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Plant Indole-3-acetic acid ,IAA ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E09910Pl] Plant Indole-3-acetic acid ,IAA ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E09910Pl | Plant Indole-3-acetic acid ,IAA ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Spatio-temporal profiling of abscisic acid, indoleacetic acid and jasmonic acid in single rice seed during seed germination.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30119729
Publication Date : //
Abscisic acid (ABA), indoleacetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are plant hormones that were reported to play indispensable roles during seed germination. However, the interactions between these plant hormones during rice seed germination have still not been explored clearly. A sensitive method for determination of these plant hormones would be beneficial for the exploration of such interactions. Herein, we present a liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the quantification of ABA, IAA and JA in a single tissue of rice seed to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of these plant hormones during rice seed germination. To this end, an in silico strategy was developed in order to select a derivatization reagent with an ideal sensitivity of MS detection. This strategy was confirmed with experimental studies on three reagents N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC), N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMED), and N-(acridin-9-yl)-2-bromoacetamide (AYBA) and their formic acid derivatives. Our results from the in silico and LC-MS experiments show that AYBA is a good derivatization reagent for ABA, IAA and JA due to its reasonable ionization efficiency in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and excellent hydrophobicity. Finally, a sensitive LC-MS method upon AYBA was established for the determination of ABA, IAA and JA in germinated seeds. Good linearities for ABA, IAA, and JA were obtained with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.14-0.16 pg mL. The method exhibits good precisions with RSD 1.5%-13.8% (intra-day) and 1.2%-7.3% (inter-day) and acceptable recoveries (88.6%-102.9%, n = 6). Finally, the method was successfully employed in the spatio-temporal profiling of ABA, IAA and JA in a single tissue of rice seed during rice seed germination.

Authors : Xiao Hua-Ming, Cai Wen-Jing, Ye Tian-Tian, Ding Jun, Feng Yu-Qi,



(2) Insertion of a transposon-like sequence in the 5'-flanking region of the YUCCA gene causes the stony hard phenotype.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30118567
Publication Date : //
Melting-flesh peaches produce large amounts of ethylene, resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, stony hard peaches do not soften and produce little ethylene. The indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level in stony hard peaches is low at the late-ripening stage, resulting in low ethylene production and inhibition of fruit softening. To elucidate the mechanism of low IAA concentration in stony hard peaches, endogenous levels of IAA and IAA intermediates or metabolites were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Although the IAA level was low, the indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) level was high in stony hard peaches at the ripening stage. These results indicate that YUCCA activity is reduced in ripening stony hard peaches. The expression of one of the YUCCA isogenes in peach, PpYUC11, was suppressed in ripening stony hard peaches. Furthermore, an insertion of a transposon-like sequence was found upstream of the PpYUC11 gene in the 5'-flanking region. Analyses of the segregation ratio of the stony hard phenotype and genotype in F1 progenies indicated that the transposon-inserted allele of PpYUC11, hd-t, correlated with the stony hard phenotype. On the basis of the above findings, we propose that the IPyA pathway (YUCCA pathway) is the main auxin biosynthetic pathway in ripening peaches of 'Akatsuki' and 'Manami' cultivars. Because IAA is not supplied from storage forms, IAA de novo synthesis via the IPyA pathway (YUCCA pathway) in mesocarp tissues is responsible for auxin generation to support fruit softening, and its disruption can lead to the stony hard phenotype. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Authors : Tatsuki Miho, Soeno Kazuo, Shimada Yukihisa, Sawamura Yutaka, Suesada Yuko, Yaegaki Hideaki, Sato Akiko, Kakei Yusuke, Nakamura Ayako, Bai Songling, Moriguchi Takaya, Nakajima Naoko,



