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GAD 65_67 (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase), Rabbit anti_Human, Cat; frozen_paraffin, IH_WB_ELISA

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[#YSRTAHP360] GAD 65_67 (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase), Rabbit anti_Human, Cat; frozen_paraffin, IH_WB_ELISA

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YSRTAHP360 | GAD 65_67 (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase), Rabbit anti_Human, Cat; frozen_paraffin, IH_WB_ELISA, 0.1 ml.
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(1) Increased glutamic acid decarboxylase expression in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus in depression.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28608287
Publication Date : //
In depression, disrupted circadian rhythms reflect abnormalities in the central circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Although many SCN neurons are said to be GABAergic, it was not yet known whether and how SCN GABA changes occur in the SCN in depression. We, therefore, studied GABA in the SCN in relation to the changes in arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is one of the major SCN output systems. Postmortem hypothalamus specimens of 13 subjects suffering from depression and of 13 well-matched controls were collected. Quantitative immunocytochemistry was used to analyze the protein levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65/67 and AVP, and quantitative in situ hybridization was used to measure transcript levels of GAD67 in the SCN. There were a significant 58% increase of SCN GAD65/67-ir and a significant 169% increase of SCN GAD67-mRNA in the depression group. In addition, there were a significant 253% increase of AVP-ir in female depression subjects but not in male depression patients. This sex difference was supported by a re-analysis of SCN AVP-ir data of a previous study of our group. Moreover, SCN-AVP-ir showed a significant negative correlation with age in the control group and in the male, but not in the female depression group. Given the crucial role of GABA in mediating SCN function, our finding of increased SCN GABA expression may significantly contribute to the disordered circadian rhythms in depression. The increased SCN AVP-ir in female-but not in male-depression patients-may reflect the higher vulnerability for depression in women.

Authors : Wu Xueyan, Balesar Rawien, Lu Jing, Farajnia Sahar, Zhu Qiongbin, Huang Manli, Bao Ai-Min, Swaab Dick F,



(2) The role of CA3-LS-VTA loop in the formation of conditioned place preference induced by context-associated reward memory for morphine.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27862708
Publication Date : //
Addiction-related behaviors, such as conditioned place preference (CPP), require animals to remember an association between environmental cue and drug treatment, and exposure to environmental cue is one of the key contributing factors to relapse. However, how central neural circuit participates in the formation of CPP induced by stimulus of morphine-paired environment remains unknown. In the present study, we found that reexposure to morphine-paired environment significantly increased the activity of hippocampal CA3 neurons, increased the excitability of GABAergic neurons and expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 in the caudal lateral septum (LSc) and decreased the activity of GABAergic neurons and GAD65/67 expression in ventral tegmental area (VTA), leading to activation (disinhibition) of dopaminergic neurons. Inactivation of CA3 neurons attenuated GABAergic neurons activity and decreased the upregulation of GAD65/67 in LSc, prevented the dopaminergic neurons activation,and GAD65/67 downregulation in VTA and ameliorated the CPP behavior following exposure to morphine-paired context. Blockade of NMDA receptor in LSc also prevented the upregulation of GAD65/67 in LSc and formation of CPP induced by stimulus of morphine-paired environment. Suppression of GAD activity in LSc also remarkably attenuated the dopaminergic neurons activation and the GAD65/67 downregulation in VTA and prevented the formation of CPP induced by reexposure to morphine-associated context. Collectively, these results, for the first time, illustrated the involvement of neural circuitry of CA3-LSc-VTA, through integration of the contexts and reward information, participated in the reinstatement of CPP induced by exposure to morphine-associated context, which advanced our understanding on neurobiological basis for the context-associated memory and rewarding behavior.

Authors : Jiang Jin-Xiang, Liu Huan, Huang Zhen-Zhen, Cui Yue, Zhang Xue-Qin, Zhang Xiao-Long, Cui Yu, Xin Wen-Jun,



(3) GABAergic system impairment in the hippocampus and superior temporal gyrus of patients with paranoid schizophrenia: A post-mortem study.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26922657
Publication Date : //
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a key enzyme in GABA synthesis and alterations in GABAergic neurotransmission related to glial abnormalities are thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify potential differences regarding the neuropil expression of GAD between paranoid and residual schizophrenia.

