the role of cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors in a rat model of acute inflammation. Therefore, the potential of anti-inflammatory effects of CB2 receptor agonist (GW405833), CB2 receptor antagonist (AM630), and diclofenac, were investigated in carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats: as were assessed by measuring paw oedema; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in paw tissue; malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; glutathione (GSH) level in paw tissue for oxidant/antioxidant balance; cytokine (interleukin-1β, IL-1β; tumour necrosis factor-α, TNF-α) levels in serum; histopathology of paw tissue for inflammatory cell accumulations. The results showed that GW405833 or diclofenac significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema. GW405833 also inhibited the increase of MPO activity, the recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils, and MDA concentration during carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, along with reversed nearly to the normal levels the increased of TNF-α, and IL-1β in serum. AM630 did not affect inflammation alone however clearly reversed the effects of agonist when co-administered. The mechanism of GW405833's suppression of inflammation is supported by these results, which are achieved by the inhibition of neutrophil migration, which regulates the reduction of oxidative stress, TNF-α and IL-1β levels. Finally, the activation of CB2 receptor, by selective agonist, has a major role in peripheral inflammation, and in the near future, targeting the peripheral cannabinoid system as a promising alternative to treat inflammation diseases may be considered a novel pharmacologic approach.

Authors : Parlar Ali, Arslan Seyfullah Oktay, Doğan Muhammed Fatih, Çam Saliha Ayşenur, Yalçin Alper, Elibol Ebru, Özer Mehmet Kaya, Üçkardeş Fatih, Kara Halil,



(3) Resveratrol protects against oxidative stress by activating the Keap-1/Nrf2 antioxidant defense system in obese-asthmatic rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30542383
Publication Date : //
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential mechanism underlying the anti-obesity-asthmatic effects of resveratrol (RSV) in a rat model of obese-asthma. Rat models of obesity and asthma were established using a high-fat diet and the administration of ovalbumin, respectively. Rats were divided into 7 different groups: A normal control, a normal obese, a normal asthma, a normal obese + asthma, a RSV obese, a RSV asthma and a RSV obese + asthma group. Body weight, Lee index, body fat and lung histopathological changes were evaluated. Serum lipid levels were evaluated using calorimetric methods. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cellular antioxidant enzyme activities were measured using commercial kits. Levels of kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was examined using western blot analysis. The results indicated that obese and asthma rat models were successfully established. It was also demonstrated that RSV decreased fasting blood glucose in obese, asthmatic and obese-asthmatic rats. RSV altered serum lipid levels; it significantly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and significantly decreased serum triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein levels, compared with untreated obese, asthmatic and obese-asthmatic rats (P<0.05). ROS levels were significantly decreased in the RSV treatment group compared with obese, asthmatic and obese-asthmatic rats (P<0.05). RSV treatment significantly increased catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase levels compared with untreated obese, asthmatic and obese-asthmatic rats (P<0.05). Furthermore, RSV treatment significantly downregulated Keap-1 and upregulated Nrf2 levels in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of rats compared with untreated controls. Therefore, the results demonstrate that RSV protects against oxidative stress by activating the Keap-1/Nrf2 antioxidant defense system in obese-asthmatic rat models.

Authors : Li Xiao-Nan, Ma Lu-Yi, Ji Hong, Qin Yuan-Hua, Jin Shan-Shan, Xu Li-Xin,



(4) Terpenoid-rich Elettaria cardamomum extract prevents Alzheimer-like alterations induced in diabetic rats via inhibition of GSK3β activity, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30539783
Publication Date : //
Recent studies suggested that the non-familiar form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be consequence of metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation. Elettaria cardamomum extract (EC) has exhibited antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of EC on AD-like alterations in rats induced by high fructose and high fat diet coupled with a single small dose of STZ (25 mg/kg) (T2DM rats).