(3) Genome-wide identification of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family in pepper, its characterisation, and comprehensive expression profiling under environmental and phytohormones stress.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30104758
Publication Date : //
Auxin is an essential phytohormone that plays a crucial role in the growth and development of plants in stressful environments. Here, we analysed the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family, which produces auxin in pepper, and succeeded in identifying 27 putative members containing four conserved domains (I. II. III and IV) in their protein sequences. Sequence analysis, chromosomal mapping and motif prediction of all identified CaAux/IAA genes were performed. It was observed that these genes contained four conserved motifs divided into nine different groups and distributed across nine chromosomes in pepper plants. RNA-seq analysis revealed the organ specific expression of many CaAux/IAA genes. However, the majority of genes were expressed with high expression levels in the early stages of fruit development. However, the maximum expression level of the CA03g34540 gene was observed in the breaker stage. Moreover, thirteen CaAux/IAA genes were labelled as early responsive genes to various phytohormone and abiotic stresses. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis in response to pathogen inoculation (PepMoV, TMV strains P0/P1, and Phytophthora capsici) showed distinct expression profiles of all identified genes, suggesting the diverse expression nature of genes under these stress conditions. Overall, this study provides insight into the dynamic response of CaAux/IAA genes under environmental and phytohormones stress conditions, providing bases to further explore the importance of these genes through mutant/transgenic analysis in pepper.

Authors : Waseem Muhammad, Ahmad Fiaz, Habib Sidra, Li Zhengguo,



(4) Members of the GH3 Family of Proteins Conjugate 2,4-D and Dicamba with Asp and Glu Amino Acids.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30101323
Publication Date : //
Auxin homeostasis is a highly-regulated process that must be maintained to allow auxin to exert critical growth and developmental controls. Auxin conjugase and hydrolase family proteins play important roles in auxin homeostasis through means of storage, activation, inactivation, response inhibition, and degradation of auxins in plants. We systematically evaluated 60 GH3 proteins from diverse plant species for amino acid conjugation activity with the known substrates jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA). While our results largely confirm that Group II conjugases prefer IAA, we observed no clear substrate preference among Group III proteins and only three of 11 Group I proteins showed the expected preference for JA, indicating that sequence similarity does not always predict substrate specificity. Such sequence-substrate relationship held true when sequence similarity at the acyl acid binding site was used for grouping. Several GH3 proteins could catalyze formation of the potentially degradation-destined Asp and Glu conjugates of IAA and the synthetic auxins 2,4-D and dicamba. We found that 2,4-D-Asp/Glu conjugates, but not dicamba and IAA conjugates, were hydrolyzed in Arabidopsis and soybean by AtILL5- and AtIAR3-like amidohydrolases, releasing free 2,4-D in plant cells when conjugates were exogenously applied to seedlings. Dicamba-Asp or -Glu conjugates were not hydrolyzed in vivo in infiltrated plants nor in vitro with recombinant amidohydrolases. These findings could open the door for exploration of a dicamba herbicide tolerance strategy through conjugation.

Authors : Chiu Li-Wei, Heckert Matthew J, You You, Albanese Nicholas, Fenwick Tamara, Siehl Daniel L, Castle Linda A, Tao Yumin,



(5) Plant Stature Related receptor-like Kinanse2 (PSRK2) acts as a factor that determines stem elongation toward gibberellins response in rice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30096253
Publication Date : //
Gibberellins (GAs) are a family of plant hormones that are important to multiple aspects of plant growth and development, especially stem elongation. A PSRK2 was obtained through screening and identifying RLK dominant negative mutants. Phenotype of the loss-of-function mutants, psrk2-DN and psrk2-RNAi, showed that PSRK2 could influence the length of the uppermost and fourth internodes, indicating that PSRK2 might regulate cell division in the intercalary meristems and/or cell elongation in the internodes. Moreover, the expression pattern showed that PSRK2 was strongly expressed in the joined-nodes after the start-up of reproductive growth, but undetectable in leaves. PSRK2 expression was also found to be induced by GA, and PSRK2 was involved in GA signaling in cereal aleurone cells, and PSRK2 influence the relative length of the second leaf sheaths in seedling stage. These results indicate PSRK2 is a component of GA signaling pathway that controls stem elongation by negatively regulating GA responses.

