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Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E13969Pl] Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E13969Pl | Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Melatonin: A Multifunctional Molecule That Triggers Defense Responses against High Light and Nitrogen Starvation Stress in Haematococcus pluvialis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29975059
Publication Date : //
Melatonin (MLT), a ubiquitously distributed small molecule, functions in plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the interactions between melatonin and other important molecules in Haematococcus pluvialis response stresses are largely unknown. In the present study, exogenous melatonin improved H. pluvialis resistance to nitrogen starvation and high light. We concluded that exogenous melatonin treatment prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and limited cell damage induced by abiotic stress through activation of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants. Astaxanthin, a major antioxidant in H. pluvialis cells, exhibited a 2.25-fold increase in content after treatment with melatonin. The maximal astaxanthin content was 32.4 mg g. The functional roles of the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway induced by melatonin were also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that cAMP signaling pathways are positively associated with microalgal astaxanthin biosynthesis. Additionally, the NO-dependent MAPK signaling cascade is activated in response to astaxanthin accumulation induced by melatonin, confirming that MAPK is a target of NO action in physiological processes. This work is the first to use H. pluvialis as in vivo model and documents the influence of melatonin on the physiological response to abiotic stress in this microalgae.

Authors : Ding Wei, Zhao Yongteng, Xu Jun-Wei, Zhao Peng, Li Tao, Ma Huixian, Reiter Russel J, Yu Xuya,



(2) Conserved and Divergent Functions of the cAMP/PKA Signaling Pathway in and .[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29890663
Publication Date : //
Fungal species undergo many morphological transitions to adapt to changing environments, an important quality especially in fungal pathogens. For decades, has been one of the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, and recently, the prevalence of as a causative agent of candidiasis has increased. In the ability to switch between yeast and hyphal forms is thought to be a key virulence factor and is regulated by multiple signaling cascades—including the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA), calcineurin, high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways—upon receiving environmental cues. The cAMP/PKA signaling pathway also triggers white-opaque switching in . However, studies on morphogenesis are limited. In this minireview, we discuss the regulation of the yeast-hypha transition, virulence, and white-opaque switching through the cAMP/PKA pathway in the closely related species and .

Authors : Lin Chi-Jan, Chen Ying-Lien,



(3) Encystation: the most prevalent and underinvestigated differentiation pathway of eukaryotes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29620506
Publication Date : //
Not long ago, protists were considered one of four eukaryote kingdoms, but recent gene-based phylogenies show that they contribute to all nine eukaryote subdomains. The former kingdoms of animals, plants and fungi are now relegated to lower ranks within subdomains. Most unicellular protists respond to adverse conditions by differentiating into dormant walled cysts. As cysts, they survive long periods of starvation, drought and other environmental threats, only to re-emerge when conditions improve. For protists pathogens, the resilience of their cysts can prevent successful treatment or eradication of the disease. In this context, effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that control encystation. We here firstly summarize the prevalence of encystation across protists and next focus on Amoebozoa, where most of the health-related issues occur. We review current data on processes and genes involved in encystation of the obligate parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the opportunistic pathogen Acanthamoeba. We show how the cAMP-mediated signalling pathway that controls spore and stalk cell encapsulation in Dictyostelium fruiting bodies could be retraced to a stress-induced pathway controlling encystation in solitary Amoebozoa. We highlight the conservation and prevalence of cAMP signalling genes in Amoebozoan genomes and the suprisingly large and varied repertoire of proteins for sensing and processing environmental signals in individual species.

Authors : Schaap Pauline, Schilde Christina,



(4) Cyclic AMP Pathway Activation and Extracellular Zinc Induce Rapid Intracellular Zinc Mobilization in .[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29619016
Publication Date : //
Zinc is an essential micronutrient, required for a range of zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors. In mammalian cells, zinc serves as a second messenger molecule. However, a role for zinc in signaling has not yet been established in the fungal kingdom. Here, we used the intracellular zinc reporter, zinbo-5, which allowed visualization of zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum and other components of the internal membrane system in . We provide evidence for a link between cyclic AMP/PKA- and zinc-signaling in this major human fungal pathogen. Glucose stimulation, which triggers a cyclic AMP spike in this fungus resulted in rapid intracellular zinc mobilization and this "zinc flux" could be stimulated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and blocked via inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA. A similar mobilization of intracellular zinc was generated by stimulation of cells with extracellular zinc and this effect could be reversed with the chelator EDTA. However, zinc-induced zinc flux was found to be cyclic AMP independent. In summary, we show that activation of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway triggers intracellular zinc mobilization in a fungus. To our knowledge, this is the first described link between cyclic AMP signaling and zinc homeostasis in a human fungal pathogen.

