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Plant cyclic Guanosine monophosphate,cGMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E13981Pl] Plant cyclic Guanosine monophosphate,cGMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E13981Pl | Plant cyclic Guanosine monophosphate,cGMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Downstream Targets of Cyclic Nucleotides in Plants.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30327660
Publication Date : //
Efficient integration of various external and internal signals is required to maintain adaptive cellular function. Numerous distinct signal transduction systems have evolved to allow cells to receive these inputs, to translate their codes and, subsequently, to expand and integrate their meanings. Two of these, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, together referred to as the cyclic nucleotide signaling system, are between them. The cyclic nucleotides regulate a vast number of processes in almost all living organisms. Once synthesized by adenylyl or guanylyl cyclases, cyclic nucleotides transduce signals by acting through a number of cellular effectors. Because the activities of several of these effectors are altered simultaneously in response to temporal changes in cyclic nucleotide levels, agents that increase cAMP/cGMP levels can trigger multiple signaling events that markedly affect numerous cellular functions. In this mini review, we summarize recent evidence supporting the existence of cNMP effectors in plant cells. Specifically, we highlight cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), cGMP-dependent kinase G (PKG), and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Essentially this manuscript documents the progress that has been achieved in recent decades in improving our understanding of the regulation and function of cNMPs in plants and emphasizes the current gaps and unanswered questions in this field of plant signaling research.

Authors : Świeżawska Brygida, Duszyn Maria, Jaworski Krzysztof, Szmidt-Jaworska Adriana,



(2) In silico screening of anthraquinones from Prismatomeris memecyloides as novel phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE-5Is).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30286869
Publication Date : //
Prismatomeris memecyloides Craib (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used by ethnic minorities in Vietnam for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical compositions and screen in silico its possible inhibitory effect against PDE-5 which reduced cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) levels and indirectly caused the male ED.

Authors : Khanh Pham Ngoc, Huong Tran Thu, Spiga Ottavia, Trezza Alfonso, Son Ninh The, Cuong To Dao, Ha Vu Thi, Cuong Nguyen Manh,



(3) Vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin via the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway and potassium and calcium channels.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30111856
Publication Date : //
Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lambiaceae) is an important traditional plant for the treatment of hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that the sinensetin content in O. stamineus is correlated with its vasorelaxant activity. However, there is still very little information regarding the vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin due to a lack of scientific studies. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of action of sinensetin in vasorelaxation using an in vitro precontraction aortic ring assay. The changes in the tension of the aortic ring preparations were recorded using a force-displacement transducer and the PowerLab system. The mechanisms of the vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin were determined in the presence of antagonists. Sinensetin caused relaxation of the aortic ring precontracted with PE in the presence and absence of the endothelium and with potassium chloride in endothelium-intact aortic rings. In the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), methylene blue (cyclic guanosine monophosphate lowering agent), ODQ (selective soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), indomethacin (a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), tetraethylammonium (nonselective calcium activator K channel blocker), 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K channel blocker), barium chloride (inwardly rectifying K channel blocker), glibenclamide (nonspecific ATP-sensitive K channel blocker), atropine (muscarinic receptor blocker), or propranolol (β-adrenergic receptor blocker), the relaxation stimulated by sinensetin was significantly reduced. Sinensetin was also active in reducing Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (via IPR) and in blocking calcium channels (VOCC). The present study demonstrates the vasorelaxant effect of sinensetin, which involves the NO/sGC/cGMP and indomethacin pathways, calcium and potassium channels, and muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors.

