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Plant cyclic Guanosine monophosphate,cGMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E13981Pl] Plant cyclic Guanosine monophosphate,cGMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E13981Pl | Plant cyclic Guanosine monophosphate,cGMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin via the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway and potassium and calcium channels.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30111856
Publication Date : //
Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lambiaceae) is an important traditional plant for the treatment of hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that the sinensetin content in O. stamineus is correlated with its vasorelaxant activity. However, there is still very little information regarding the vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin due to a lack of scientific studies. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of action of sinensetin in vasorelaxation using an in vitro precontraction aortic ring assay. The changes in the tension of the aortic ring preparations were recorded using a force-displacement transducer and the PowerLab system. The mechanisms of the vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin were determined in the presence of antagonists. Sinensetin caused relaxation of the aortic ring precontracted with PE in the presence and absence of the endothelium and with potassium chloride in endothelium-intact aortic rings. In the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), methylene blue (cyclic guanosine monophosphate lowering agent), ODQ (selective soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), indomethacin (a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), tetraethylammonium (nonselective calcium activator K channel blocker), 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K channel blocker), barium chloride (inwardly rectifying K channel blocker), glibenclamide (nonspecific ATP-sensitive K channel blocker), atropine (muscarinic receptor blocker), or propranolol (β-adrenergic receptor blocker), the relaxation stimulated by sinensetin was significantly reduced. Sinensetin was also active in reducing Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (via IPR) and in blocking calcium channels (VOCC). The present study demonstrates the vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin, which involves the NO/sGC/cGMP and indomethacin pathways, calcium and potassium channels, and muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors.

Authors : Yam Mun Fei, Tan Chu Shan, Shibao Ruan,



(2) Vasodilator Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29912156
Publication Date : //
Arterial hypertension is one of the main risk factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is important to look for new drugs to treat hypertension. In this study, we carried out the screening of 19 compounds (triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignans, and flavonoids) isolated from 10 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine to determine whether they elicited vascular smooth muscle relaxation and, therefore, could represent novel anti-hypertension drug candidates. The vasorelaxant activity of these compounds was evaluated on the isolated rat aorta assay and the results obtained from this evaluation showed that three compounds induced a significant vasodilatory effect: -dihydroguaiaretic acid [half maximal effective concentration (EC), 49.9 ± 11.2 µM; maximum effect (Emax), 99.8 ± 2.7%]; corosolic acid (EC, 108.9 ± 6.7 µM; Emax, 96.4 ± 4.2%); and 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (EC, 122.3 ± 7.6 µM; Emax, 99.5 ± 5.4%). Subsequently, involvement of the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and H₂S/ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K) pathways on the vasodilator activity of these compounds was assessed. The results derived from this analysis showed that the activation of both pathways contributes to the vasorelaxant effect of corosolic acid. On the other hand, the vasodilator effect of -dihydroguaiaretic acid and 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone, partly involves stimulation of the NO/cGMP pathway. However, these compounds also showed an important endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect, whose mechanism of action remains to be clarified. This study indicates that -dihydroguaiaretic acid, corosolic acid, and 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone could be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of new derivatives with a higher potency to be developed as drugs for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Authors : Luna-Vázquez Francisco J, Ibarra-Alvarado César, Camacho-Corona María Del Rayo, Rojas-Molina Alejandra, Rojas-Molina J Isela, García Abraham, Bah Moustapha,



(3) Moonlighting Proteins and Their Role in the Control of Signaling Microenvironments, as Exemplified by cGMP and Phytosulfokine Receptor 1 (PSKR1).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29643865
Publication Date : //
Signal generating and processing complexes and changes in concentrations of messenger molecules such as calcium ions and cyclic nucleotides develop gradients that have critical roles in relaying messages within cells. Cytoplasmic contents are densely packed, and in plant cells this is compounded by the restricted cytoplasmic space. To function in such crowded spaces, scaffold proteins have evolved to keep key enzymes in the correct place to ensure ordered spatial and temporal and stimulus-specific message generation. Hence, throughout the cytoplasm there are gradients of messenger molecules that influence signaling processes. However, it is only recently becoming apparent that specific complexes involving receptor molecules can generate multiple signal gradients and enriched microenvironments around the cytoplasmic domains of the receptor that regulate downstream signaling. Such gradients or signal circuits can involve moonlighting proteins, so called because they can enable fine-tune signal cascades via cryptic additional functions that are just being defined. This perspective focuses on how enigmatic activity of moonlighting proteins potentially contributes to regional intracellular microenvironments. For instance, the proteins associated with moonlighting proteins that generate cyclic nucleotides may be regulated by cyclic nucleotide binding directly or indirectly. In this perspective, we discuss how generation of cyclic nucleotide-enriched microenvironments can promote and regulate signaling events. As an example, we use the phytosulfokine receptor (PSKR1), discuss the function of its domains and their mutual interactions and argue that this complex architecture and function enhances tuning of signals in microenvironments.

