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Plant hormone abscisic acid,ABA ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E09159Pl] Plant hormone abscisic acid,ABA ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E09159Pl | Plant hormone abscisic acid,ABA ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Response to Nitrogen Deficiency and Compensation on Physiological Characteristics, Yield Formation, and Nitrogen Utilization of Rice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30087689
Publication Date : //
Based on the theory of ecological crop nutrient deficiency and compensation effect, the nitrogen (N) deficiency at tillering stage and N compensation at young panicle differentiation stage in rice ( L.) was selected to study. Four N treatments were treated, and the effects of N deficiency and compensation were investigated on grain yield, N uptake and utilization and the physiological characteristics of rice. The results showed that the yield per plant presented an equivalent compensatory effect. Double N compensation led to superiority in the number of effective panicle per plant, increased the activity of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase. The content of endogenous growth-inhibitory hormone abscisic acid (ABA) decreased in the leaves, photosynthesis was enhanced, and the number of tillers per plant increased after double N compensation. During maturation stage, the panicle dry weigh in T1 (double N compensation at young panicle differentiation stage, after N deficiency at tillering stage) was higher than that in CK1 (constant supply of N throughout different stages of growth) and the biomass per plant in T1 increased by 1.47% compared with CK1. N contents in all organs, N accumulation, and total N content were all higher in T1 during maturation stage. Moreover, N agronomic efficiency, N physiological efficiency, and N partial factor productivity were optimized for T1 and CK2 (constant N compensation at young panicle differentiation stage, after N deficiency at tillering stage) compared with CK1. This study contributes to the understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying the compensation of N deficiency in rice.

Authors : Xiong Qiangqiang, Tang Guoping, Zhong Lei, He Haohua, Chen Xiaorong,



(2) Low doses of triazine xenobiotics mobilize ABA and cytokinin regulations in a stress- and low-energy-dependent manner.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30080643
Publication Date : //
The extent of residual contaminations of pesticides through drift, run-off and leaching is a potential threat to non-target plant communities. Arabidopsis thaliana responds to low doses of the herbicide atrazine, and of its degradation products, desethylatrazine and hydroxyatrazine, not only in the long term, but also under conditions of short-term exposure. In order to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of low-dose responses and to decipher commonalities and specificities between different chemical treatments, parallel transcriptomic studies of the early effects of the atrazine-desethylatrazine-hydroxyatrazine chemical series were undertaken using whole-genome microarrays. All of the triazines under study produced coordinated and specific changes in gene expression. Hydroxyatrazine-responsive genes were mainly linked to root development, whereas atrazine and desethylatrazine mostly affected molecular signaling networks implicated in stress and hormone responses. Analysis of signaling-related genes, promoter sites and shared-function interaction networks highlighted the involvement of energy-, stress-, abscisic acid- and cytokinin-regulated processes, and emphasized the importance of cold-, heat- and drought-related signaling in the perception of low doses of triazines. These links between low-dose xenobiotic impacts and stress-hormone crosstalk pathways give novel insights into plant-pesticide interactions and plant-pollution interactions that are essential for toxicity evaluation in the context of environmental risk assessment.

Authors : Alberto Diana, Couée Ivan, Pateyron Stéphanie, Sulmon Cécile, Gouesbet Gwenola,