Authors : Yam Mun Fei, Tan Chu Shan, Shibao Ruan,



(4) Effects of isopulegol in acute nociception in mice: Possible involvement of muscarinic receptors, opioid system and l-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30053451
Publication Date : //
Previous studies have shown that isopulegol has anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, gastro-protective and antioxidant activities in rodents, but until now there are no studies showing activity of isopulegol in animal models of nociception and inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of isopulegol and to propose possible mechanisms involved in its effects observed in mice. Groups of male and female Swiss mice (20-35 g, n = 5-8) were used in this test under the authorization of Ethics Committee on Animal Experimentation (CEEA/UFPI N° 82/2014). In order to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of isopulegol, nociception was induced using formalin test, capsaicin and glutamate in hind paw licking model, followed by the investigation of the involvement of opioid mechanisms, K + ATP channels, muscarinic, L arginine-nitric oxide and cGMP. The oral administration of isopulegol showed antinociceptive effect in both phases of the formalin test at doses from 0.78 to 25 mg/kg (first phase) and 1.56-25 mg/kg (second phase) and also produced significant results before capsaicin test at doses from 1.56 to 12.5 mg/kg and glutamate test at doses from 3.12 to 6.25 mg/kg with a dose-dependent effect. The antinociception activity of isopulegol was inhibited in the presence of naloxone (2 mg / kg, ip), glibenclamide (3 mg/kg, ip), atropine (1 mg/kg, ip), l-arginine (600 mg/kg, ip) and methylene blue (20 mg/kg, ip). The results suggested that acute antinociceptive action of opioid isopulegol seems to be related to the K + ATP channels system, through the involvement of muscarinic receptors, inhibiting nitric oxide and cGMP.

Authors : Andrade Próspero Deyna Francélia, Reis Filho Antonio Carlos, Piauilino Celyane Alves, Lopes Everton Moraes, de Sousa Damião Pergentino, de Castro Almeida Fernanda Regina,



(5) Aqueous Extract of var. acuta Relaxes the Ciliary Smooth Muscle by Increasing NO/cGMP Content In Vitro and In Vivo.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30029520
Publication Date : //
The leaves of var. acuta (PFA) are commonly used as a traditional medicine in Korea, Japan, and China. We previously showed that PFA attenuates eye fatigue by improving visual accommodation through a clinical study. However, detailed mechanisms and chemical compounds have not been studied. In this study, we analyzed the active compounds in an aqueous extract of PFA involved in ciliary muscle relaxation in vitro and in vivo. NMR and MS analyses showed that the PFA extract contained mainly luteolin-7--diglucuronide and apigenin-7--diglucuronide. The composition after freeze-drying and spray-drying was similar. Freeze-dried PFA (50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, and 200 µg/mL) increased nitric oxide and cGMP levels in ciliary muscle cells isolated from the eyes of rats. [Ca] decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Sprague-Dawley rats treated with freeze-dried PFA (200 mg/kg, orally) showed significantly increased cGMP levels compared with the control group and irradiated with white light. Our results suggest that PFA extract has the potential to reduce eye fatigue by relaxing ciliary muscles.

Authors : Kim Jaeyong, Kang Huwon, Choi Hakjoon, Jo Ara, Oh Dooi-Ri, Kim Yujin, Im Sojeong, Lee Seul-Gi, Jeong Kyeong-In, Ryu Geun-Chang, Choi Chulyung,



(6) Vasodilator Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants Used in Mexican Traditional Medicine.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29912156
Publication Date : //
Arterial hypertension is one of the main risk factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is important to look for new drugs to treat hypertension. In this study, we carried out the screening of 19 compounds (triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignans, and flavonoids) isolated from 10 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine to determine whether they elicited vascular smooth muscle relaxation and, therefore, could represent novel anti-hypertension drug candidates. The vasorelaxant activity of these compounds was evaluated on the isolated rat aorta assay and the results obtained from this evaluation showed that three compounds induced a significant vasodilatory effect: -dihydroguaiaretic acid [half maximal effective concentration (EC), 49.9 ± 11.2 µM; maximum effect (Emax), 99.8 ± 2.7%]; corosolic acid (EC, 108.9 ± 6.7 µM; Emax, 96.4 ± 4.2%); and 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone (EC, 122.3 ± 7.6 µM; Emax, 99.5 ± 5.4%). Subsequently, involvement of the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and H₂S/ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K) pathways on the vasodilator activity of these compounds was assessed. The results derived from this analysis showed that the activation of both pathways contributes to the vasorelaxant effect of corosolic acid. On the other hand, the vasodilator effect of -dihydroguaiaretic acid and 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone, partly involves stimulation of the NO/cGMP pathway. However, these compounds also showed an important endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effect, whose mechanism of action remains to be clarified. This study indicates that -dihydroguaiaretic acid, corosolic acid, and 5,8,4′-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone could be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of new derivatives with a higher potency to be developed as drugs for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Authors : Luna-Vázquez Francisco J, Ibarra-Alvarado César, Camacho-Corona María Del Rayo, Rojas-Molina Alejandra, Rojas-Molina J Isela, García Abraham, Bah Moustapha,



(7) Tiger nut and walnut extracts modulate extracellular metabolism of ATP and adenosine through the NOS/cGMP/PKG signalling pathway in kidney slices.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29747747
Publication Date : //
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) and walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum Müll. Arg.) have been reportedly used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, prevent heart attack and improve blood circulation, reduce serum cholesterol level as well as inhibit oxidation reactions.

