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Fibroblast Growth Factor 9, Rabbit anti_Mouse, azide_free; WB_ELISA

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[#YSRTAAM17G] Fibroblast Growth Factor 9, Rabbit anti_Mouse, azide_free; WB_ELISA

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YSRTAAM17G | Fibroblast Growth Factor 9, Rabbit anti_Mouse, azide_free; WB_ELISA, 0.1 mg.
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(1) A random forest classifier predicts recurrence risk in patients with ovarian cancer.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30066910
Publication Date : //
Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with a poor prognosis due to difficulties in early detection. The aims of the present study were to construct a recurrence risk prediction model and to reveal important OC genes or pathways. RNA sequencing data was obtained for 307 OC samples, and the corresponding clinical data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Additionally, two validation datasets, GSE44104 (20 recurrent and 40 non‑recurrent OC samples) and GSE49997 (204 OC samples), were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes were screened using the differential expression via distance synthesis algorithm, followed by gene ontology enrichment analysis and weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Furthermore, subnetwork analysis was conducted for the protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network using the BioNet package. Finally, a random forest classifier was constructed based on the subnetwork nodes, and its reliability was validated using the GSE44104 and GSE49997 validation datasets. A total of 44 upregulated and 117 downregulated genes were identified in the recurrent samples. Enrichment analysis indicated that cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1 (CYP17A1) was associated with 'positive regulation of steroid hormone biosynthetic processes'. WGCNA identified turquoise and grey modules that were significantly correlated with status and prognosis. A significant PPI subnetwork containing 16 nodes was also identified, including: Transcription factor GATA‑4; fibroblast growth factor 9; aromatase; 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ5‑4‑isomerase type 2; corticosteroid 11β‑dehydrogenase isozyme 1; CYP17A1; pituitary homeobox 2; left‑right determination factor 1; homeobox protein ARX; estrogen receptor β; steroidogenic factor 1; forkhead box protein L2; myocardin; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mitochondrial; vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter; and twist‑related protein 1. A random forest classifier was constructed using the subnetwork nodes as feature genes, which exhibited a 92% true positive rate when classifying recurrent and non‑recurrent OC samples. The classifying efficiency of the random forest classifier was validated using the two other independent datasets. Overall, 44 upregulated and 117 downregulated genes associated with OC recurrence were identified. Furthermore, the 16 subnetwork node genes that were identified may be important molecules in OC recurrence.

Authors : Cheng Li, Li Lin, Wang Liling, Li Xiaofang, Xing Hui, Zhou Jinting,



(2) Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 Suppresses Striatal Cell Death Dominantly Through ERK Signaling in Huntington's Disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30021209
Publication Date : //
Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder, and there is no cure for HD to date. A type of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF9, has been reported to play prosurvival roles in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of FGF9 on HD is still unknown. With many similarities in the cellular and pathological mechanisms that eventually cause cell death in neurodegenerative diseases, we hypothesize that FGF9 might provide neuroprotective functions in HD.

Authors : Yusuf Issa Olakunle, Cheng Pei-Hsun, Chen Hsiu-Mei, Chang Yu-Fan, Chang Chih-Yi, Yang Han-In, Lin Chia-Wei, Tsai Shaw-Jenq, Chuang Jih-Ing, Wu Chia-Ching, Huang Bu-Miin, Sun H Sunny, Yang Shang-Hsun,



(3) FGF9 modulates Schwann cell myelination in developing nerves and induces a pro-inflammatory environment during injury.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29953642
Publication Date : //
Myelin sheath is critical for the proper functioning of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which allows the effective conduction of nerve impulses. Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) is an autocrine and paracrine protein in the fibroblast growth factor family that regulates cell differentiation and proliferation. Fgf9 Schwann cell (SC) conditional knockout mice were developed to detect the role of FGF9 in the PNS. In our study, the absence of Fgf9 led to delayed myelination in early development. The expression of mature SC-related genes decreased, and the expression of genes associated with immature SCs increased in the Fgf9 knockout mice. These data were consistent with the morphology and praxeology we observed during the development of the peripheral nerves. Extracellular-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) are key signals for myelination, and our results showed that Fgf9 ablation led to the inactivation of ERK1/2. Further research was performed to detect the role of FGF9 in peripheral nerve injury. In superoxide dismutase 1-G93A mice with Fgf9 SC knockout, we found that Fgf9 ablation inhibited the expressions of Cd68, Il-1β, and Cd86, which contributed to the degeneration of the axon and myelin sheath.

Authors : Deng Binbin, Lv Wenjing, Duan Weisong, Liu Yakun, Li Zhongyao, Song Xueqing, Cui Can, Qi Xiaoming, Wang Xiaoxiao, Li Chunyan,



(4) Resolution of bleomycin-induced murine pulmonary fibrosis via a splenic lymphocyte subpopulation.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29690905
Publication Date : //
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with high mortality, and the pathogenesis of the disease is still incompletely understood. Although lymphocytes, especially CD4CD25FoxP3 regulatory T cells (Tregs), have been implicated in the development of IPF, contradictory results have been reported regarding the contribution of Tregs to fibrosis both in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a specific T cell subset has therapeutic potential in inhibiting bleomycin (BLM)-induced murine pulmonary fibrosis.