(3) Modulation of Phytohormone Signaling: A Primary Function of Flavonoids in Plant-Environment Interactions.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30079075
Publication Date : //
The old observation that plants preferentially synthesize flavonoids with respect to the wide range of phenylpropanoid structures when exposed to high doses of UV-B radiation has supported the view that flavonoids are primarily involved in absorbing the shortest solar wavelengths in photoprotection. However, there is compelling evidence that the biosynthesis of flavonoids is similarly upregulated in response to high photosynthetically active radiation in the presence or in the absence of UV-radiation, as well as in response to excess metal ions and photosynthetic redox unbalance. This supports the hypothesis that flavonoids may play prominent roles as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by light excess. These 'antioxidant' functions of flavonoids appears robust, as maintained between different life kingdoms, e.g., plants and animals. The ability of flavonoids to buffer stress-induced large alterations in ROS homeostasis and, hence, to modulate the ROS-signaling cascade, is at the base of well-known functions of flavonoids as developmental regulators in both plants and animals. There is both long and very recent evidence indeed that, in plants, flavonoids may strongly affect phytohormone signaling, e.g., auxin and abscisic acid signaling. This function is served by flavonoids in a very low (nM) concentration range and involves the ability of flavonoids to inhibit the activity of a wide range of protein kinases, including but not limited to mitogen-activated protein kinases, that operate downstream of ROS in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. For example, flavonoids inhibit the transport of auxin acting on serine-threonine PINOID (PID) kinases that regulate the localization of auxin efflux facilitators PIN-formed (PIN) proteins. Flavonoids may also determine auxin gradients at cellular and tissue levels, and the consequential developmental processes, by reducing auxin catabolism. Recent observations lead to the hypothesis that regulation/modulation of auxin transport/signaling is likely an ancestral function of flavonoids. The antagonistic functions of flavonoids on ABA-induced stomatal closure also offer novel hypotheses on the functional role of flavonoids in plant-environment interactions, in early as well as in modern terrestrial plants. Here, we surmise that the regulation of phytohormone signaling might have represented a primary function served by flavonols for the conquest of land by plants and it is still of major significance for the successful acclimation of modern terrestrial plants to a severe excess of radiant energy.

Authors : Brunetti Cecilia, Fini Alessio, Sebastiani Federico, Gori Antonella, Tattini Massimiliano,



(4) Roles of pepper bZIP protein CaDILZ1 and its interacting partner RING-type E3 ligase CaDSR1 in modulation of drought tolerance.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30051516
Publication Date : //
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a key role in the environmental stress response, especially induction of ABA- and stress-responsive genes and modulation of the stomatal aperture in response to drought stress. Here, we identified CaDILZ1 (Capsicum annuum Drought-Induced Leucine Zipper 1) belonging to subgroup D of the bZIP protein family; gene functions of this family in response to ABA and drought signaling still remain unknown. CaDILZ1 expression was significantly induced in pepper leaves after exposure to ABA, drought, and NaCl. The CaDILZ1 protein localized in the nucleus of plant cells. In response to drought stress, CaDILZ1-silenced pepper and CaDILZ1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant phenotypes, respectively, via altered ABA content, stomatal closure, and expression of ABA- and drought-responsive marker genes. We isolated the RING finger protein CaDSR1 (Capsicum annuum Drought Sensitive RING finger protein 1), which interacted with CaDILZ1 in the nucleus. The CaDSR1 protein exhibited E3 ligase activity and promoted CaDILZ1 degradation via the 26S proteasome pathway. Under drought stress conditions, CaDSR1-silenced pepper and CaDSR1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited contrasting phenotypes to those of CaDILZ1-silenced pepper and CaDILZ1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. Taken together, our data suggest that CaDSR1 and CaDILZ1 function in ABA-mediated drought stress signaling in pepper plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Authors : Lim Chae Woo, Baek Woonhee, Lee Sung Chul,



(5) Guard cell salicylic acid signaling is integrated into abscisic acid signaling via the Ca2+/CPK-dependent pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30037808
Publication Date : //
The phenolic hormone salicylic acid (SA) induces stomatal closure. It has been suggested that the SA signaling is integrated with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells, but the integration mechanism remains unclear. The Ca2+-independent protein kinase OST1 and Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are key for ABA-induced activation of slow-type (S-type) anion channel SLAC1 and stomatal closure. Here we show that SA-induced stomatal closure and SA activation of S-type anion channel are impaired in the CPK disruption mutant cpk3-2 cpk6-1, but not in OST1 disruption mutant ost1-3. We also found that the key phosphorylation sites of SLAC1 in ABA signaling, S59 and S120 are also important for SA signaling. Chemiluminescence-based detection of superoxide anion revealed that SA did not require CPK3 and CPK6 for induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Taken together, our results suggest that SA activates peroxidase-mediated ROS signal that is integrated into Ca2+/CPK-dependent ABA signaling branch, but not the OST1-dependent signaling branch in Arabidopsis guard cells.

