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Plant hormone abscisic acid,ABA ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E09159Pl] Plant hormone abscisic acid,ABA ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E09159Pl | Plant hormone abscisic acid,ABA ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Effects of overproduced ethylene on the contents of other phytohormones and expression of their key biosynthetic genes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29783182
Publication Date : //
Ethylene is involved in regulation of various aspects of plant growth and development. Physiological and genetic analyses have indicated the existence of crosstalk between ethylene and other phytohormones, including auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), brassinosteroid (BR) and strigolactone (SL) in regulation of different developmental processes. However, the effects of ethylene on the biosynthesis and contents of these hormones are not fully understood. Here, we investigated how overproduction of ethylene may affect the contents of other plant hormones using the ethylene-overproducing mutant ethylene-overproducer 1 (eto1-1). The contents of various hormones and transcript levels of the associated biosynthetic genes in the 10-day-old Arabidopsis eto1-1 mutant and wild-type (WT) plants were determined and compared. Higher levels of CK and ABA, while lower levels of auxin, SA and GA were observed in eto1-1 plants in comparison with WT, which was supported by the up- or down-regulation of their biosynthetic genes. Although we could not quantify the BR and SL contents in Arabidopsis, we observed that the transcript levels of the potential rate-limiting BR and SL biosynthetic genes were increased in the eto1-1 versus WT plants, suggesting that BR and SL levels might be enhanced by ethylene overproduction. JA level was not affected by overproduction of ethylene, which might be explained by unaltered expression level of the proposed rate-limiting JA biosynthetic gene allene oxide synthase. Taken together, our results suggest that ET affects the levels of auxin, CK, ABA, SA and GA, and potentially BR and SL, by influencing the expression of genes involved in the rate-limiting steps of their biosynthesis.

Authors : Li Weiqiang, Nishiyama Rie, Watanabe Yasuko, Van Ha Chien, Kojima Mikiko, An Ping, Tian Lei, Tian Chunjie, Sakakibara Hitoshi, Tran Lam-Son Phan,



(2) Assay for abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase activity of cloned plant cytochrome P450 oxidases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29777680
Publication Date : //
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many processes, including response to drought, seed dormancy and abscission of leaves and fruits. For maintenance of ABA homeostasis, catabolism of ABA by 8'-hydroxylation and subsequent cyclisation to phaseic acid (PA) is crucial. However, detection of ABA 8'-hydroxylation activity is tedious. We present a simple and rapid method for detection of ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity by cloning cDNAs of interest and expressing the respective protein in yeast. Upon addition of ABA, PA is formed and subsequently quantified in the yeast cell culture supernatant by heart cutting 2D-HPLC or GC-MS.

Authors : Eggels Stella, Avramova Viktoriya, Schön Chris-Carolin, Poppenberger Brigitte, Rozhon Wilfried,



(3) Exploration of ABA Responsive miRNAs Reveals a New Hormone Signaling Crosstalk Pathway Regulating Root Growth of .[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29772702
Publication Date : //
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in the regulation of plant adaptation, seed germination, and root development in plants. However, the mechanism of ABA regulation of root development is still poorly understood, especially through the miRNA-mediated pathway Here, small RNA (sRNA)-seq and degradome-seq were used to analyze the miRNAs' responsive to ABA in the stems and roots of , a model tree species for abiotic stress-resistance research. In total, 255 unique mature sequences, containing 154 known miRNAs and 101 novel miRNAs were identified, among which 33 miRNAs and 54 miRNAs were responsive to ABA in the roots and stems, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of these miRNAs and their targets revealed a new hormone signaling crosstalk model of ABA regulation of root growth through miRNA-mediated pathways, such as peu-miR-n68 mediation of the crosstalk between ABA and the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway and peu-miR477b mediation of the crosstalk between ABA and Gibberellic acid (GA) signaling. Taken together, our genome-wide analysis of the miRNAs provides a new insight into the mechanism of ABA regulation of root growth in .

Authors : Lian Conglong, Yao Kun, Duan Hui, Li Qing, Liu Chao, Yin Weilun, Xia Xinli,



(4) Storage lipid accumulation is controlled by photoperiodic signal acting via regulators of growth cessation and dormancy in hybrid aspen.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29761498
Publication Date : //
The signalling pathways that control seasonal modulation of carbon metabolism in perennial plants are poorly understood. Using genetic, metabolic and natural variation approaches, we identify factors mediating photoperiodic control of storage lipid accumulation in the model tree hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). We characterized lipid accumulation in transgenic hybrid aspen with impaired photoperiodic and hormonal responses. Genome-wide association mapping was performed in Swedish aspen (P. tremula) genotypes to determine genetic loci associated with genotype variation in lipid content. Our data show that the storage lipid triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulates in cambial meristem and pith rays of aspen in response to photoperiodic signal controlling growth cessation and dormancy induction. We show that photoperiodic control of TAG accumulation is mediated by the FLOWERING LOCUS T/CONSTANS module, which also controls the induction of growth cessation. Hormonal and chromatin remodelling pathways also contribute to TAG accumulation by photoperiodic signal. Natural variation exists in lipid accumulation that is controlled by input from multiple loci. Our data shed light on how the control of storage metabolism is temporally coordinated with growth cessation and dormancy by photoperiodic signal, and reveals that storage lipid accumulation between seeds and perennating organs of trees may involve distinct regulatory circuits.