Authors : Kamio Koichiro, Azuma Arata, Matsuda Kuniko, Usuki Jiro, Inomata Minoru, Morinaga Akemi, Kashiwada Takeru, Nishijima Nobuhiko, Itakura Shioto, Kokuho Nariaki, Atsumi Kenichiro, Hayashi Hiroki, Yamaguchi Tomoyoshi, Fujita Kazue, Saito Yoshinobu, Abe Shinji, Kubota Kaoru, Gemma Akihiko,



(5) Tumor associated macrophages support the growth of FGF9-induced lung adenocarcinoma by multiple mechanisms.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29656749
Publication Date : //
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to promote tumorigenesis but the mechanism(s) remain elusive. We have developed a mouse model of lung cancer that is initiated through an inducible overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) in type-2 pneumocytes. Expression of FGF9 in adult lungs resulted in a rapid development of multiple adenocarcinoma-like tumor nodules, and is associated with an intense immunological reaction. The purpose of this study is to characterize the immune response to the FGF9-induced lung adenocarcinoma and to determine the contribution of TAMs to growth and survival of these tumors.

Authors : Hegab Ahmed E, Ozaki Mari, Kagawa Shizuko, Hamamoto Junko, Yasuda Hiroyuki, Naoki Katsuhiko, Soejima Kenzo, Yin Yongjun, Kinoshita Tomonari, Yaguchi Tomonori, Kawakami Yutaka, Ornitz David M, Betsuyaku Tomoko,



(6) Transcriptome profiling of bovine ovarian theca cells treated with fibroblast growth factor 9.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29413902
Publication Date : //
We reported previously that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) acts as an antidifferentiation factor, stimulating proliferation of granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) while suppressing hormone-induced steroidogenesis of these cells. How FGF9 acts to simultaneously suppress steroidogenesis and stimulate proliferation remains to be fully elucidated. Thus, this study was undertaken to clarify the effects of FGF9 on the TC transcriptome. Ovaries were obtained from beef heifers at a local abattoir, TCs were isolated from large antral follicles, and cultured with or without 30 ng/mL of FGF9 for 24 h in the presence of LH and IGF-1. After treatment, total RNA was extracted from TC and processed for microarray using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays (n = 4/group). Transcriptome analysis comparing FGF9-treated TC with control TC using 1.3-fold cutoff, and a P < 0.05 significance level identified 355 differentially expressed transcripts, with 164 elements upregulated and 191 elements downregulated by FGF9. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to investigate how FGF9 treatment affects molecular pathways, biological functions, and the connection between molecules in bovine TC. The IPA software identified 346 pathways in response to FGF9 in TC involved in several biological functions and unveiled interesting relationships among genes related to cell proliferation (eg, CCND1, FZD5, and MYB), antioxidation/cytoprotection (eg, HMOX1 and NQO1), and steroidogenesis (eg, CYP11A1 and STAR). Overall, genes, pathways, and networks identified in this study painted a picture of how FGF9 may regulate folliculogenesis, providing novel candidate genes for further investigation of FGF9 functions in ovarian follicular development.

Authors : Schütz L F, Hurst R E, Schreiber N B, Spicer L J,



(7) MicroRNA 221 expression in theca and granulosa cells: hormonal regulation and function.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29385487
Publication Date : //
Small noncoding RNA molecules (miRNA) regulate protein levels in a post-transcriptional manner by partial base pairing to the 3'-UTR of target genes thus mediating degradation or translational repression. Previous studies indicate that numerous miRNA regulate the biosynthesis of intraovarian hormones, and emerging evidence indicates that one of these, miRNA-221 (MIR221), may be a modulator of ovarian function. However, the hormonal control of ovarian MIR221 is not known. The objectives of this study were to investigate the developmental and hormonal regulation of MIR221 expression in granulosa (GC) and theca cell (TC) and its possible role in regulating follicular function. Bovine ovaries were collected from a local abattoir and GC and TC were obtained from small (<6 mm) and large (≥8 mm) follicles. In Exp. 1, GCs of small follicles had 9.7-fold greater (P < 0.001) levels of MIR221 than those of large follicles, and TCs of large follicles had 3.7-fold greater (P < 0.001) levels of MIR221 than those of small follicles. In large follicles, abundance of MIR221 was 66.6-fold greater (P < 0.001) in TCs than in GCs. In small follicles, MIR221 abundance did not differ (P = 0.14) between GC and TCs. In vitro Exp. 2, 3, and 4 revealed that treatment of bovine TCs with various steroids, phytoestrogens, IGF1, forskolin, and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate had no effect (P > 0.35) on MIR221 expression, whereas treatment with fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) and FGF2 increased (P < 0.001) TC MIR221 abundance 1.7- to 2.5-fold. In Exp. 5, FGF9 increased (P < 0.05) GC MIR221 abundance by 1.7- and 2.0-fold in small and large follicles, respectively. The role of MIR221 in GC steroidogenesis was investigated in Exp. 6 and it was found that transfection with a MIR221 mimic reduced (P < 0.01) GC estradiol and progesterone production induced by FSH and IGF1, whereas transfection with MIR221 inhibitor had little or no effect. We conclude that thecal MIR221 expression is increased by FGF9 and increased MIR221 may act to inhibit GC steroidogenesis in cattle.