Authors : Li Yixing, Tang Dongying, Li Li, Zhao Xiaoying, Lin Jianzhong, Liu Xuanming,



(6) Virus infection reduces shoot proliferation of in vitro stock cultures and ability of cryopreserved shoot tips to regenerate into normal shoots in 'Gala' apple (Malus × domestica).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30092171
Publication Date : //
Plant cryopreservation has provide secure back-ups of germplasm collections of vegetatively propagated crops. Often, recovery levels vary among laboratories when the same cryogenic procedures are used for the same genotypes. The present study investigated the effects of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) on shoot proliferation of in vitro stock cultures and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of 'Gala' apple. Results showed that virus infection reduced shoot proliferation of in vitro stock cultures and cell ability to regenerate normal shoots in cryopreserved shoot tips. Virus infection increased total soluble protein, total soluble sugar and free proline levels and altered endogenous levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and zeatin riboside (ZR), but induced severe cell membrane damage and caused alternation in mitochondria shape of the in vitro stock shoots. The altered levels of IAA and ZR were most likely to be responsible for the reduced shoot proliferation of in vitro stock culture. Cell damage and alternations in mitochondria shape in ASGV-infected shoot tips were most likely responsible for the reduced cell ability to regenerate normal shoots following cryopreservation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on effects of virus infection on recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips. Results reported here emphasize that healthy in vitro stock cultures should be used for cryopreservation.

Authors : Wang Min-Rui, Hao Xin-Yi, Zhao Lei, Cui Zhen-Hua, Volk Gayle M, Wang Qiao-Chun,



(7) A chemically induced proximity system engineered from the plant auxin signaling pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30079194
Publication Date : //
Methods based on chemically induced proximity (CIP) serve as powerful tools to control cellular processes in a temporally specific manner. To expand the repertoire of CIP systems available for studies of cellular processes, we engineered the plant auxin signaling pathway to create a new indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) based CIP method. Auxin-induced protein degradation that occurs in the natural pathway was eliminated in the system. The new IAA based method is both readily inducible and reversible, and used to control the production of therapeutic proteins that induced the apoptosis of cancer cells. The approach is also orthogonal to existing CIP systems and used to construct a biological Boolean logic gate controlling gene expression system. We believe that the new CIP method will be applicable to the artificial control and dissection of complex cellular functions.

Authors : Zhao Weiye, Nguyen Huong, Zeng Guihua, Gao Dan, Yan Hao, Liang Fu-Sen,



(8) Systematic identification and expression pattern analysis of the Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30077919
Publication Date : //
Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) and auxin response transcription factor (ARF) genes are key components of plant auxin signaling. However, little is known about the Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). In this paper, we first identified 35 putative PeIAAs and 24 PeARFs in the moso bamboo genome. These genes were clustered into two major groups (A and B) and four groups (I-IV), respectively, based on phylogenetic analysis. Next, analyses of evolutionary patterns and divergence demonstrated that both the PeIAAs and PeARFs experienced a large-scale duplication event around 15 million years ago (MYA). The divergence times of the two gene families were 31 MYA between moso bamboo and rice, and 46 MYA between moso bamboo and maize. Furthermore, the expression profiling of PeIAA and PeARF genes in various tissues and developmental stages revealed tissue-specific expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected PeIAA and PeARF genes. And then a comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under exogenous hormone treatment by qRT-PCR. Many PeIAAs and PeARFs showed differential expression in response to IAA treatment. Subcellular localization results show that PeIAA8 is a nuclear localization protein. Most importantly, we demonstrate that single moso bamboo ARF can interact with multiple Aux/IAA proteins and vice versa. Collectively, the detailed analyses presented here will help in understanding the roles of the PeIAA and PeARF gene families and contribute to further research on their biological functions during development in moso bamboo.