Authors : Grimberg Åsa, Lager Ida, Street Nathaniel R, Robinson Kathryn M, Marttila Salla, Mähler Niklas, Ingvarsson Pär K, Bhalerao Rishikesh P,



(5) The NAC Transcription Factor SlNAP2 Regulates Leaf Senescence and Fruit Yield in Tomato.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29760199
Publication Date : //
Leaf senescence is an essential physiological process in plants that supports the recycling of nitrogen and other nutrients to support the growth of developing organs, including young leaves, seeds and fruits. Thus, the regulation of senescence is crucial for evolutionary success in wild populations and for increasing yield in crops. Here we describe the influence of a NAC transcription factor, SlNAP2 (Solanum lycopersicum NAC-like, activated by apetala3/pistillata), that controls both leaf senescence and fruit yield in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlNAP2 expression increases during age-dependent and dark-induced leaf senescence. We demonstrate that SlNAP2 activates SlSAG113 (Solanum lycopersicum SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE 113), a homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana SAG113, chlorophyll degradation genes such as SlSGR1 (Solanum lycopersicum senescence-inducible chloroplast stay-green protein 1) and SlPAO (Solanum lycopersicum pheide a oxygenase), and other downstream targets by directly binding to their promoters, thereby promoting leaf senescence. Furthermore, SlNAP2 directly controls the expression of genes important for abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis Solanum lycopersicum 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (SlNCED1), transport Solanum lycopersicum ABC transporter G family member 40 (SlABCG40) and degradation Solanum lycopersicum ABA 8'-hydroxylase (SlCYP707A2), indicating that SlNAP2 has a complex role in establishing ABA homeostasis during leaf senescence. Inhibiting SlNAP2 expression in transgenic tomato plants impedes leaf senescence but enhances fruit yield and sugar content likely due to prolonged leaf photosynthesis in aging tomato plants. Our data indicate that SlNAP2 has a central role in controlling leaf senescence and fruit yield in tomato.

Authors : Ma Xuemin, Zhang Youjun, Turečková Veronika, Xue Gang-Ping, Fernie Alisdair R, Mueller-Roeber Bernd, Balazadeh Salma,



(6) The Antagonistic Action of Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin Signaling Mediates Drought Stress Response in Arabidopsis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29753021
Publication Date : //
As sessile organisms, plants encounter a variety of environmental stresses and must optimize their growth for survival. Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin antagonistically regulate many developmental processes and environmental stress responses in plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the antagonism remains poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrated that Sucrose nonfermenting1-related kinases SnRK2.2/2.3/2.6, the key kinases of ABA signaling pathway, directly interacted with and phosphorylated type-A response regulator 5 (ARR5), a negative regulator in cytokinin signaling. The phosphorylation of ARR5 at Ser residues by SnRK2s enhanced ARR5 protein stability. Accordingly, overexpression of ARR5 showed ABA hypersensitivity and drought tolerance, which could not be recapitulated by mimic non-phosphorylated ARR5. Moreover, type-B ARR1, 11, and 12 physically interacted with SnRK2s and repressed the kinase activity of SnRK2.6. The arr1,11,12 triple mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to ABA. Genetic analysis demonstrated that SnRK2s act upstream of ARR5 and downstream of ARR1,11,12 in mediating ABA response and drought tolerance. Together, this study unravels the antagonistic action underlying ABA and cytokinin signaling pathways, thus providing insights into how plants coordinate growth and stress response by integrating multiple hormone pathways under drought stress.

Authors : Huang Xiaozhen, Hou Lingyan, Meng Jingjing, You Huiwen, Li Zhen, Gong Zhizhong, Yang Shuhua, Shi Yiting,



(7) Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29751564
Publication Date : //
(PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar "Garrigues" onto the "GF305" peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting "Garrigues" onto "GF305" prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) and the gibberellins GA₃ and GA₄; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA₃ and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting "Garrigues" almond onto the PPV-inoculated "GF305" peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA₃ and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR), which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M) isolates.