Authors : Prodhan Md Yeasin, Munemasa Shintaro, Nahar Mst Nur-E-Nazmun, Nakamura Yoshimasa, Murata Yoshiyuki,



(6) Transcriptome analysis of abscisic acid induced 20E regulation in suspension cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30034984
Publication Date : //
D. Don is a medicinal plant rich in 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), alkaloids, and other active substances. In this study, the cell suspension was incubated for 7 days, followed by the analysis on the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on the regulation of 20E synthesis. Then suspension cells treated with 0.15 mg/l ABA were used as material, with the Illumina technology applied for transcriptome sequencing. Digital analysis on the gene expression profile was carried out on ABA treated and control samples, respectively. Finally, transcriptomics was applied to assess the molecular response of induced by ABA through applying transcriptomics by evaluating differentially expressed genes. The results suggested that ABA promoted 20E accumulation, while longer processing time caused cell browning. A total of 154 genes were significantly regulated after ABA treatment, with 99 up-regulated and 55 down-regulated, respectively. In addition to 20E-related pathways, the genes belonged to the ko00900 (terpenoid backbone biosynthesis) pathway (six differentially expressed genes [DEGs]), ko00100 (steroid biosynthesis) pathway (four DEGs), and ko00140 (steroid hormone biosynthesis) pathway (six DEGs). Providing a better understanding of the 20E biosynthetic pathway and its regulation, in particular in plants, this study is necessary.

Authors : Wang Yan-Chen, Yang Yue-Yue, Chi De-Fu,



(7) Comparative phosphoproteome analysis upon ethylene and abscisic acid treatment in Glycine max leaves.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29990770
Publication Date : //
Abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene play key roles in growth and development of plants. Several attempts have been made to investigate the ABA and ethylene-induced signaling in plants, however, the involvement of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in fine-tuning of the induced response has not been investigated much. Here, a phosphoproteomic analysis was carried out to identify the phosphoproteins in response to ABA, ethylene (ET) and combined ABA + ET treatments in soybean leaves. Phosphoproteome analysis led to the identification of 802 phosphopeptides, representing 422 unique protein groups. A comparative analysis led to the identification of 40 phosphosites that significantly changed in response to given hormone treatments. Functional annotation of the identified phosphoproteins showed that these were majorly involved in nucleic acid binding, signaling, transport and stress response. Localization prediction showed that 67% of the identified phosphoproteins were nuclear, indicating their potential involvement in gene regulation. Taken together, these results provide an overview of the ABA, ET and combined ABA + ET signaling in soybean leaves at phosphoproteome level.

Authors : Gupta Ravi, Min Cheol Woo, Meng Qingfeng, Agrawal Ganesh Kumar, Rakwal Randeep, Kim Sun Tae,



(8) Abscisic acid influences tillering by modulation of strigolactones in barley.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29982677
Publication Date : //
Strigolactones (SLs) represent a class of plant hormones that are involved in inhibiting shoot branching and in promoting abiotic stress responses. There is evidence that the biosynthetic pathways of SLs and abscisic acid (ABA) are functionally connected. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the interaction of SLs and ABA, and the relevance of this interaction for shoot architecture. Based on sequence homology, four genes (HvD27, HvMAX1, HvCCD7, and HvCCD8) involved in SL biosynthesis were identified in barley and functionally verified by complementation of Arabidopsis mutants or by virus-induced gene silencing. To investigate the influence of ABA on SLs, two transgenic lines accumulating ABA as a result of RNAi-mediated down-regulation of HvABA 8'-hydroxylase 1 and 3 were employed. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed higher ABA levels in root and stem base tissues in these transgenic lines. Both lines showed enhanced tiller formation and lower concentrations of 5-deoxystrigol in root exudates, which was detected for the first time as a naturally occurring SL in barley. Lower expression levels of HvD27, HvMAX1, HvCCD7, and HvCCD8 indicated that ABA suppresses SL biosynthesis, leading to enhanced tiller formation in barley.

