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Rabbit C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Elisa Kit (CNP

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[#E04C0339] Rabbit C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Elisa Kit (CNP


E04C0339 | Rabbit C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Elisa Kit (CNP, 96 Tests/kit
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(1) Noninvasive imaging of focal atherosclerotic lesions using fluorescence molecular tomography.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25389566
Publication Date : //
Insights into the etiology of stroke and myocardial infarction suggest that rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaque is the precipitating event. Clinicians lack tools to detect lesion instability early enough to intervene, and are often left to manage patients empirically, or worse, after plaque rupture. Noninvasive imaging of the molecular events signaling prerupture plaque progression has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction and stroke by allowing early intervention. Here, we demonstrate proof-of-principle in vivo molecular imaging of C-type natriuretic peptide receptor in focal atherosclerotic lesions in the femoral arteries of New Zealand white rabbits using a custom built fiber-based, fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) system. Longitudinal imaging showed changes in the fluorescence signal intensity as the plaque progressed in the air-desiccated vessel compared to the uninjured vessel, which was validated by ex vivo tissue studies. In summary, we demonstrate the potential of FMT for noninvasive detection of molecular events leading to unstable lesions heralding plaque rupture.

Authors : Maji Dolonchampa, Solomon Metasebya, Nguyen Annie, Pierce Richard A, Woodard Pamela K, Akers Walter J, Achilefu Samuel, Culver Joseph P, Abendschein Dana R, Shokeen Monica,

(2) Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide is degraded by a metalloproteinase in the rat kidney.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24346109
Publication Date : //
Our previous study demonstrated that the concentration of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) was markedly higher than that of atrial NP (ANP) in rabbit plasma, indicating that DNP has a different metabolic rate from other NPs. Therefore, the metabolic characteristics of DNP in mammals require further analysis. The stabilities of NPs were determined by incubating 125I‑labeled ANP, brain NP (BNP), C‑type NP (CNP) and DNP at 37˚C for 1, 2 and 4 h, and analyzing their profiles by reversed‑phase high‑performance liquid chromatography. 125I‑labeled ANP, BNP and CNP were quickly degraded in rat plasma, while 125I‑labeled DNP was stable for 4 h. The relative stability of the peptides following incubation in rat plasma followed the rank order of: DNP>ANP≥BNP>CNP. Organs were also examined for the degradation of DNP, including the spleen, kidney, liver, heart and lung. The physiological target organ for the degradation of DNP was observed to be the kidney. Furthermore, degradation of DNP in the kidney was attenuated by phenanthroline, a metalloproteinase inhibitor. Therefore, these results indicate that DNP has a longer stability in plasma and that it may have strong therapeutic applications in cardiac disease.

Authors : Kim Soo Mi, Kim Sun Young, Kim Suhn Hee, Kim Sung Zoo,

(3) Substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of rabbit 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23995665
Publication Date : //
In this study, we examined the substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of rabbit 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C5), which plays a role in the termination of pregnancy by progesterone inactivation. AKR1C5 moderately reduced the 3-keto group of only 5α-dihydrosteroids with 17β- or 20α/β-hydroxy group among 3-ketosteroids. In contrast, the enzyme reversibly and efficiently catalyzed the reduction of various 17- and 20-ketosteroids, including estrogen precursors (dehydroepiandrosterone, estrone and 5α-androstan-3β-ol-17-one) and tocolytic 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione. In addition to the progesterone inactivation, the formation of estrogens and metabolism of the tocolytic steroid by AKR1C5 may be related to its role in rabbit parturition. AKR1C5 also reduced various non-steroidal carbonyl compounds, including isatin, an antagonist of the C-type natriuretic peptide receptor, and 4-oxo-2-nonenal, suggesting its roles in controlling the bioactive isatin and detoxification of cytotoxic aldehydes. AKR1C5 was potently and competitively inhibited by flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin, suggesting that its activity is affected by ingested flavonoids.

Authors : Endo Satoshi, Arai Yuki, Hara Akira, Kitade Yukio, Bunai Yasuo, El-Kabbani Ossama, Matsunaga Toshiyuki,

(4) Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide regulates the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel activity by the phosphorylation of α1c proteins.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22366884
Publication Date : //
Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), a new member of the natriuretic peptide family, is structurally similar to atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides. However, the effects of DNP on the cardiac function are poorly defined. In the present study, we examined the effect of DNP on the cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels in rabbit ventricular myocytes. DNP inhibited the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) in a concentration dependent manner with a IC(50) of 25.5 nM, which was blocked by an inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG), KT5823 (1 μM). DNP did not affect the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation of I(Ca,L). The α(1c) subunit of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channel proteins was phosphorylated by the treatment of DNP (1 μM), which was completely blocked by KT5823 (1 μM). Finally, DNP also caused the shortening of action potential duration in rabbit ventricular tissue by 22.3 ± 4.2% of the control (n = 6), which was completely blocked by KT5823 (1 μM). These results clearly indicate that DNP inhibits the L-type Ca(2+) channel activity by phosphorylating the Ca(2+) channel protein via PKG activation.