Authors : Gomaa Adel A, Makboul Rania M, El-Mokhtar Mohamed A, Abdel-Rahman Engy A, Ahmed Israa A, Nicola Mariam A,



(5) Heme oxygenase-1 induction by hemin prevents oxidative stress-induced acute cholestasis in the rat.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30538149
Publication Date : //
We previously demonstrated in and models that physiological concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin prevent oxidative stress (OS)-induced hepatocanalicular dysfunction and cholestasis. Here, we aimed to ascertain, in the whole rat, whether a similar cholestatic OS injury can be counteracted by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction that consequently elevates endogenous bilirubin (BR) levels. This was achieved through the administration of hemin, an inducer of HO-1, the rate-limiting step in BR generation. We found that BR peaked between 6-8 h after hemin administration. During this time period, HO-1 induction fully prevented the pro-oxidant -butylhydroperoxide ( BuOOH)-induced drop in bile flow, and in the biliary excretion of bile salts and glutathione, the two main driving forces of bile flow; this was associated with preservation of the membrane localization of their respective canalicular transporters, Bsep and Mrp2, which are otherwise endocytosed by OS. HO-1 induction counteracted the oxidation of intracellular proteins and membrane lipids induced by BuOOH, and fully prevented the increase of the oxidized-to-total glutathione ratio, a sensitive parameter of hepatocellular OS. Compensatory elevations of the activity of the anti-oxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were also prevented. We conclude that HO-1 induction protects the liver from acute oxidative injury, thus preventing consequent cholestasis. This reveals an important role for the induction of HO-1 and the consequently elevated levels of BR in preserving biliary secretory function under OS conditions, thus representing a novel therapeutic tool to limit the cholestatic injury that bears an oxidative background.

Authors : Martín Pamela L, Ceccatto Paula L, Razori María V, Francés Daniel Ea, Arriaga Sandra Mm, Pisani Gerardo B, Martínez Alejandra I, Sánchez Pozzi Enrique J, Roma Marcelo G, Basiglio Cecilia L,



(6) In Vivo Assessment of Combined Effects of Glibenclamide and Losartan in Diabetic Rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30537701
Publication Date : //
Diabetic complications involve multiple pathological pathways, including hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Combination therapy is usually employed to improve treatment outcomes and to lower potential adverse effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of antidiabetic and antihypertensive agents, glibenclamide (GLI) and losartan (LT), on diabetes-associated metabolic changes in rats.

Authors : Alotaibi Moureq R, Fatani Amal J, Almnaizel Ahmed T, Ahmed Mohammed M, Abuohashish Hatem M, Al-Rejaie Salim S,



(7) Curcumin and quercetin synergistically attenuate subacute diazinon-induced inflammation and oxidative neurohepatic damage, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in albino rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30535736
Publication Date : //
The ubiquitous use of diazinon (DZN, an organophosphorus insecticide) has increased the probability of occupational, public, and the ecosystem exposure; these exposures are linked to negative health outcomes. The flavonoids curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QUE) exert significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities against toxicants, including insecticides. However, it is unclear whether their combination enhances these activities. Therefore, 40 albino rat were divided randomly into the CTR, DZN, CUR + DZN, QUE + DZN, and CUR + QUE + DZN groups, which are treated daily via gavage for 28 days. DZN induced neurohepatic inflammation and oxidative damage, which was confirmed by significant (P < 0.05) induction of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Furthermore, the liver and brain of DZN-exposed rats exhibited a notable elevation in MDA level paralleled with reduction in antioxidant molecules, i.e., glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. The pretreatment of DZN-intoxicated rats with CUR or QUE substantially mitigated neurohepatic dysfunction and inflammation and improved liver and brain antioxidant status with reducing oxidative stress levels. Furthermore, pretreatment with CUR + QUE synergistically restored the neurohepatic dysfunction and oxidative levels to approximately normal levels. The overall results suggested that CUR or QUE inhibits DZN-mediated neurohepatic toxicity via their favorable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and free radical-scavenging activities. Moreover, both QUE and CUR may be mutual adjuvant agents against oxidative stress neurohepatic damages.

