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Porcine Epidemic Encephalitis B Ab ELISA kit, 192 tests Control Disease (Serum)

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[#AE-200160-2] Porcine Epidemic Encephalitis B Ab ELISA kit, 192 tests Control Disease (Serum)


AE-200160-2 | Porcine Epidemic Encephalitis B Ab ELISA kit, 192 tests Control Disease (Serum), 2x96 kit
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(1) Isolation and full-genome sequences of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype I strains from Cambodian human patients, mosquitoes and pigs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28840803
Publication Date : //
Japanese encephalitis remains the most important cause of viral encephalitis in humans in several southeast Asian countries, including Cambodia, causing at least 65 000 cases of encephalitis per year. This vector-borne viral zoonosis - caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) - is considered to be a rural disease and is transmitted by mosquitoes, with birds and pigs being the natural reservoirs, while humans are accidental hosts. In this study we report the first two JEV isolations in Cambodia from human encephalitis cases from two studies on the aetiology of central nervous system disease, conducted at the two major paediatric hospitals in the country. We also report JEV isolation from Culextritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes and from pig samples collected in two farms, located in peri-urban and rural areas. Out of 11 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-positive original samples, we generated full-genome sequences from 5 JEV isolates. Five additional partial sequences of the JEV NS3 gene from viruses detected in five pigs and one complete coding sequence of the envelope gene of a strain identified in a pig were generated. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that JEV detected in Cambodia belonged to genotype I and clustered in two clades: genotype I-a, mainly comprising strains from Thailand, and genotype I-b, comprising strains from Vietnam that dispersed northwards to China. Finally, in this study, we provide proof that the sequenced JEV strains circulate between pigs, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and humans in the Phnom Penh vicinity.

Authors : Duong Veasna, Choeung Rithy, Gorman Christopher, Laurent Denis, Crabol Yoann, Mey Channa, Peng Borin, Di Francesco Juliette, Hul Vibol, Sothy Heng, Santy Ky, Richner Beat, Pommier Jean-David, Sorn San, Chevalier Véronique, Buchy Philippe, de Lamballerie Xavier, Cappelle Julien, Horwood Paul Francis, Dussart Philippe,

(2) Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection Rate and Detection of Genotype I From Culex tritaeniorhynchus Collected From Jiangsu, China.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28509619
Publication Date : //
Information regarding the infection rate and genotype shifts for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are important for JE vaccine application. In Jiangsu province, China, which is one of the provinces with a high prevalence of JE, JEV infection in swine and mosquitoes in certain cities has only been investigated in 2008-2009. Lianyungang City has one of the highest numbers of JE cases in Jiangsu province, and it has a high risk of JEV invasion via migrant birds. JEV infection in vectors in Lianyungang City, which has urban and rural parts, has not been investigated. In 2015-2016, we collected mosquitoes in cowsheds with ultraviolet light traps and detected JEV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method in Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Xintan village, Xuzhuang village, and Xiaogaozhuang village in Lianyungang City, China. The proportion of positive pools, which is calculated by the number of infected pools to the total number of pools tested in these villages, were 16.67%, 20.00%, and 4.17%, respectively, and the minimum infection rates, which is calculated as the ratio of the number of positive pools to the total number of mosquitoes tested, were 3.33‰, 4.00‰, and 0.83‰, respectively. Four JEV strains from positive samples were coded as LYG-1, LYG-2, LYG-3, and LYG-4, and the complete E genes were sequenced. Furthermore, the complete genome of LYG-3 was sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the four JEV strains belonged to genotype I-b. This is the first report of genotype I JEV strain in Jiangsu province. The high JEV infection rate in Culex tritaeniorhynchus indicated a high risk of JE reemergence in Lianyungang. The detected JEV strains may have similar antigenicity to that of SA14-14-2 according to molecular characters. These findings suggest that the vaccine can still be effective in Lianyungang.

Authors : Chu Hongliang, Wu Zhiming, Chen Hongna, Li Chunxiao, Guo Xiaoxia, Liu Ran, Wang Gang, Zhou Minghao, Zhao Tongyan,