Authors : Dehkordi Azam Nikbakht, Rubio Manuel, Babaeian Nadali, Albacete Alfonso, Martínez-Gómez Pedro,



(8) Mesophyll cells are the main site of abscisic acid biosynthesis in water-stressed leaves.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29735726
Publication Date : //
The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role in enhancing plant survival during water deficit. Recent molecular evidence suggests that ABA is synthesized in the phloem companion cells and guard cells. However, the nature of cell turgor and water status in these two cell types cannot easily account for the rapid, water status-triggered ABA biosynthesis observed in leaves. Here we utilize the unique foliar anatomies of an angiosperm (Hakea lissosperma) and of four conifer species (Saxegothaea conspicua, Podocarpus latifolius, Cephalotaxus harringtonii, and Amentotaxus formosana) in which the mesophyll can be isolated from the vascular tissue to identify the main site of ABA biosynthesis in water-stressed leaves. In all five species tested, considerable ABA biosynthesis occurred in mesophyll tissue that had been separated from vascular tissue. In addition, the removal of the epidermis from the mesophyll in two conifer species had no impact on the observed increase in ABA levels under water deficit. Our results suggest that mesophyll cells are the predominant location of water deficit-triggered ABA biosynthesis in the leaf.

Authors : McAdam Scott A M, Brodribb Timothy John,



(9) Wheat miRNA TaemiR408 Acts as an Essential Mediator in Plant Tolerance to Pi Deprivation and Salt Stress via Modulating Stress-Associated Physiological Processes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29720988
Publication Date : //
MicroRNAs (miRNA) families act as critical regulators for plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, we characterized TaemiR408, a miRNA family member of wheat (), for the role in mediating plant responses to Pi starvation and salt stress. TaemiR408 targets six genes that encode proteins involving biochemical metabolism, microtubule organization, and signaling transduction. 5'- and 3'-RACE analyses confirmed the mRNA cleavage of target genes mediated by this wheat miRNA. TaemiR408 showed induced expression patterns upon Pi starvation and salt stress and whose upregulated expression was gradually repressed by the normal recovery treatments. The target genes of TaemiR408 exhibited reverse expression patterns to this miRNA, whose transcripts were downregulated under Pi starvation and salt stress and the reduced expression was recovered by the followed normal condition. These results suggest the regulation of the target genes under TaemiR408 through a cleavage mechanism. Tobacco lines with TaemiR408 overexpression exhibited enhanced stress tolerance, showing improved phenotype, biomass, and photosynthesis behavior compared with wild type under both Pi starvation and salt treatments, which closely associate increased P accumulation upon Pi deprivation and elevated osmolytes under salt stress, respectively. Phosphate transporter (PT) gene displays upregulated transcripts in the Pi-deprived TaemiR408 overexpressors; knockdown of this PT gene reduces Pi acquisition under low-Pi stress, confirming its role in improving plant Pi taken up. Likewise, and , genes encoding abscisic acid (ABA) receptor and SnRK2 protein, respectively, exhibited upregulated transcripts in salt-challenged TaemiR408 overexpressors; knockdown of them caused deteriorated growth and lowered osmolytes amounts of plants upon salt treatment. Thus, TaemiR408 is crucial for plant adaptations to Pi starvation and salt stress through regulating Pi acquisition under low-Pi stress and remodel ABA signaling pathway and osmoprotects biosynthesis under salt stress.

Authors : Bai Qianqian, Wang Xiaoying, Chen Xi, Shi Guiqing, Liu Zhipeng, Guo Chengjin, Xiao Kai,



(10) Seasonal changes in morphophysiological traits of two native Patagonian shrubs from Argentina with different drought resistance strategies.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29709880
Publication Date : //
In semi-arid regions, plants develop various biochemical and physiological strategies to adapt to dry periods. Understanding the resistance mechanisms to dry periods under field conditions is an important topic in ecology. Larrea divaricata and Lycium chilense provide various ecological services. The aim of this work is to elucidate new morpho-histological, biochemical and hormonal traits that contribute to the drought resistance strategies of two native shrubs. Green leaves and fine roots from L. divaricata and L. chilense were collected in each season for one year, and various traits were measured. The hormone (abscisic acid, ABA-glucose ester, gibberellins A and A, and indole acetic acid) contents were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Rainfall data and the soil water content were also measured. A multivariate analysis showed that green leaves from L. divaricata showed high values for the leaf dry weight, blade leaf thickness and ABA content in the summer compared with those from L. chilense. Fine roots from L. divaricata had high RWC and high IAA levels during the autumn-dry period compared with those from L. chilense, but both had similar levels during the winter and spring. Our results support the notion that species with different drought resistance mechanisms (avoidance or tolerance) display different responses to dry periods throughout the year. Larrea divaricata, which exhibits more xerophytic traits, modified its morphology and maintained its physiological parameters (high RWC in leaves and roots, high ABA levels in leaves during summer, high GA in leaves and high IAA in roots during autumn) to tolerate dry periods, whereas Lycium chilense, which displays more mesophytic traits, uses strategies to avoid dry periods (loss of leaves during autumn and winter, high RWC in leaves, high ABA-GE and GA in leaves during summer, high GA and GA in roots during summer, and high IAA in roots during autumn and summer) and thus has a metabolism that is more dependent on water availability for growth.

Authors : Varela M Celeste, Reinoso Herminda, Luna Virginia, Cenzano Ana M,