Authors : Abdel-Diam Mohamed M, Samak Dalia H, El-Sayed Yasser S, Aleya Lotfi, Alarifi Saud, Alkahtani Saad,



(8) The Antinociceptive Effects of Rosuvastatin in Chronic Constriction Injury Model of Male Rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30519383
Publication Date : //
According to studies, statins possess analgesics and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we examined the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of rosuvastatin in an experimental model of Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI).

Authors : Hasanvand Amin, Ahmadizar Fariba, Abbaszadeh Abolfazl, Amini-Khoei Hossein, Goudarzi Mehdi, Abbasnezhad Amir, Choghakhori Razieh,



(9) Protective effects of tetramethylpyrazine analogue Z-11 on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30502344
Publication Date : //
The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a new synthetic compound (E) -1- (E) -1- (2- hydroxy -5- chlorophenyl) -3- (3, 5, 6- three methyl pyrazine -2- based) -2- propylene -1 ketone, Z-11, a tetramethylpyrazine analogue, on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism. 240~260g adult male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h, followed by 22h of reperfusion. Z-11 (1.7, 3.4 and 6.8mg/kg, i.p.), Edaravone (3mg/kg, i.p.) and DMSO (1‰, i.p.) was administered at 2h after the onset of ischemia. The rats' neurological score, infarct volume, and body weight change were tested, and some oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were evaluated after 22h of reperfusion. Results showed that neurologic deficit, infarct volume and body weight change were ameliorated after cerebral ischemia reperfusion, and that Z-11 exhibits an excellent effect at a dosage of 6.8mg/kg. This dose also reduced the content of MDA, and upregulated SOD activity and GSH content. Similarly, 6.8mg/kg Z-11 treatment inhibited the reactive oxygen species content and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, with the protein levels of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate1(Rac-1) and mitogenic oxidase (Nox2) downregulated even further. Moreover, the protein levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream anti-oxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were upregulated. This indicates that Z-11 could play a protective role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and that the protective effect of Z-11 may be related to improvements in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue. The mechanisms are associated with enhancing oxidant defence systems via the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 and Rac-1/NADPH oxidase pathways.

Authors : Li Zhai, Yulei Jia, Yaqing Ji, Jinmin Zou, Xinyong Liu, Jing Gao, Min Liu,



(10) Troxerutin down-regulates KIM-1, modulates p38 MAPK signaling, and enhances renal regenerative capacity in a rat model of gentamycin-induced acute kidney injury.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30511081
Publication Date : //
Gentamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is widely employed for controlling Gram negative bacterial infections including that caused by the antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas species. The clinical use of gentamycin is substantially limited by its side effects particularly acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of the plant flavonoid troxerutin (150 mg kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) against gentamycin-induced AKI using Wistar rats as an experimental mammalian model. The results of the present work revealed that troxerutin significantly improved renal function as demonstrated by the increase in the glomerular filtration rate and the decrease in the levels of urinary albumin, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.001). In addition, troxerutin significantly attenuated gentamycin-induced renal tissue injury as indicated by the decreased protein expression of the renal tubular injury marker KIM-1, the attenuation of the renal histopathological changes, and the modulation of the oxidative stress markers as reflected by the decrease in the levels of lipid and protein oxidative modifications and the increase in the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.001). Furthermore, troxerutin down-regulated the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-6), attenuated apoptotic cell death, and enhanced the renal tissue regenerative capacity as demonstrated by the increase in the protein expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA (p < 0.001). Collectively, the results of the current study highlight, for the first time, the ameliorating effects of troxerutin against gentamycin-induced AKI in rats that is potentially mediated via the modulation of p38 MAPK signaling as well as via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities.

Authors : Salama Samir A, Arab Hany H, Maghrabi Ibrahim A,