Authors : Steiner Johann, Brisch Ralf, Schiltz Kolja, Dobrowolny Henrik, Mawrin Christian, Krzyżanowska Marta, Bernstein Hans-Gert, Jankowski Zbigniew, Braun Katharina, Schmitt Andrea, Bogerts Bernhard, Gos Tomasz,



(4) In utero exposure to valproic acid changes sleep in juvenile rats: a model for sleep disturbances in autism.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25142574
Publication Date : //
To determine whether sleep disturbances are found in the valproic acid model of autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

Authors : Cusmano Danielle M, Mong Jessica A,



(5) Reduced GAD(65/67) immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in depression: a postmortem study.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23312397
Publication Date : //
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. It diminishes the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. The present study aimed at determining GABAergic input in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in depression and its correlation with the activity of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons.

Authors : Gao Shang-Feng, Klomp Anne, Wu Juan-Li, Swaab Dick F, Bao Ai-Min,



(6) Forebrain GABAergic projections to locus coeruleus in mouse.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23296594
Publication Date : //
The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) regulates arousal, memory, sympathetic nervous system activity, and pain. Forebrain projections to LC have been characterized in rat, cat, and primates, but not systematically in mouse. We surveyed mouse forebrain LC-projecting neurons by examining retrogradely labeled cells following LC iontophoresis of Fluoro-Gold and anterograde LC labeling after forebrain injection of biotinylated dextran amine or viral tracer. Similar to other species, the central amygdalar nucleus (CAmy), anterior hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, and posterior lateral hypothalamic area (PLH) provide major LC inputs. By using mice expressing green fluorescent protein in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons, we found that more than one-third of LC-projecting CAmy and PLH neurons are GABAergic. LC colocalization of biotinylated dextran amine, following CAmy or PLH injection, with either green fluorescent protein or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65/67 immunoreactivity confirmed these GABAergic projections. CAmy injection of adeno-associated virus encoding channelrhodopsin-2-Venus showed similar fiber labeling and association with GAD65/67-immunoreactive (ir) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir neurons. CAmy and PLH projections were densest in a pericoerulear zone, but many fibers entered the LC proper. Close apposition between CAmy GABAergic projections and TH-ir processes suggests that CAmy GABAergic neurons may directly inhibit noradrenergic principal neurons. Direct LC neuron targeting was confirmed by anterograde transneuronal labeling of LC TH-ir neurons following CAmy or PLH injection of a herpes virus that expresses red fluorescent protein following activation by Cre recombinase in mice that express Cre recombinase in GABAergic neurons. This description of GABAergic projections from the CAmy and PLH to the LC clarifies important forebrain sources of inhibitory control of central nervous system noradrenergic activity.

Authors : Dimitrov Eugene L, Yanagawa Yuchio, Usdin Ted B,



(7) A new multistep induction protocol for the transdifferentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells into GABAergic neuron-like cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23279829
Publication Date : //
Bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSC) are appropriate source of multipotent stem cells that are ideally suited for use in various cell-based therapies. It can be differentiated into neuronal-like cells under appropriate conditions. This study examined the effectiveness of co-stimulation of creatine and retinoic acid in increasing the differentiation of BMSC into GABAergic neuron-like cells (GNLC).

Authors : Darabi Shahram, Tiraihi Taki, Delshad AliReza, Sadeghizadeh Majid,



(8) Airway epithelium is a predominant source of endogenous airway GABA and contributes to relaxation of airway smooth muscle tone.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23204068
Publication Date : //
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma are characterized by hyperreactive airway responses that predispose patients to episodes of acute airway constriction. Recent studies suggest a complex paradigm of GABAergic signaling in airways that involves GABA-mediated relaxation of airway smooth muscle. However, the cellular source of airway GABA and mechanisms regulating its release remain unknown. We questioned whether epithelium is a major source of GABA in the airway and whether the absence of epithelium-derived GABA contributes to greater airway smooth muscle force. Messenger RNA encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65/67 was quantitatively measured in human airway epithelium and smooth muscle. HPLC quantified GABA levels in guinea pig tracheal ring segments under basal or stimulated conditions with or without epithelium. The role of endogenous GABA in the maintenance of an acetylcholine contraction in human airway and guinea pig airway smooth muscle was assessed in organ baths. A 37.5-fold greater amount of mRNA encoding GAD 67 was detected in human epithelium vs. airway smooth muscle cells. HPLC confirmed that guinea pig airways with intact epithelium have a higher constitutive elution of GABA under basal or KCl-depolarized conditions compared with epithelium-denuded airway rings. Inhibition of GABA transporters significantly suppressed KCl-mediated release of GABA from epithelium-intact airways, but tetrodotoxin was without effect. The presence of intact epithelium had a significant GABAergic-mediated prorelaxant effect on the maintenance of contractile tone. Airway epithelium is a predominant cellular source of endogenous GABA in the airway and contributes significant prorelaxant GABA effects on airway smooth muscle force.

