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Plant cyclic Guanosine monophosphate,cGMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E13981Pl] Plant cyclic Guanosine monophosphate,cGMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E13981Pl | Plant cyclic Guanosine monophosphate,cGMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Moonlighting Proteins and Their Role in the Control of Signaling Microenvironments, as Exemplified by cGMP and Phytosulfokine Receptor 1 (PSKR1).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29643865
Publication Date : //
Signal generating and processing complexes and changes in concentrations of messenger molecules such as calcium ions and cyclic nucleotides develop gradients that have critical roles in relaying messages within cells. Cytoplasmic contents are densely packed, and in plant cells this is compounded by the restricted cytoplasmic space. To function in such crowded spaces, scaffold proteins have evolved to keep key enzymes in the correct place to ensure ordered spatial and temporal and stimulus-specific message generation. Hence, throughout the cytoplasm there are gradients of messenger molecules that influence signaling processes. However, it is only recently becoming apparent that specific complexes involving receptor molecules can generate multiple signal gradients and enriched microenvironments around the cytoplasmic domains of the receptor that regulate downstream signaling. Such gradients or signal circuits can involve moonlighting proteins, so called because they can enable fine-tune signal cascades via cryptic additional functions that are just being defined. This perspective focuses on how enigmatic activity of moonlighting proteins potentially contributes to regional intracellular microenvironments. For instance, the proteins associated with moonlighting proteins that generate cyclic nucleotides may be regulated by cyclic nucleotide binding directly or indirectly. In this perspective, we discuss how generation of cyclic nucleotide-enriched microenvironments can promote and regulate signaling events. As an example, we use the phytosulfokine receptor (PSKR1), discuss the function of its domains and their mutual interactions and argue that this complex architecture and function enhances tuning of signals in microenvironments.

Authors : Irving Helen R, Cahill David M, Gehring Chris,



(2) Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Contributes to Heme Oxygenase-1 Delaying Programmed Cell Death in Isolated Aleurone Layers of Rice Subjected to Drought Stress in a cGMP-Dependent Manner.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29449858
Publication Date : //
Hydrogen peroxide (HO) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG)-triggered decreases of transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous HO contributed toward the increase in gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the HO scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and the HO synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous HO. Conversely, the zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an HO-1-specific inhibitor, reversed the effects of hematin. We further analyzed the endogenous HO levels and transcript expression levels of aleurone layers treated with AsA, DMTU, and DPI in the presence of exogenous HO under drought stress, respectively. The results showed that in aleurone layers subjected to drought stress, when the endogenous HO level was inhibited, the effect of exogenous HO on the induction of HO-1 was enhanced. Furthermore, exogenous HO-activated HO-1 effectively enhanced amylase activity. Application of 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) (the membrane permeable cGMP analog) promoted the effect of exogenous HO-delayed PCD of aleurone layers in response to drought stress. More importantly, HO-1 delayed the programmed cell death (PCD) of aleurone layers by cooperating with nitric oxide (NO), and the delayed effect of NO on PCD was achieved via mediation by cGMP under drought stress. In short, in rice aleurone layers, exogenous HO (as a signaling molecule) triggered HO-1 and delayed PCD via cGMP which possibly induced amylase activity under drought stress. In contrast, as a toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, the drought-generated HO promoted cell death.

Authors : Wang Guanghui, Xiao Yu, Deng Xiaojiang, Zhang Heting, Li Tingge, Chen Huiping,



(3) GCPred: a web tool for guanylyl cyclase functional center prediction from amino acid sequence.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29420675
Publication Date : //
GCPred is a webserver for the prediction of guanylyl cyclase functional centers from amino acid sequence. Guanylyl cyclases (GC) are enzymes that generate the signalling molecule cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) from guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP). A novel class of GC centers (GCCs) have been identified in complex plant proteins. Using currently available experimental data, GCPred is created to automate and facilitate the identification of similar GCCs. The server features GCC values that consider in its calculation, the physicochemical properties of amino acids constituting the GCC and the conserved amino acids within the center. From user input amino acid sequence, the server returns a table of GCC values and graphs depicting deviations from mean values. The utility of this server is demonstrated using plant proteins and the human interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family of proteins as example.

Authors : Xu Nuo, Fu Dongfang, Li Shiang, Wang Yuxuan, Wong Aloysius, Hancock John,



(4) Intramolecular crosstalk between catalytic activities of receptor kinases.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29355445
Publication Date : //
Signal modulation is important for the growth and development of plants and this process is mediated by a number of factors including physiological growth regulators and their associated signal transduction pathways. Protein kinases play a central role in signaling, including those involving pathogen response mechanisms. We previously demonstrated an active guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic center in the brassinosteroid insensitive receptor (AtBRI1) within an active intracellular kinase domain resulting in dual enzymatic activity. Here we propose a novel type of receptor architecture that is characterized by a functional GC catalytic center nested in the cytosolic kinase domain enabling intramolecular crosstalk. This may be through a cGMP-AtBRI1 complex forming that may induce a negative feedback mechanism leading to desensitisation of the receptor, regulated through the cGMP production pathway. We further argue that the comparatively low but highly localized cGMP generated by the GC in response to a ligand is sufficient to modulate the kinase activity. This type of receptor therefore provides a molecular switch that directly and/or indirectly affects ligand dependent phosphorylation of downstream signaling cascades and suggests that subsequent signal transduction and modulation works in conjunction with the kinase in downstream signaling.