Authors : Irving Helen R, Cahill David M, Gehring Chris,



(4) Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Contributes to Heme Oxygenase-1 Delaying Programmed Cell Death in Isolated Aleurone Layers of Rice Subjected to Drought Stress in a cGMP-Dependent Manner.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29449858
Publication Date : //
Hydrogen peroxide (HO) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG)-triggered decreases of transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous HO contributed toward the increase in gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the HO scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and the HO synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous HO. Conversely, the zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an HO-1-specific inhibitor, reversed the effects of hematin. We further analyzed the endogenous HO levels and transcript expression levels of aleurone layers treated with AsA, DMTU, and DPI in the presence of exogenous HO under drought stress, respectively. The results showed that in aleurone layers subjected to drought stress, when the endogenous HO level was inhibited, the effect of exogenous HO on the induction of HO-1 was enhanced. Furthermore, exogenous HO-activated HO-1 effectively enhanced amylase activity. Application of 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) (the membrane permeable cGMP analog) promoted the effect of exogenous HO-delayed PCD of aleurone layers in response to drought stress. More importantly, HO-1 delayed the programmed cell death (PCD) of aleurone layers by cooperating with nitric oxide (NO), and the delayed effect of NO on PCD was achieved via mediation by cGMP under drought stress. In short, in rice aleurone layers, exogenous HO (as a signaling molecule) triggered HO-1 and delayed PCD via cGMP which possibly induced amylase activity under drought stress. In contrast, as a toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, the drought-generated HO promoted cell death.

Authors : Wang Guanghui, Xiao Yu, Deng Xiaojiang, Zhang Heting, Li Tingge, Chen Huiping,



(5) Intramolecular crosstalk between catalytic activities of receptor kinases.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29355445
Publication Date : //
Signal modulation is important for the growth and development of plants and this process is mediated by a number of factors including physiological growth regulators and their associated signal transduction pathways. Protein kinases play a central role in signaling, including those involving pathogen response mechanisms. We previously demonstrated an active guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic center in the brassinosteroid insensitive receptor (AtBRI1) within an active intracellular kinase domain resulting in dual enzymatic activity. Here we propose a novel type of receptor architecture that is characterized by a functional GC catalytic center nested in the cytosolic kinase domain enabling intramolecular crosstalk. This may be through a cGMP-AtBRI1 complex forming that may induce a negative feedback mechanism leading to desensitisation of the receptor, regulated through the cGMP production pathway. We further argue that the comparatively low but highly localized cGMP generated by the GC in response to a ligand is sufficient to modulate the kinase activity. This type of receptor therefore provides a molecular switch that directly and/or indirectly affects ligand dependent phosphorylation of downstream signaling cascades and suggests that subsequent signal transduction and modulation works in conjunction with the kinase in downstream signaling.

Authors : Kwezi Lusisizwe, Wheeler Janet I, Marondedze Claudius, Gehring Chris, Irving Helen R,



(6) Measurement of Cyclic GMP During Plant Hypersensitive Disease Resistance Response.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29332293
Publication Date : //
Cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is recognized as an important second messenger in plants, mediating intracellular signal in important physiological processes, including the hypersensitive disease resistance response induced by avirulent pathogens. In this context, the analysis of cGMP levels in infected plants requires an accurate and specific detection method allowing its quantification. Here, we describe an assay based on the Alphascreen technology, developed for animal cells and further adapted and optimized for the detection of cGMP in plants. The method is applied for the measurement of cGMP in Arabidopsis thaliana plants challenged with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. This protocol includes the extraction of cGMP, the assay procedure and the calculation of cGMP concentration.