(3) Structure-activity relationships of nucleoside analogues for inhibition of tick-borne encephalitis virus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27476046
Publication Date : //
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) represents one of the most serious arboviral neuro-infections in Europe and northern Asia. As no specific antiviral therapy is available at present, there is an urgent need for efficient drugs to treat patients with TBE virus (TBEV) infection. Using two standardised in vitro assay systems, we evaluated a series of 29 nucleoside derivatives for their ability to inhibit TBEV replication in cell lines of neuronal as well as extraneural origin. The series of tested compounds included 2'-C- or 2'-O-methyl substituted nucleosides, 2'-C-fluoro-2'-C-methyl substituted nucleosides, 3'-O-methyl substituted nucleosides, 3'-deoxynucleosides, derivatives with 4'-C-azido substitution, heterobase modified nucleosides and neplanocins. Our data demonstrate a relatively stringent structure-activity relationship for modifications at the 2', 3', and 4' nucleoside positions. Whereas nucleoside derivatives with the methylation at the C2' position or azido modification at the C4'position exerted a strong TBEV inhibition activity (EC50 from 0.3 to 11.1 μM) and low cytotoxicity in vitro, substitutions of the O2' and O3' positions led to a complete loss of anti-TBEV activity (EC50 > 50 μM). Moreover, some structural modifications of the heterobase moiety resulted in a high increase of cytotoxicity in vitro. High antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity of C2' methylated or C4' azido substituted pharmacophores suggest that such compounds might represent promising candidates for further development of potential therapeutic agents in treating TBEV infection.

Authors : Eyer Luděk, Šmídková Markéta, Nencka Radim, Neča Jiří, Kastl Tomáš, Palus Martin, De Clercq Erik, Růžek Daniel,

(4) Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Structural Proteins Are the Primary Viral Determinants of Non-Viraemic Transmission between Ticks whereas Non-Structural Proteins Affect Cytotoxicity.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27341437
Publication Date : //
Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT) between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs) and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS), Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe), respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions) demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.

Authors : Khasnatinov Maxim A, Tuplin Andrew, Gritsun Dmitri J, Slovak Mirko, Kazimirova Maria, Lickova Martina, Havlikova Sabina, Klempa Boris, Labuda Milan, Gould Ernest A, Gritsun Tamara S,

(5) Host-feeding patterns of mosquito species in Germany.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27259984
Publication Date : //
Mosquito-borne pathogens are of growing importance in many countries of Europe including Germany. At the same time, the transmission cycles of most mosquito-borne pathogens (e.g. viruses or filarial parasites) are not completely understood. There is especially a lack of knowledge about the vector capacity of the different mosquito species, which is strongly influenced by their host-feeding patterns. While this kind of information is important to identify the relevant vector species, e.g. to direct efficient control measures, studies about the host-feeding patterns of mosquito species in Germany are scarce and outdated.

Authors : Börstler Jessica, Jöst Hanna, Garms Rolf, Krüger Andreas, Tannich Egbert, Becker Norbert, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Lühken Renke,

(6) Phylogeography of Japanese encephalitis virus: genotype is associated with climate.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24009790
Publication Date : //
The circulation of vector-borne zoonotic viruses is largely determined by the overlap in the geographical distributions of virus-competent vectors and reservoir hosts. What is less clear are the factors influencing the distribution of virus-specific lineages. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most important etiologic agent of epidemic encephalitis worldwide, and is primarily maintained between vertebrate reservoir hosts (avian and swine) and culicine mosquitoes. There are five genotypes of JEV: GI-V. In recent years, GI has displaced GIII as the dominant JEV genotype and GV has re-emerged after almost 60 years of undetected virus circulation. JEV is found throughout most of Asia, extending from maritime Siberia in the north to Australia in the south, and as far as Pakistan to the west and Saipan to the east. Transmission of JEV in temperate zones is epidemic with the majority of cases occurring in summer months, while transmission in tropical zones is endemic and occurs year-round at lower rates. To test the hypothesis that viruses circulating in these two geographical zones are genetically distinct, we applied Bayesian phylogeographic, categorical data analysis and phylogeny-trait association test techniques to the largest JEV dataset compiled to date, representing the envelope (E) gene of 487 isolates collected from 12 countries over 75 years. We demonstrated that GIII and the recently emerged GI-b are temperate genotypes likely maintained year-round in northern latitudes, while GI-a and GII are tropical genotypes likely maintained primarily through mosquito-avian and mosquito-swine transmission cycles. This study represents a new paradigm directly linking viral molecular evolution and climate.

Authors : Schuh Amy J, Ward Melissa J, Brown Andrew J Leigh, Barrett Alan D T,

(7) [Changes in the reproduction of tick-borne encephalitis virus in cell cultures].[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22834147
Publication Date : //
The currently used tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccines are based on the inactivation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of Far Eastern or West European genetic types from the primary cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since the WHO recommends that vaccines should be designed using continuous cell cultures rather than chick embryos as a substrate, this investigation has compared the infection of continuous monolayer SPEV, Vero E6, and vaccine line Vero (B) cell cultures with TBEV strains of the Siberian and Far Eastern genetic types dominating in the endemic regions of Russia. After cell infection with Far Eastern (Sofyin and 205 strains) or Siberian (Aina, 2530, 2689, and 2703 strains) TBEV genetic types, the viable TBEV titers reached 2.8 Ig CPD50 for Vero (B) cells, 5.5 Ig CPD50 for Vero E6 cells, and up to 9 Ig CPD50 for SPEV cells. The quantitative scores of TBEV E antigen in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and genome equivalents by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by real-time PCR, permitted one to estimate as high as 108 virions in 1 ml of culture fluid, which corresponded to those of the microscopic observations of CPD for SPEV cells and substantially exceeded the values for Vero E6 cells, and for Vero (B) cells in particular. The data of TBEV strain titration, EIA, and realtime reverse-transcription PCR suggest that the Russian vaccine Vero (B) cell line defined as meeting the WHO requirements, as well as Vero E6 cells may be used to design tick-borne encephalitis vaccine.

