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Glutathione, Rat anti_; ELISA

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[#OBT7129] Glutathione, Rat anti_; ELISA


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(1) Ethanolamine enhances intestinal functions by altering gut microbiome and mucosal anti-stress capacity in weaned rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29789027
Publication Date : //
Ethanolamine (Etn) contained in milk is the base constituent of phosphatidylethanolamine and is required for the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and bacteria, which is important for maintenance of the gut microbiome and intestinal development. The present study investigated the effect of Etn on intestinal function and microbiome using 21-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 0, 250, 500 and 1000 μm Etn in drinking water for 2 weeks immediately after weaning. Growth performance, intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity and mucosal immunity, as well as gut microbiota community composition, were evaluated. Metagenomic prediction and metabolic phenotype analysis based on 16S RNA sequencing were also carried out to assess changes in metabolic functions. We found that weaned rats administered 500 μm Etn enhanced mucosal antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by higher superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in the jejunum (P<0·05) compared with those in the control group. Predominant microbes including Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Elusimicrobia and Tenericutes were altered by different levels of Etn compared with the control group. An Etn concentration of 500 µm shifted colonic microbial metabolic functions that are in favour of lipid- and sugar-related metabolism and biosynthesis. Etn also altered the metabolic phenotypes such as anaerobic microbial counts, and oxidative stress tolerance at over 250 µm. This is the first report for a role of Etn in modifying gut microbiota and intestinal functions. Our findings highlighted the important role of Etn in shaping gut microbial community and promotes intestinal functions, which may provide a better insight of breast-feeding to infant's gut health.

Authors : Zhou Jian, Xiong Xia, Wang Ke-Xing, Zou Li-Jun, Ji Peng, Yin Yu-Long,

(2) Chemical Characterization and cerebroprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Colebrookea oppositifolia in rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29777902
Publication Date : //
Colebrookea oppositifolia Smith is one of the extensively used plants to treat neurological conditions such as epilepsy by the various ethnic communities in sub-Himalayan regions of India such as Bhoxa, Tharu and nomadic Gujjars.

Authors : Viswanatha Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry, Venkataranganna Marikunte V, Prasad Nunna Bheema Lingeswara, Hanumanthappa Shylaja,

(3) Oral administration of cadmium depletes intratesticular and epididymal iron levels and inhibits lipid peroxidation in the testis and epididymis of adult rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29773184
Publication Date : //
Cadmium (Cd)-induced tissue injury depends on the accumulated Cd which differentially affects endogenous iron (Fe). To investigate this, adult rats were treated by oral gavage with Cd (50 mg/kg body wt.) once a week for 15, 30 and 60 days and sacrificed a day after last administration. After the 15th and 30th day of treatment, Cd had no effect on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and endogenous Fe levels but exhibited anti-androgenic effects (p < 0.05) and caused histological damages. At day 60, Cd was accumulated by 156.30% and 364.77% above control values at concentrations that decreased endogenous Fe levels by 46.41% and 50.31% in the testis and epididymis respectively. The histological damages were characterized by decreased tubular diameter, damage to the epithelium leading to loss of tubular germ cells and absent of spermatozoa in the epididymal lumen. Although myeloperoxidase activities were increased, TBARS levels were found to decrease significantly at day 60 in the serum, testis and epididymis suggesting that the histological damages were not caused by lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, TBARS correlated negatively with Cd in the testis (r = -0.251, p < 0.05) and epididymis (r = -0.286, p < 0.05); Fe correlated positively with TBARS in the testis (r = +0.217, p < 0.05) and Cd correlated negatively with Fe in the testis (r = -0.461, p < 0.05) and epididymis (r = -0.109, p < 0.05). The antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were also decreased in the gonads after 60 days Cd treatment. Overall, anti-androgenic effects and histo-pathological changes are early indicators of direct effects of Cd and occur before decrease in TBARS which is secondarily related to the modifying of Fe contents.