Authors : Kjellerup Lasse, Winther Anne-Marie L, Wilson Duncan, Fuglsang Anja T,



(5) An Arabidopsis Clathrin Assembly Protein with a Predicted Role in Plant Defense Can Function as an Adenylate Cyclase.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29570675
Publication Date : //
Adenylate cyclases (ACs), much like guanylate cyclases (GCs), are increasingly recognized as essential parts of many plant processes including biotic and abiotic stress responses. In order to identify novel ACs, we have applied a search motif derived from experimentally tested GCs and identified a number of candidates including a clathrin assembly protein (AT1G68110; AtClAP). AtClAP contains a catalytic centre that can complement the AC-deficient mutant A in , and a recombinant AtClAP fragment (AtClAP) can produce cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in vitro. Furthermore, an integrated analysis of gene expression and expression correlation implicate cAMP in pathogen defense and in actin cytoskeletal remodeling during endocytic internalization.

Authors : Chatukuta Patience, Dikobe Tshegofatso B, Kawadza David T, Sehlabane Katlego S, Takundwa Mutsa M, Wong Aloysius, Gehring Chris, Ruzvidzo Oziniel,



(6) Investigation of Lipid Metabolism by a New Structured Lipid with Medium- and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols from Cinnamomum camphora Seed Oil in Healthy C57BL/6J Mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29429331
Publication Date : //
In the present study, a new structured lipid with medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCTs) was synthesized from camellia oil (CO) and Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) by enzymatic interesterification. Meanwhile, the antiobesity effects of structured lipid were investigated through observing the changes of enzymes related to lipid mobilization in healthy C57BL/6J mice. Results showed that after synthesis, the major triacylgeride (TAG) species of intesterificated product changed to LaCC/CLaC (12.6 ± 0.46%), LaCO/LCL (21.7 ± 0.76%), CCO/LaCL (14.2 ± 0.55%), COO/OCO (10.8 ± 0.43%), and OOO (18.6 ± 0.64%). Through second-stage molecular distillation, the purity of interesterified product (MLCT) achieved 95.6%. Later, male C57BL/6J mice were applied to study whether the new structured lipid with MLCT has the efficacy of preventing the formation of obesity or not. After feeding with different diets for 6 weeks, MLCTs could reduce body weight and fat deposition in adipose tissue, lower plasma triacylglycerols (TG) (0.89 ± 0.16 mmol/L), plasma total cholesterol (TC) (4.03 ± 0.08 mmol/L), and hepatic lipids (382 ± 34.2 mg/mice) by 28.8%, 16.0%, and 30.5%, respectively, when compared to the control 2 group. This was also accompanied by increasing fecal lipids (113%) and the level of enzymes including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) related to lipid mobilization in MLCT group. From the results, it can be concluded that MLCT reduced body fat deposition probably by modulating enzymes related to lipid mobilization in C57BL/6J mice.

Authors : Hu Jiang-Ning, Shen Jin-Rong, Xiong Chao-Yue, Zhu Xue-Mei, Deng Ze-Yuan,



(7) Antioxidative and Anti-Melanogenic Activities of Bamboo Stems (Phyllostachys nigra variety henosis) via PKA/CREB-Mediated MITF Downregulation in B16F10 Melanoma Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29385729
Publication Date : //
var. henosis, a domestic bamboo species, has been attracting much attention; its bioactive compounds (especially in the leaf) show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Little information is available on the antioxidative and anti-melanogenetic activities of the bioactive compounds in bamboo stems. The anti-melanogenic and antioxidative activities of the EtOAc fraction (PN3) of a stem extract were investigated in a cell-free system and in B16F10 melanoma cells. PN3 consisted of a mixture of flavonoids, such as catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and -coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging) was evaluated, as well as the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Fenton reaction. PN3 showed in vitro tyrosinase inhibition activity with the half maximal inbihitory concentration (IC) values of 240 μg/mL, and in vivo cytotoxic concentration ranges > 100 μg/mL. The protein expression levels and mRNA transcription levels of , , and were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the treatment with PN3. PN3 interfered with the phosphorylation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), demonstrating potent anti-melanogenic effects. PN3 could inhibit PKA/CREB and the subsequent degradation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), resulting in the suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, probably because of the presence of flavonoid compounds. These properties make it a candidate as an additive to whitening cosmetics.

