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Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E13969Pl] Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma


CSB-E13969Pl | Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Conserved and Divergent Functions of the cAMP/PKA Signaling Pathway in and .[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29890663
Publication Date : //
Fungal species undergo many morphological transitions to adapt to changing environments, an important quality especially in fungal pathogens. For decades, has been one of the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, and recently, the prevalence of as a causative agent of candidiasis has increased. In the ability to switch between yeast and hyphal forms is thought to be a key virulence factor and is regulated by multiple signaling cascades—including the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA), calcineurin, high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways—upon receiving environmental cues. The cAMP/PKA signaling pathway also triggers white-opaque switching in . However, studies on morphogenesis are limited. In this minireview, we discuss the regulation of the yeast-hypha transition, virulence, and white-opaque switching through the cAMP/PKA pathway in the closely related species and .

Authors : Lin Chi-Jan, Chen Ying-Lien,

(2) Encystation: the most prevalent and underinvestigated differentiation pathway of eukaryotes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29620506
Publication Date : //
Not long ago, protists were considered one of four eukaryote kingdoms, but recent gene-based phylogenies show that they contribute to all nine eukaryote subdomains. The former kingdoms of animals, plants and fungi are now relegated to lower ranks within subdomains. Most unicellular protists respond to adverse conditions by differentiating into dormant walled cysts. As cysts, they survive long periods of starvation, drought and other environmental threats, only to re-emerge when conditions improve. For protists pathogens, the resilience of their cysts can prevent successful treatment or eradication of the disease. In this context, effort has been directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms that control encystation. We here firstly summarize the prevalence of encystation across protists and next focus on Amoebozoa, where most of the health-related issues occur. We review current data on processes and genes involved in encystation of the obligate parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the opportunistic pathogen Acanthamoeba. We show how the cAMP-mediated signalling pathway that controls spore and stalk cell encapsulation in Dictyostelium fruiting bodies could be retraced to a stress-induced pathway controlling encystation in solitary Amoebozoa. We highlight the conservation and prevalence of cAMP signalling genes in Amoebozoan genomes and the suprisingly large and varied repertoire of proteins for sensing and processing environmental signals in individual species.

Authors : Schaap Pauline, Schilde Christina,

(3) Cyclic AMP Pathway Activation and Extracellular Zinc Induce Rapid Intracellular Zinc Mobilization in .[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29619016
Publication Date : //
Zinc is an essential micronutrient, required for a range of zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors. In mammalian cells, zinc serves as a second messenger molecule. However, a role for zinc in signaling has not yet been established in the fungal kingdom. Here, we used the intracellular zinc reporter, zinbo-5, which allowed visualization of zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum and other components of the internal membrane system in . We provide evidence for a link between cyclic AMP/PKA- and zinc-signaling in this major human fungal pathogen. Glucose stimulation, which triggers a cyclic AMP spike in this fungus resulted in rapid intracellular zinc mobilization and this "zinc flux" could be stimulated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and blocked via inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA. A similar mobilization of intracellular zinc was generated by stimulation of cells with extracellular zinc and this effect could be reversed with the chelator EDTA. However, zinc-induced zinc flux was found to be cyclic AMP independent. In summary, we show that activation of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway triggers intracellular zinc mobilization in a fungus. To our knowledge, this is the first described link between cyclic AMP signaling and zinc homeostasis in a human fungal pathogen.

Authors : Kjellerup Lasse, Winther Anne-Marie L, Wilson Duncan, Fuglsang Anja T,

(4) An Arabidopsis Clathrin Assembly Protein with a Predicted Role in Plant Defense Can Function as an Adenylate Cyclase.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29570675
Publication Date : //
Adenylate cyclases (ACs), much like guanylate cyclases (GCs), are increasingly recognized as essential parts of many plant processes including biotic and abiotic stress responses. In order to identify novel ACs, we have applied a search motif derived from experimentally tested GCs and identified a number of candidates including a clathrin assembly protein (AT1G68110; AtClAP). AtClAP contains a catalytic centre that can complement the AC-deficient mutant A in , and a recombinant AtClAP fragment (AtClAP) can produce cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in vitro. Furthermore, an integrated analysis of gene expression and expression correlation implicate cAMP in pathogen defense and in actin cytoskeletal remodeling during endocytic internalization.