Authors : Park Seon-Ah, Kim Tae-Geun, Han Myung-Kwan, Ha Ki-Chan, Kim Sung-Zoo, Kwak Yong-Geun,

(5) [Vasodilatory effects of CNP on aortic arteries of rabbits].[TOP]

Pubmed ID :21302437
Publication Date : //
To investigate the mechanism of vasodilatory effects of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP).

Authors : Li Chen, Li Qi-yong, Liao Shi-ping, Jiang Rong-jian, Kong Hong, Lai Jin-chuan, Cheng Biao, Shu Yan,

(6) Presence of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide and its binding to NPR-A receptor in rabbit kidney.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :21130122
Publication Date : //
Natriuretic peptides help to maintain sodium and fluid volume homeostasis in a healthy cardio-renal environment. Since the identification of Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) as a new member of the natriuretic peptide family, DNP has been considered as an important regulator of natriuresis and dieresis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the presence of immunoreactive Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) and its specific receptor in rabbit. DNP was detected in heart, kidney, liver, brain, and plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA). DNP contents of cardiac atrium and ventricle, renal cortex and medulla, liver, and brain were 1.42 ± 0.15, 1.0 6 ± 0.08, 2.55 ± 0.21, 1.81 ± 0.16, 1.36 ± 0.22, and 0.69 ± 0.15 pg/mg of wet weight, respectively. The concentration of DNP in plasma was 235.44 ± 15.44 pg/ml. By quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography, specific ¹²⁵I-DNP binding sites were revealed in glomeruli, interlobular artery, acuate artery, vasa recta bundle, and inner medulla of the kidney with an apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) of 0.29 ± 0.05, 0.36 ± 0.03, 0.84 ± 0.19, 1.18 ± 0.23, and 10.91 ± 1.59 nM, respectively. Basal rate of 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production by particulate guanylyl cyclase (GC) activation of glomerular membranes was basally 13.40 ± 1.70 pmol/mg protein/min. DNP caused an increment of cGMP production in similar magnitude to that caused by ANP, BNP, and urodilatin, while the production of cGMP by CNP was significantly lower than that by DNP. Our results show that plasma levels of DNP were higher when compared to other tissues. DNP produces cGMP via the NPR-A receptor subtype in the kidney, similarly to ANP and BNP, suggesting that plasma DNP could have similar functions as ANP and BNP.

Authors : Kim Soo Mi, Kim Yoon Ah, Kim Sun Young, Kim Suhn Hee, Cho Kyung Woo, Kim Sung Zoo,

(7) Molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaque with (64)Cu-labeled natriuretic peptide and PET.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :20008978
Publication Date : //
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. PET has the potential to provide information on the biology and metabolism of atherosclerotic plaques. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have potent antiproliferative and antimigratory effects on vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs) and, in atherosclerosis, participate in vascular remodeling, in which the expression of NP clearance receptors (NPR-Cs) is upregulated both in endothelium and in VSMCs.

Authors : Liu Yongjian, Abendschein Dana, Woodard Geoffrey E, Rossin Raffaella, McCommis Kyle, Zheng Jie, Welch Michael J, Woodard Pamela K,

(8) Effects of natriuretic peptides on intracavernous pressure and blood pressure in conscious rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :18624958
Publication Date : //
Natriuretic peptides activate particulate guanylyl cyclases and have been shown to induce penile erection in rats, rabbits, and humans.

Authors : Aizawa Naoki, Ishizuka Osamu, Ogawa Teruyuki, Mizusawa Hiroya, Igawa Yasuhiko, Nishizawa Osamu, Andersson Karl-Erik,

(9) Altered role of C-type natriuretic peptide-activated pGC-cGMP-PDE3-cAMP signaling in hyperthyroid beating rabbit atria.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :17531330
Publication Date : //
The role of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in the pathophysiology of atrial function in hyperthyroidism has not been defined. This study was to define the role of CNP-activated particulate (p) guanylyl cyclase (GC)-cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE)3 signaling in the regulation of cAMP levels and contractile and secretory functions in the atria from hyperthyroid rabbits. Experiments were performed in perfused beating rabbit atria. CNP was used to activate pGC. In euthyroid atria from sham-treated rabbits, CNP (100 nM) increased cGMP and cAMP efflux by 176.7+/-17.7 and 55.3+/-10.0%, respectively. CNP decreased stroke volume and pulse pressure and ANP release by 51+/-7 and 41+/-2 and 60.4+/-3.2%, respectively. Pretreatment with milrinone blocked the CNP-induced increase of cAMP but without significant changes in decrease of atrial dynamics and ANP release. In hyperthyroid atria, CNP-induced increase of cGMP levels was accentuated, while CNP-induced increase of cAMP was attenuated. The gain of cAMP, i.e., change in cAMP efflux concentration in terms of cGMP was attenuated in the hyperthyroid compared to euthyroid atria. CNP rather increased atrial dynamics in hyperthyroid atria instead of decrease. CNP-induced decrease in atrial ANP release was attenuated. Pretreatment with milrinone blocked the CNP-induced increase of cAMP levels concomitantly with a decrease of atrial dynamics. The present study demonstrates that altered role of CNP-activated pGC-cGMP-PDE3-cAMP signaling is involved in the pathophysiology of hyperthyroid heart.

Authors : Wen Jin Fu, Quan He Xiu, Zhou Guang Hai, Cho Kyung Woo,