Authors : Olabiyi Ayodeji A, Carvalho Fabiano B, Bottari Nathieli B, Morsch Vera M, Morel Ademir F, Oboh Ganiyu, Schetinger Maria Rosa,



(8) Moonlighting Proteins and Their Role in the Control of Signaling Microenvironments, as Exemplified by cGMP and Phytosulfokine Receptor 1 (PSKR1).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29643865
Publication Date : //
Signal generating and processing complexes and changes in concentrations of messenger molecules such as calcium ions and cyclic nucleotides develop gradients that have critical roles in relaying messages within cells. Cytoplasmic contents are densely packed, and in plant cells this is compounded by the restricted cytoplasmic space. To function in such crowded spaces, scaffold proteins have evolved to keep key enzymes in the correct place to ensure ordered spatial and temporal and stimulus-specific message generation. Hence, throughout the cytoplasm there are gradients of messenger molecules that influence signaling processes. However, it is only recently becoming apparent that specific complexes involving receptor molecules can generate multiple signal gradients and enriched microenvironments around the cytoplasmic domains of the receptor that regulate downstream signaling. Such gradients or signal circuits can involve moonlighting proteins, so called because they can enable fine-tune signal cascades via cryptic additional functions that are just being defined. This perspective focuses on how enigmatic activity of moonlighting proteins potentially contributes to regional intracellular microenvironments. For instance, the proteins associated with moonlighting proteins that generate cyclic nucleotides may be regulated by cyclic nucleotide binding directly or indirectly. In this perspective, we discuss how generation of cyclic nucleotide-enriched microenvironments can promote and regulate signaling events. As an example, we use the phytosulfokine receptor (PSKR1), discuss the function of its domains and their mutual interactions and argue that this complex architecture and function enhances tuning of signals in microenvironments.

Authors : Irving Helen R, Cahill David M, Gehring Chris,



(9) Chemical characterization, pharmacological effects, and toxicity of an ethanol extract of Celtis pallida Torr. (Cannabaceae) aerial parts.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29545209
Publication Date : //
Celtis pallida Torr (Cannabaceae) is employed as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, skin infections, and diarrhea, among other diseases.

Authors : Rojas-Bedolla Edgar Isaac, Gutiérrez-Pérez Jorge Luis, Arenas-López Mario Iván, González-Chávez Marco Martin, Zapata-Morales Juan Ramón, Mendoza-Macías Claudia Leticia, Carranza-Álvarez Candy, Maldonado-Miranda Juan José, Deveze-Álvarez Martha Alicia, Alonso-Castro Angel Josabad,



(10) Effect of Yulangsan Polysaccharide on the Reinstatement of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Sprague-Dawley Rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29455417
Publication Date : //
We previously reported that Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSP), which was isolated from the root of Millettia pulchra Kurz, attenuates withdrawal symptoms of morphine dependence by regulating the nitric oxide pathway and modulating monoaminergic neurotransmitters. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of YLSP on the reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. A CPP procedure was employed to assess the behavior of rats, and indicators of serum and four brain regions (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) were determined to explore its underlying mechanism. YLSP inhibited priming morphine-induced reinstatement of CPP in a dose-dependent manner. YLSP markedly reduced nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase levels in the brain. Moreover, YLSP significantly decreased the dopamine and norepinephrine levels in the serum and brain. Furthermore, YLSP significantly decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations, inhibited the expression of dopamine D1 receptors and cAMP response element binding protein mRNA, and improved the expression of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA in the four brain regions. Our findings indicated that YLSP could inhibit the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP possibly by modulating the NO-cGMP and D1R-cAMP signaling pathways.

Authors : Chen Chunxia, Nong Zhihuan, Liang Xingmei, Meng Mingyu, Xuan Feifei, Xie Qiuqiao, He Junhui, Huang Renbin,