Authors : Gallos George, Townsend Elizabeth, Yim Peter, Virag Laszlo, Zhang Yi, Xu Dingbang, Bacchetta Matthew, Emala Charles W,



(9) Differences between unipolar and bipolar I depression in the quantitative analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase-immunoreactive neuropil.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22526728
Publication Date : //
Alterations in GABAergic neurotransmission are assumed to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the key enzyme in GABA synthesis. This study aimed to differentiate between unipolar and bipolar I depression using quantitative evaluation of GAD-immunoreactive (GAD-ir) neuropil in several brain regions known to be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Immunohistochemical staining of GAD 65/67 was performed in the orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the entorhinal cortex, the hippocampal formation and the medial dorsal and lateral dorsal (LD) thalamic nuclei, with a quantitative densitometric analysis of GAD-ir neuropil. The study was performed on paraffin-embedded brains from 9 unipolar and 12 bipolar I depressed patients (8 and 6 suicidal patients, respectively) and 18 matched controls. In unipolar patients, compared with controls, only the increased relative density of GAD-ir neuropil in the right LD was different from the previous results in depressed suicides from the same cohort (Gos et al. in J Affect Disord 113:45-55, 2009). On the other hand, the left DLPFC was the only area where a significant decrease was observed, specific for bipolar I depression. Significant differences between both diagnostic groups were found in these regions. By revealing abnormalities in the relative density of GAD-ir neuropil in brain structures, our study suggests a diathesis of the GABAergic system in mood disorders, which may differentiate the pathophysiology of unipolar from that of bipolar I depression.

Authors : Gos Tomasz, Steiner Johann, Bielau Hendrik, Dobrowolny Henrik, Günther Karoline, Mawrin Christian, Krzyżanowski Maciej, Hauser Roman, Brisch Ralf, Bernstein Hans-Gert, Jankowski Zbigniew, Braun Katharina, Bogerts Bernhard,



(10) Pre-synaptic BK channels selectively control glutamate versus GABA release from cortical and hippocampal nerve terminals.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :20681950
Publication Date : //
In the present study, by means of genetic, biochemical, morphological, and electrophysiological approaches, the role of large-conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels (BK channels) in the release of excitatory and non-excitatory neurotransmitters at hippocampal and non-hippocampal sites has been investigated. The results obtained show that the pharmacological modulation of pre-synaptic BK channels selectively regulates [(3)H]D-aspartate release from cortical and hippocampal rat synaptosomes, but it fails to influence the release of excitatory neurotransmitters from cerebellar nerve endings or that of [(3)H]GABA, [(3)H]Noradrenaline, or [(3)H]Dopamine from any of the brain regions investigated. Confocal immunofluorescence experiments in hippocampal or cerebrocortical nerve terminals revealed that the main pore-forming BK α subunit was more abundantly expressed in glutamatergic (vGLUT1(+)) versus GABAergic (GAD(65-67)(+)) nerve terminals. Double patch recordings in monosynaptically connected hippocampal neurons in culture confirmed a preferential control exerted by BK channels on glutamate over GABA release. Altogether, the present results highlight a high degree of specificity in the regulation of the release of various neurotransmitters from distinct brain regions by BK channels, supporting the concept that BK channel modulators can be used to selectively limit excessive excitatory amino acid release, a major pathogenetic mechanism in several neuropsychiatric disorders.

Authors : Martire Maria, Barrese Vincenzo, D'Amico Monia, Iannotti Fabio Arturo, Pizzarelli Rocco, Samengo Irene, Viggiano Davide, Ruth Peter, Cherubini Enrico, Taglialatela Maurizio,