Authors : Morozova O V, Grishechkin A E, Bakhvalova V N, Isaeva E I, Podcherniaeva R Ia,

(8) Development of a fluorescent-intercalating-dye-based reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of seasonal Japanese B encephalitis outbreaks in pigs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22573187
Publication Date : //
The standardization and validation of a one-step, single-tube, accelerated fluorescent-intercalating-dye-based reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the NS3 gene of Japanese B encephalitis virus (JEV) is described for rapid, simple, and high-throughput detection of JEV. The amplification can be completed in 35 min under isothermal conditions at 63°C by employing a set of six primers targeting the NS3 gene of JEV. The RT-LAMP assay described demonstrated high sensitivity for detecting JEV, with a detection limit in swine samples of 8.13 PFU/ml. The specificity of the selected primer sets was established by cross-reactivity studies with pathogens that exhibit similar clinical signs and testing of samples from healthy animals. The clinical applicability of the RT-LAMP assay was validated using either spiked samples or samples from seasonal outbreaks. The comparative evaluation of the RT-LAMP assay revealed 79.59 % concordance with conventional RT-PCR targeting the E gene of JEV. The RT-LAMP assay reported here is a valuable tool for rapid real-time and high-throughput seasonal infection surveillance and quarantine after outbreak through blood sampling by using ordinary real-time PCR thermocyclers without purchasing an expensive Loopamp real-time turbidimeter.

Authors : Tian C J, Lin Z X, He X M, Luo Q, Luo C B, Yu H Q, Chen R, Wu X W, Zhu D Z, Ren Z J, Bi Y Z, Ji J,

(9) [The prevalence characteristic and prevention strategy of Japanese B Encephalitis in Henan province].[TOP]

Pubmed ID :20654146
Publication Date : //
To analyze the prevalence trend, prevalence characteristics and influence factors of Japanese B Encephalitis (JE) in Henan province.

Authors : Tang Xiao-yan, Zhang Yan-ping, Xu Bian-li, Li Xing-le,

(10) Non-hemagglutinating flaviviruses: molecular mechanisms for the emergence of new strains via adaptation to European ticks.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :19802385
Publication Date : //
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes human epidemics across Eurasia. Clinical manifestations range from inapparent infections and fevers to fatal encephalitis but the factors that determine disease severity are currently undefined. TBEV is characteristically a hemagglutinating (HA) virus; the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes tentatively reflects virion receptor/fusion activity. However, for the past few years many atypical HA-deficient strains have been isolated from patients and also from the natural European host tick, Ixodes persulcatus. By analysing the sequences of HA-deficient strains we have identified 3 unique amino acid substitutions (D67G, E122G or D277A) in the envelope protein, each of which increases the net charge and hydrophobicity of the virion surface. Therefore, we genetically engineered virus mutants each containing one of these 3 substitutions; they all exhibited HA-deficiency. Unexpectedly, each genetically modified non-HA virus demonstrated increased TBEV reproduction in feeding Ixodes ricinus, not the recognised tick host for these strains. Moreover, virus transmission efficiency between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on mice was also intensified by each substitution. Retrospectively, the mutation D67G was identified in viruses isolated from patients with encephalitis. We propose that the emergence of atypical Siberian HA-deficient TBEV strains in Europe is linked to their molecular adaptation to local ticks. This process appears to be driven by the selection of single mutations that change the virion surface thus enhancing receptor/fusion function essential for TBEV entry into the unfamiliar tick species. As the consequence of this adaptive mutagenesis, some of these mutations also appear to enhance the ability of TBEV to cross the human blood-brain barrier, a likely explanation for fatal encephalitis. Future research will reveal if these emerging Siberian TBEV strains continue to disperse westwards across Europe by adaptation to the indigenous tick species and if they are associated with severe forms of TBE.

Authors : Khasnatinov Maxim A, Ustanikova Katarina, Frolova Tatiana V, Pogodina Vanda V, Bochkova Nadezshda G, Levina Ludmila S, Slovak Mirko, Kazimirova Maria, Labuda Milan, Klempa Boris, Eleckova Elena, Gould Ernest A, Gritsun Tamara S,