Authors : Wang Hongwen, Chen Wanxin, Eggert Kai, Charnikhova Tatsiana, Bouwmeester Harro, Schweizer Patrick, Hajirezaei Mohammad R, Seiler Christiane, Sreenivasulu Nese, von Wirén Nicolaus, Kuhlmann Markus,



(9) Deciphering transcriptome profiles of tetraploid Artemisia annua plants with high artemisinin content.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29982168
Publication Date : //
To investigate on the effects of autopolyploidization on growth and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua, we performed a comprehensive transcriptomic characterization of diploid and induced autotetraploid A. annua. The polyploidization treatment not only enhanced photosynthetic capacity and endogenous contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA), oxidative stress, but increased the average level of artemisinin in tetraploids from 42.0 to 63.6%. The obvious phenotypic alterations in tetraploids were observed including shorter stems, larger size of stomata and glandular secretory trichomes (GSTs), larger leaves, more branches and roots. A total of 8763 (8.85%) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in autotetraploids and mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolic processes, cell wall organization and defense responses. Both the up-regulated expression of DNA methylation unigenes and enhanced level of DNA methylation in autotetraploids indicated a possible role of DNA methylation on transcriptomic remodeling and phenotypic alteration. The up-regulated genes were enriched in response to extracellular protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis and hormone stimulus for cell enlargement and phenotypic alteration. The genomic shock induced by chromosome duplication stimulated the expression of transcripts related to oxidative stress, biosynthesis and signal transduction of ABA and JA, and key enzymes in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, leading to the increased accumulation of artemisinin. This is the first transcriptomic research that identifies DEGs involved in the polyploidization of A. annua. The results provide novel information for understanding the complexity of polyploidization and for further identification of the factors and genes involve in artemisinin biosynthesis.

Authors : Xia Jing, Ma Yan Jun, Wang Yue, Wang Jian Wen,



(10) Defence signalling marker gene responses to hormonal elicitation differ between roots and shoots.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29977487
Publication Date : //
Phytohormones such as jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA) play a key role in regulation of plant immune responses to different attackers. Extensive research over recent years has led to the identification of molecular markers for specific hormonal-regulated defence pathways. However, most of our current knowledge on the regulation of plant immunity derives from studies focused on above-ground organs, mainly on the model plant . Therefore, it is unclear whether the paradigms based on experiments on above-ground organs are entirely transferable to roots. Here, we used the non-model plant to study the regulation dynamics of hormonal-related marker genes in both roots and shoots. These markers were identified in shoots after elicitation of the JA-, SA-, ET- or ABA-signalling pathways, and are commonly used to study induced responses. We assessed whether the regulation of those genes by hormonal elicitation differs between roots and shoots. To discern whether the differences in marker gene expression between roots and shoots are related to differences in hormone production or to differential responsiveness, we also measured actual hormone content in the treated tissue after elicitation. Our results show that some of the widely used markers did not show specific responsiveness to single hormone applications in . We further found that hormonal elicitation led to different response patterns of the molecular markers in shoots and roots. Our results suggest that the regulation of some hormonal-related marker genes in is organ specific and differs from the -derived paradigms.

Authors : Papadopoulou Galini V, Maedicke Anne, Grosser Katharina, van Dam Nicole M, Martínez-Medina Ainhoa,