Authors : Choi Moon-Hee, Jo Han-Gyo, Yang Ji Hye, Ki Sung Hwan, Shin Hyun-Jae,



(8) Ethanol Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa Herba Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairments in Mice via Activation of BDNF, P-CREB and Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29370115
Publication Date : //
Though Herba (ODH) has been known to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects, its anti-amnestic effect has never been reported so far. The aim of this present study was to elucidate the anti-amnestic effect of ODH. ODH pretreatment significantly reduced escape latency of scopolamine treated Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice compared to untreated control groups in a Morris water maze test. Similarly, the passive avoidance test showed that ODH treatment recovered the scopolamine induced amnesia in the ICR mouse model. Concentration of Ach in brains of ODH treated mice was increased compared to that of scopolamine treated mice. In addition, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was notably decreased by ODH. The protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) (Ser133) was increased in ODH pretreated group compared to control group. Consistently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed the elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and p-CREB in brains of ODH treated mice compared to the control group. Overall, these findings suggest that ODH has anti-amnestic potential via activation of BDNF and p-CREB and inhibition of AChE in mice with scopolamine induced amnesia.

Authors : Lee Jung Eun, Song Hyo-Sook, Park Moon Nyeo, Kim Sung-Hoon, Shim Bum-Sang, Kim Bonglee,



(9) Arctigenin protects against ultraviolet-A-induced damage to stemness through inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29317250
Publication Date : //
The stemness of stem cells is negatively affected by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. This study was performed to examine the effects of arctigenin on UVA-irradiation-induced damage to the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from adipose tissue. The mechanisms of action of arctigenin were also investigated. A BrdU-incorporation assay demonstrated that arctigenin attenuated the UVA-induced reduction of the cellular proliferative potential. Arctigenin also increased the UVA-induced reduction in stemness of hMSCs by upregulating stemness-related genes such as SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG. In addition, the UVA-induced reduction in the mRNA expression level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by arctigenin. The antagonizing effect of arctigenin on UVA irradiation was mediated by reduced PGE production through the inhibition of MAPKs (p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and JNK) and NF-κB. Overall, these findings suggest that arctigenin can ameliorate the reduced stemness of hMSCs induced by UVA irradiation. The effects of arctigenin are mediated by PGE-cAMP signaling-dependent upregulation of HIF-1α. Therefore, arctigenin could be used as an antagonist to attenuate the effects of UVA irradiation.

Authors : Park See-Hyoung, Cho Jae Youl, Oh Sae Woong, Kang Mingyeong, Lee Seung Eun, Yoo Ju Ah, Jung Kwangseon, Lee Jienny, Lee Sang Yeol, Lee Jongsung,



(10) A novel function of geranylgeraniol in regulating testosterone production.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29303051
Publication Date : //
Isoprenoids play widely differing roles in various physiological processes in animals and plants. Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is an isoprenoid found in plants, and is an important metabolic derivative in the isoprenoid/cholesterol synthesis pathway. Earlier studies focused on GGOH's ability to improve the side effects of bisphosphonate therapy by regulating the mevalonate pathway. More recently, the mevalonate pathway-independent effects of GGOH have been described, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and neuroprotective activities. It is noteworthy that GGOH regulates the steroidogenesis pathway in testis-derived I-10 tumor cells. Testosterone is a hormone produced via steroidogenesis in testicles and plays a role in fetal development and the male reproductive system. GGOH enhanced testosterone and progesterone (its precursor) levels in I-10 cells by activating adenylate cyclase via cAMP/PKA signaling, without altering phosphodiesterase activity. These findings highlight the potential benefits of GGOH as a therapeutic agent for low testosterone levels, such as late-onset hypogonadism in men.

Authors : Ho Hsin-Jung, Shirakawa Hitoshi, Giriwono Puspo E, Ito Asagi, Komai Michio,