Authors : Li Fei, Wu Min, Liu Huanlong, Gao Yameng, Xiang Yan,



(9) Mutualistic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari increases root aerenchyma formation through auxin-mediated ethylene accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30055345
Publication Date : //
The fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari can improve nitrification rates and alter the abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizers in the soil rhizosphere of rice. Aerenchyma is related to oxygen transport efficiency and contributes to the enhanced rhizospheric nitrification under flooding conditions. However, whether and how P. liquidambari affects aerenchyma formation is largely unknown. We therefore conducted pot and hydroponic experiments to investigate the changes of aerenchyma area, ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in rice with or without P. liquidambari infection. Our results showed that the larger aerenchyma area in rice roots with P. liquidambari inoculation was associated with markedly up-regulated expression of genes related to aerenchyma formation. Meanwhile, P. liquidambari inoculation substantially elevated root porosity (POR) and radial oxygen loss (ROL), leading to the enhancement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) under pot condition. Besides, P. liquidambari significantly increased IAA and ethylene levels in rice by stimulating the expression of genes involved in auxin and ethylene biosyntheses. Furthermore, auxin that partly acting upstream of ethylene signalling played an essential role in P. liquidambari-promoted aerenchyma formation. These results verified the direct contribution of P. liquidambari in promoting aerenchyma formation via the accumulation of IAA and ethylene in rice roots, which provides a constructive suggestion for improving hypoxia tolerance through plant-endophyte interactions.

Authors : Hu Li-Yan, Li Dan, Sun Kai, Cao Wei, Fu Wan-Qiu, Zhang Wei, Dai Chuan-Chao,



(10) Characterization of gene expression in the indole 3-acetic acid-degrading soil bacterium LF7.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30054366
Publication Date : //
We show for soil bacterium LF7 that possession of an ndole 3-cetic acid atabolic () gene cluster is causatively linked to the ability to utilize the plant hormone indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) as a carbon and energy source. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling by mRNA sequencing revealed that these genes, chromosomally arranged as and coding for the transformation of IAA to catechol, were the most highly induced (>29-fold) among the relatively few (<1%) differentially expressed genes in response to IAA. Also highly induced and immediately downstream of the cluster were genes for a Major Facilitator Superfamily protein () and enzymes of the β-ketoadipate pathway (), which channels catechol into central metabolism. This entire gene set was constitutively expressed in a deletion mutant, confirming the role of , annotated as coding for a MarR-type regulator and located upstream of , as a repressor of gene expression. In LF7 carrying the DNA region upstream of fused to a promoterless gene, green fluorescence accumulated in response to IAA at concentrations as low as 1.6 μM. The promoter region also responded to chlorinated IAA, but not other aromatics tested, indicating a narrow substrate specificity. In a deletion mutant, expression from the promoter region was constitutive, consistent with the predicted role of as a repressor. Deletion analysis revealed putative -35/-10 promoter sequences upstream of , as well as a possible binding site for the IacR repressor.Bacterial genes code for the enzymatic conversion of the plant hormone indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) to catechol. Here, we demonstrate that the genes of soil bacterium LF7 allow growth on IAA by co-arrangement and co-expression with a set of and genes that code for complete conversion of catechol to central metabolites. This work contributes in a number of novel and significant ways to our understanding of gene biology in bacteria from (non-)plant environments. More specifically, we show that LF7's response to IAA involves de-repression of the MarR-type transcriptional regulator IacR, which is quite fast (less than 25 minutes upon IAA exposure), highly specific (only in response to IAA and chlorinated IAA, and with few genes other than and induced), relatively sensitive (low micromolar range), and seemingly tailored to exploit IAA as a source of carbon and energy.

Authors : Greenhut Isaac V, Slezak Beryl L, Leveau Johan H J,