Authors : Abarikwu Sunny O, Oruitemeka Sarah, Uwadileke Ifeyinwa A, Omeodu Stephen I, Okoye Ngozi F, Mgbudom-Okah Chidimma J, Ohanador Robinson,

(4) Effects of spermine supplementation on the morphology, digestive enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of intestine in weaning rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29767070
Publication Date : //
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of spermine and its extended supplementation on the morphology, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal antioxidant capacity in weaning rats. Nineteen-day-old male rats received intragastric spermine at doses of 0.2 and 0.4 μmol/g BW for 3 or 7 d, whereas control rats received similar doses of saline. The results are as follows: 1) In the jejunum, the seven-day supplementation with both doses of spermine significantly increased crypt depth ( < 0.05) compared with the control group; the supplementation extension of the high spermine dose increased villus height and crypt depth ( < 0.05); in the ileum, the low spermine dose significantly increased villus height and crypt depth compared with the control group for 7 days ( < 0.05). 2) The 3-day supplementation with high spermine dose increased alkaline phosphatase activity in the jejunum ( < 0.05). 3) In the jejunum, the anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activities were increased ( < 0.05); however, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was reduced ( < 0.05) in groups supplemented with the high spermine dose relative to those in the control groups after 3 and 7 d; moreover, the anti-superoxide anion (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) contents increased with the high spermine dose that lasted for 3 days ( < 0.05). Furthermore, the T-SOD and CAT activities (after 3 and 7 d), ASA (after 3 d), and AHR (after 7 d) increased with the high spermine dose compared with those of the low spermine dose ( < 0.05). Extending the supplementation duration (7 d) of the high spermine dose decreased the MDA content and ASA and T-AOC activities ( < 0.05). These results suggested that spermine supplementation can modulate gut development and enhance the antioxidant status of the jejunum in weaning rats, and a dosage of 0.4 μmol spermine/g BW had better effects than the dosage of 0.2 μmol spermine/g BW on accelerating gut development and increasing antioxidant capacity.

Authors : Fang Tingting, Jia Gang, Zhao Hua, Chen Xiaoling, Tang Jiayong, Wang Jing, Liu Guangmang,

(5) New insights into the role of spermine in enhancing the antioxidant capacity of rat spleen and liver under oxidative stress.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29767047
Publication Date : //
Oxidative stress can damage cellular antioxidant defense and reduce livestock production efficiency. Spermine is a ubiquitous cellular component that plays important roles in stabilizing nucleic acids, modulating cell growth and differentiation, and regulating ion channel activities. Spermine has the potential to alleviate the effects of oxidative stress. However, to date no information is available about the effect of spermine administration on antioxidant property of the liver and spleen in any mammalian system. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of spermine on rat liver and spleen under oxidative stress. Rats received intragastric administration of either 0.4 μmol/g body weight of spermine or saline once a day for 3 days. The rats in each treatment were then injected with either diquat or sterile saline at 12 mg/kg body weight. Liver and spleen samples were collected 48 h after the last spermine ingestion. Results showed that regardless of diquat treatment, spermine administration significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) content by 23.78% in the liver and by 5.75% in the spleen, respectively ( < 0.05). Spermine administration also enhanced the catalase (CAT) activity, anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR) capacity and glutathione (GSH) content by 38.68%, 15.53% and 1.32% in the spleen, respectively ( < 0.05). There were interactions between spermine administration and diquat injection about anti-superoxide anion (ASA), AHR capacity, CAT activity, GSH content, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the liver and about ASA capacity and T-AOC in the spleen of weaned rats ( < 0.05). Compared with the control group, spermine administration significantly increased the AHR capacity, CAT activity, GSH content, and T-AOC by 40.23%, 31.15%, 30.25%, 35.37% in the liver, respectively ( < 0.05) and increased the T-AOC by 8% in the spleen of weaned rats ( < 0.05). Compared with the diquat group, spermine + diquat group significantly increased ASA capacity by 15.63% in the liver and by 73.41% in the spleen of weaned rats, respectively ( < 0.05). Results demonstrate that spermine administration can increase the antioxidant capacity in the liver and spleen and can enhance the antioxidant status in the spleen and liver under oxidative stress.

Authors : Wu Xianjian, Cao Wei, Jia Gang, Zhao Hua, Chen Xiaoling, Wu Caimei, Tang Jiayong, Wang Jing, Liu Guangmang,

(6) Indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats and the protective effect of donkey milk.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29765456
Publication Date : //
Indomethacin is an anti-inflammatory drug with clearly known side effects on gastric mucosa. New treatment and side effect prevention methods are being studied. Donkey milk, as a nutritional support, has recently come into the spotlight with its anti-oxidant features, high antibody content and low allergenic properties. In this study, we investigated donkey milk's possible protective effect against acute gastric mucosal damage by indomethacin.