Authors : Chen Jian, Bellin Diana, Vandelle Elodie,



(7) Structural-Activity Relationship of Ginsenosides from Steamed Ginseng in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29298510
Publication Date : //
Ginseng has been reported to have diverse pharmacological effects. One of the therapeutic claims for ginseng is to enhance sexual function. Ginsenosides are considered as the major active constituents. A steaming process can alter the ginsenoside profile of ginseng products. The structure-function relationship of ginsenosides in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated yet. In this work, 15 different processed ginsengs are produced by steaming, and 13 major ginsensosides are quantified by liquid chromatography with UV detection, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rf, Rk3, Rh4, 20S-Rg3, 20R-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5. Their anti-ED activities are screened using hydrocortisone-induced mice model (Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome in Chinese Medicine) and primary corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs). A processed ginseng with steaming treatment at 120[Formula: see text]C for 4[Formula: see text]h and five times possesses abundant ginsenosides Rk1, Rk3, Rh4 and Rg5 transformed via deglycosylation and dehydroxylation, and produces optimal activity against ED. The number of sugar molecules, structure of hydroxyl groups and stereoselectivity in ginsenosides affect their anti-ED activity. Among the 13 ginsenosides, Rk1, Rk3, Rh4 and Rg5 are the most efficient in decreasing intracellular calcium levels by inhibiting phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) to reduce the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in CCSMCs. Rg5 also restrain hypoxia inducible factor-1[Formula: see text] (HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in hypoxia state, and increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in isolated rat cavernous tissue. These observations suggest a role for steamed ginseng containing two pairs of geometric isomers (i.e., Rk1/Rg5 and Rk3/Rh4) in the treatment of ED.

Authors : Ying Ang, Yu Qing-Tao, Guo Li, Zhang Wen-Song, Liu Jin-Feng, Li Yun, Song Hong, Li Ping, Qi Lian-Wen, Ge Ya-Zhong, Liu E-Hu, Liu Qun,



(8) Mechanisms of vasorelaxation induced by total flavonoids of Euphorbia humifusa in rat aorta.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29151079
Publication Date : //
Euphorbia humifusa Willd. (EH), rich in flavonoids, has long been used for the treatment of bacillary dysentery and enteritis in China, and is known to have antioxidant, hypotensive and hypolipidemic properties. However, the vasorelaxant effect of total flavonoids of EH (TFEH) and action mechanisms are not clearly defined yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TFEH on the vascular tension and its underlying mechanisms. Experiments were performed in rat thoracic aorta using the organ bath system. TFEH (0.01 - 100 μg/ml) caused a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation, which was dependent on a functional endothelium, and were significantly attenuated by inhibitors of endothelial NO synthase, its upstream signaling pathway, PI3K/Akt, and soluble guanylate cyclase, but not by blockade of K channel, K channel, cyclooxygenase, muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors. Extracellular Ca depletion, and pre-treatment with modulators of the store-operated Ca entry channels, Gd and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, significantly attenuated the TFEH-induced vasorelaxation. Our findings suggest that TFEH elicit vasorelaxation via endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP pathway through activation of PI3K/Akt- and Ca-eNOS-NO signaling. Further, it is suggested that TFEH-induced activation of the NO-soluble guanylate cyclase-cGMP-protein kinase G signaling relaxes vascular smooth muscle cells through an inhibition of the L-type Ca channel activity.

Authors : Wang T T, Zhou Z Q, Wang S, Ji X W, Wu B, Sun L Y, Wen J F, Kang D G, Lee H S, Cho K W, Jin S N,



(9) Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29113064
Publication Date : //
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Four plant extracts (, , , ) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Strawberry tree fruit () and tea () extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke () extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL) as well as its flavone luteolin (IC = 41 ± 10 μM) and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC > 1.0 mM). Additionally, the ginger () extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC > 1.7 mM, respectively). Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC = 455 ± 19 μg/mL). A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research.

Authors : Röhrig Teresa, Pacjuk Olga, Hernández-Huguet Silvia, Körner Johanna, Scherer Katharina, Richling Elke,



(10) Low Temperature Extends the Lifespan of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus through the cGMP Pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29099744
Publication Date : //
The causal agent of pine wilt disease, pine wood nematode (PWN) (), revealed extended lifespan at low temperature. To discover the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon, we attempted to study the molecular characterization, transcript abundance, and functions of three genes of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway from . Three cGMP pathway genes were identified from . Bioinformatic software was utilized to analyze the characteristics of the three putative proteins. Function of the three genes in cold tolerance was studied with RNA interference (RNAi). The results showed that the deduced protein of Bx-DAF-11 has an adenylate and guanylate cyclase catalytic domain, indicating an ability to bind to extracellular ligands and synthesizing cGMP. Both Bx-TAX-2 and Bx-TAX-4 have cyclic nucleotide-binding domains and ion transport protein domains, illustrating that they are cGMP-gated ion channels. The transcript level of , , and increased at low temperature. The survival rates of three gene silenced revealed a significant decrease at low temperature. This study illustrated that the cGMP pathway plays a key role in low-temperature-induced lifespan extension in .

Authors : Wang Bowen, Ma Ling, Wang Feng, Wang Buyong, Hao Xin, Xu Jiayao, Ma Yan,