Authors : Robinson Cheyenne L, Zhang Lingna, Schütz Luis F, Totty Morgan L, Spicer Leon J,



(8) The role of tight junction proteins in ovarian follicular development and ovarian cancer.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29374086
Publication Date : //
Tight junctions (TJ) are protein structures that control the transport of water, ions and macromolecules across cell layers. Functions of the transmembrane TJ protein, occluding (OCLN) and the cytoplasmic TJ proteins, tight junction protein 1 (TJP1; also known as zona occludens protein-1), cingulin (CGN) and claudins (CLDN) are reviewed, and current evidence of their role in the ovarian function is reviewed. Abundance of , and mRNA changed during follicular growth. treatment with various growth factors known to affect ovarian folliculogenesis indicated that , and are hormonally regulated. The summarized studies indicate that expression of TJ proteins (i.e., , , and ) changes with follicle size in a variety of vertebrate species but whether these changes in TJ proteins are increased or decreased depends on species and cell type. Evidence indicates that autocrine, paracrine and endocrine regulators, such as fibroblast growth factor-9, epidermal growth factor, androgens, tumor necrosis factor-α and glucocorticoids may modulate these TJ proteins. Additional evidence presented indicates that TJ proteins may be involved in ovarian cancer development in addition to normal follicular and luteal development. A model is proposed suggesting that hormonal downregulation of TJ proteins during ovarian follicular development could reduce barrier function (i.e., selective permeability of molecules between theca and granulosa cells) and allow for an increase in the volume of follicular fluid as well as allow additional serum factors into the follicle that may directly impact granulosa cell functions.

Authors : Zhang Lingna, Feng Tao, Spicer Leon J,



(9) RNA sequencing identifies gene regulatory networks controlling extracellular matrix synthesis in intervertebral disk tissues.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29227558
Publication Date : //
Degenerative disk disease of the spine is a major cause of back pain and disability. Optimization of regenerative medical therapies for degenerative disk disease requires a deep mechanistic understanding of the factors controlling the structural integrity of spinal tissues. In this investigation, we sought to identify candidate regulatory genes controlling extracellular matrix synthesis in spinal tissues. To achieve this goal we performed high throughput next generation RNA sequencing on 39 annulus fibrosus and 21 nucleus pulposus human tissue samples. Specimens were collected from patients undergoing surgical discectomy for the treatment of degenerative disk disease. Our studies identified associations between extracellular matrix genes, growth factors, and other important regulatory molecules. The fibrous matrix characteristic of annulus fibrosus was associated with expression of the growth factors platelet derived growth factor beta (PDGFB), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC), and fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9). Additionally we observed high expression of multiple signaling proteins involved in the NOTCH and WNT signaling cascades. Nucleus pulposus extracellular matrix related genes were associated with the expression of numerous diffusible growth factors largely associated with the transforming growth signaling cascade, including transforming factor alpha (TGFA), inhibin alpha (INHA), inhibin beta A (INHBA), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP2, BMP6), and others.

Authors : Riester Scott M, Lin Yang, Wang Wei, Cong Lin, Mohamed Ali Abdel-Moneim, Peck Sun H, Smith Lachlan J, Currier Bradford L, Clark Michelle, Huddleston Paul, Krauss William, Yaszemski Michael J, Morrey Mark E, Abdel Matthew P, Bydon Mohamad, Qu Wenchun, Larson Annalise N, van Wijnen Andre J, Nassr Ahmad,



(10) Coexistence of Trisomy 13 and SRY (-) XX Ovotesticular Disorder of Sex Development.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29220612
Publication Date : //
Ovotesticular disorder of sex development (OT-DSD) is a rare disorder of sexual differentiation characterized by the presence of both testicular and ovarian tissue in an individual and the majority of cases have been reported with 46,XX karyotype. In 46,XX cases, testicular differentiation may occur due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or to an autosome.

Authors : Ürel Demir Gizem, Doğan Özlem Akgün, Şimşek Kiper Pelin Özlem, Utine Gülen Eda, Boduroğlu Koray, Gucer Safak, Alikaşifoğlu Mehmet,