Authors : Tastekin Ebru, Ayvaz Suleyman, Usta Ufuk, Aydogdu Nurettin, Cancilar Ekrem, Puyan Fulya Oz,

(7) Açai improves non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by fructose.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29756964
Publication Date : //
the excessive consumption of fructose can cause liver damage, characteristic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with changes in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defenses. Açai, the fruit of Euterpe oleraceaMart., has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid metabolism modulating action.

Authors : Carvalho Mayara Medeiros de Freitas, Reis Larissa Lélis Teixeira, Lopes Juliana Márcia Macedo, Lage Nara Nunes, Guerra Joyce Ferreira da Costa, Zago Helena Porto, Bonomo Larissa De Freitas, Pereira Renata Rebeca, Lima Wanderson Geraldo de, Silva Marcelo Eustáquio, Pedrosa Maria Lucia,

(8) Ameliorative Effect of Beraprost Sodium on Celecoxib Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29755548
Publication Date : //
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are most widely used analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs; however, its maximal use is highly associated with various serious abnormal cardiovascular events. Beraprost sodium (BPS), prostacyclin analogue has been shown to vasodilatory, antiplatelates, anti-inflmmatory, and antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of BPS on celecoxib cardiotoxicity in rats. Toxicity was induced in male Albino rats (250-280 g) by celecoxib (100 mg/kg/day). BPS (30 μg/kg/day) was administered alone and in combination with celecoxib for 14 days and various biochemicals, hemodynamic, left ventricular, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were studied. Cardiotoxicity of celecoxib was revealed by a significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin-T (Tn-T), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), LV (dp/dt), and LV (dp/dt) as well as tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a significant decrease in tissue reduced glutathione (GSH). However, treatment with BPS reversed these alteration in LDH, Tn-T, TNF-α, CK-MB, SBP, LVEDP, LV (dp/dt) LV (dp/dt) TBARS and GSH levels. The histopathological study in cardiac left ventricle revealed protection of myocardium as manifested reduction of fibrosis by abolition of collagen deposition when celecoxib was combined with beraprost sodium. It could be concluded that beraprost sodium may prove a useful adjunct in patients being prescribed celecoxib.

Authors : Ahmad Shafique, Panda Bibhu Prasad, Fahim Mohammad, Dhyani Neha, Dubey Kiran,

(9) Consumption of Probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC: 5898-Fermented Milk Attenuates Dyslipidemia, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Male Rats Fed on Cholesterol-Enriched Diet.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29754388
Publication Date : //
There is a growing and alarming prevalence that increased serum cholesterol is closely related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Probiotic consumption could be a safe and natural strategy to combat. Therefore, we sought to examine the cholesterol-lowering potential of co-supplementation of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC: 5898-fermented buffalo milk (2.5% fat) in rats fed cholesterol-enriched diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups on the basis of feed, viz. group 1, fed standard diet (SD); group 2, fed cholesterol-enriched diet (CED); and group 3, fed cholesterol-enriched diet along with L. fermentum MTCC: 5898-fermented milk (CED+LF) for 90 days. At the endpoint, significantly higher levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, coronary artery risk index, hepatic lipids, lipid peroxidation, and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) in the liver while significantly lower levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and anti-oxidative enzyme activities, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver and kidney were observed in the CED group compared to the SD group. Compared to the CED group, these adverse physiological alterations were found significantly improved in the CED+LF group. Hence, this study proposes that L. fermentum MTCC: 5898 is a potential probiotic bacteria that can be consumed to tackle hypercholesterolemia. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

Authors : Yadav Radha, Khan Suhail Hakeem, Mada Sanusi Bello, Meena Sunita, Kapila Rajeev, Kapila Suman,

(10) Antioxidant and Antiapoptotic effect of aqueous extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. Ex Willd.) DC. On streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29751837
Publication Date : //
Oxidative stress and renal apoptosis play a significant role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. has been traditionally used as anti-ageing and health promotive tonic. The purpose of this study was to investigate its nephroprotective effect and mechanism via antioxidant and antiapoptotic potential in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats.

Authors : Shukla Rashmi, Banerjee Somanshu, Tripathi Yamini B,