Authors : Kwezi Lusisizwe, Wheeler Janet I, Marondedze Claudius, Gehring Chris, Irving Helen R,



(5) Measurement of Cyclic GMP During Plant Hypersensitive Disease Resistance Response.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29332293
Publication Date : //
Cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is recognized as an important second messenger in plants, mediating intracellular signal in important physiological processes, including the hypersensitive disease resistance response induced by avirulent pathogens. In this context, the analysis of cGMP levels in infected plants requires an accurate and specific detection method allowing its quantification. Here, we describe an assay based on the Alphascreen technology, developed for animal cells and further adapted and optimized for the detection of cGMP in plants. The method is applied for the measurement of cGMP in Arabidopsis thaliana plants challenged with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. This protocol includes the extraction of cGMP, the assay procedure and the calculation of cGMP concentration.

Authors : Chen Jian, Bellin Diana, Vandelle Elodie,



(6) Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29113064
Publication Date : //
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Four plant extracts (, , , ) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Strawberry tree fruit () and tea () extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke () extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL) as well as its flavone luteolin (IC = 41 ± 10 μM) and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC > 1.0 mM). Additionally, the ginger () extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC > 1.7 mM, respectively). Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC = 455 ± 19 μg/mL). A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research.

Authors : Röhrig Teresa, Pacjuk Olga, Hernández-Huguet Silvia, Körner Johanna, Scherer Katharina, Richling Elke,



(7) Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29046682
Publication Date : //
The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

Authors : Gehring Chris, Turek Ilona S,



(8) An ant-plant mutualism through the lens of cGMP-dependent kinase genes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28904134
Publication Date : //
In plant-animal mutualisms, how an animal forages often determines how much benefit its plant partner receives. In many animals, foraging behaviour changes in response to gene expression or activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that encodes. Here, we show that this highly conserved molecular mechanism affects the outcome of a plant-animal mutualism. We studied the two PKG genes of an Amazonian ant that defends the ant-plant against herbivores. Some ant colonies are better 'bodyguards' than others. Working in the field in Peru, we found that colonies fed with a PKG activator recruited more workers to attack herbivores than control colonies. This resulted in less herbivore damage. PKG gene expression in ant workers correlated with whether an ant colony discovered an herbivore and how much damage herbivores inflicted on leaves in a complex way; natural variation in expression levels of the two genes had significant interaction effects on ant behaviour and herbivory. Our results suggest a molecular basis for ant protection of plants in this mutualism.

Authors : Malé Pierre-Jean G, Turner Kyle M, Doha Manjima, Anreiter Ina, Allen Aaron M, Sokolowski Marla B, Frederickson Megan E,



(9) Mechanisms of Action of Uncaria rhynchophylla Ethanolic Extract for Its Vasodilatory Effects.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28771084
Publication Date : //
Uncaria rhynchophylla is one of the major components included in Traditional Chinese Medicine prescriptions for hypertensive treatment. Previous studies have suggested that U. rhynchophylla might contain vasodilation-mediating active compounds, especially indole alkaloids. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the vasodilatory effects of U. rhynchophylla, which was extracted by different solvents. The most effective extract was then further studied for its signaling mechanism pathways. The authenticity of U. rhynchophylla was assured by using modernized tri-step Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), including conventional 1D FTIR, second derivative scanning combined with 2D-correlated IR spectroscopy. Results obtained proved that the fingerprint of U. rhynchophylla used was identical to the atlas. Isolated aortic rings from male Sprague-Dawley rats were preconstricted with phenylephrine (PE) followed by cumulative addition of U. rhynchophylla extracts. The signaling mechanism pathways were studied by incubation with different receptor antagonists before the PE precontraction. In conclusion, the 95% ethanolic U. rhynchophylla extract (GT100) was found to be most effective with an EC value of 0.028 ± 0.002 mg/mL and an R value of 101.30% ± 2.82%. The signaling mechanism pathways employed for exerting its vasodilatory effects included nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cylcase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/sGC/cGMP) and PGI (endothelium-derived relaxing factors), G protein-coupled M- and β receptors, regulation of membrane potential through voltage-operated calcium channel, intracellular Ca released from inositol triphosphate receptor (IPR), and all potassium channels except the K channel.

Authors : Loh Yean Chun, Ch'ng Yung Sing, Tan Chu Shan, Ahmad Mariam, Asmawi Mohd Zaini, Yam Mun Fei,



(10) Modulates Glutamate-Nitric Oxide-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 Pathways and Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Hematological Alterations in Hyperammonemic Rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28744340
Publication Date : //
Hyperammonemia is a serious complication of liver disease and may lead to encephalopathy and death. This study investigated the effects of resin on oxidative stress, inflammation, and hematological alterations in ammonium chloride- (NHCl-) induced hyperammonemic rats, with an emphasis on the glutamate-NO-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathways. Rats received NHCl and for 8 weeks. NHCl-induced rats showed significant increase in blood ammonia, liver function markers, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-). Concurrent supplementation of significantly decreased circulating ammonia, liver function markers, and TNF- in hyperammonemic rats. suppressed lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide and enhanced the antioxidant defenses in the liver, kidney, and cerebrum of hyperammonemic rats. significantly upregulated Nrf2 and HO-1 and decreased glutamine and nitric oxide synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, and Na/K-ATPase expression in the cerebrum of NHCl-induced hyperammonemic rats. Hyperammonemia was also associated with hematological and coagulation system alterations. These alterations were reversed by . Our findings demonstrated that attenuates ammonia-induced liver injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hematological alterations. This study points to the modulatory effect of on glutamate-NO-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 pathways in hyperammonemia. Therefore, might be a promising protective agent against hyperammonemia.

Authors : Mahmoud Ayman M, Alqahtani Sultan, Othman Sarah I, Germoush Mousa O, Hussein Omnia E, Al-Basher Gadh, Khim Jong Seong, Al-Qaraawi Maha A, Al-Harbi Hanan M, Fadel Abdulmannan, Allam Ahmed A,