Authors : Chatukuta Patience, Dikobe Tshegofatso B, Kawadza David T, Sehlabane Katlego S, Takundwa Mutsa M, Wong Aloysius, Gehring Chris, Ruzvidzo Oziniel,

(5) Investigation of Lipid Metabolism by a New Structured Lipid with Medium- and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols from Cinnamomum camphora Seed Oil in Healthy C57BL/6J Mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29429331
Publication Date : //
In the present study, a new structured lipid with medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCTs) was synthesized from camellia oil (CO) and Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) by enzymatic interesterification. Meanwhile, the antiobesity effects of structured lipid were investigated through observing the changes of enzymes related to lipid mobilization in healthy C57BL/6J mice. Results showed that after synthesis, the major triacylgeride (TAG) species of intesterificated product changed to LaCC/CLaC (12.6 ± 0.46%), LaCO/LCL (21.7 ± 0.76%), CCO/LaCL (14.2 ± 0.55%), COO/OCO (10.8 ± 0.43%), and OOO (18.6 ± 0.64%). Through second-stage molecular distillation, the purity of interesterified product (MLCT) achieved 95.6%. Later, male C57BL/6J mice were applied to study whether the new structured lipid with MLCT has the efficacy of preventing the formation of obesity or not. After feeding with different diets for 6 weeks, MLCTs could reduce body weight and fat deposition in adipose tissue, lower plasma triacylglycerols (TG) (0.89 ± 0.16 mmol/L), plasma total cholesterol (TC) (4.03 ± 0.08 mmol/L), and hepatic lipids (382 ± 34.2 mg/mice) by 28.8%, 16.0%, and 30.5%, respectively, when compared to the control 2 group. This was also accompanied by increasing fecal lipids (113%) and the level of enzymes including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) related to lipid mobilization in MLCT group. From the results, it can be concluded that MLCT reduced body fat deposition probably by modulating enzymes related to lipid mobilization in C57BL/6J mice.

Authors : Hu Jiang-Ning, Shen Jin-Rong, Xiong Chao-Yue, Zhu Xue-Mei, Deng Ze-Yuan,

(6) Arctigenin protects against ultraviolet-A-induced damage to stemness through inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29317250
Publication Date : //
The stemness of stem cells is negatively affected by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. This study was performed to examine the effects of arctigenin on UVA-irradiation-induced damage to the stemness of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from adipose tissue. The mechanisms of action of arctigenin were also investigated. A BrdU-incorporation assay demonstrated that arctigenin attenuated the UVA-induced reduction of the cellular proliferative potential. Arctigenin also increased the UVA-induced reduction in stemness of hMSCs by upregulating stemness-related genes such as SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG. In addition, the UVA-induced reduction in the mRNA expression level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by arctigenin. The antagonizing effect of arctigenin on UVA irradiation was mediated by reduced PGE production through the inhibition of MAPKs (p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and JNK) and NF-κB. Overall, these findings suggest that arctigenin can ameliorate the reduced stemness of hMSCs induced by UVA irradiation. The effects of arctigenin are mediated by PGE-cAMP signaling-dependent upregulation of HIF-1α. Therefore, arctigenin could be used as an antagonist to attenuate the effects of UVA irradiation.

Authors : Park See-Hyoung, Cho Jae Youl, Oh Sae Woong, Kang Mingyeong, Lee Seung Eun, Yoo Ju Ah, Jung Kwangseon, Lee Jienny, Lee Sang Yeol, Lee Jongsung,

(7) Antiplatelet mechanism of an herbal mixture prepared from the extracts of Phyllostachys pubescens leaves and Prunus mume fruits.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29258493
Publication Date : //
Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) leaves and Japanese apricot (Mume fructus) fruit are traditionally recognized to be safe herbs broadly used for food and medicinal purposes in Southeast Asia. Our group previously explored their antiplatelet effects. This study was designed to confirm inhibition effects of PM21 (a 2:1 mixture of bamboo leaf extract and Japanese apricot fruit extract) on platelet aggregation and evaluate its potency to use as an herbal remedy to prevent and/or treat the diseases caused by platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.

Authors : Son Eunjung, Kim Seung-Hyung, Yang Won-Kyung, Kim Dong-Seon, Cha Jimin,

(8) Protein kinase A governs growth and virulence in Candida tropicalis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29254431
Publication Date : //
Candida tropicalis is one of the most important human fungal pathogens causing superficial infections in locations such as the oral mucosa and genital tract, as well as systemic infections with high mortality. In its sister species Candida albicans, the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway regulates fungal adhesion and dimorphism, both of which correlate closely with virulence. CaTpk1 and CaTpk2, the catalytic subunits of PKA, not only share redundant functions in hyphal growth, adhesion, and biofilm formation, but also have distinct roles in stress responses and pathogenesis, respectively. However, studies on PKA in the emerging fungal pathogen C. tropicalis are limited. Our results suggest that Tpk1 is involved in cell wall integrity and drug tolerance. The tpk2/tpk2 mutants, which have no protein kinase A activity, have reduced hyphal growth and adhesion. In addition, the tpk1/tpk1 tpk2/tpk2 double deletion mutant demonstrated delayed growth and impaired hyphal formation. In a murine model of systemic infection, both TPK1 and TPK2 were required for full virulence. We further found that EFG1 and HWP1 expression is regulated by PKA, while BCR1, FLO8, GAL4, and RIM101 are upregulated in the tpk1/tpk1 tpk2/tpk2 mutant. This study demonstrates that Tpk1 is involved in drug tolerance and cell wall integrity, while Tpk2 serves as a key regulator in dimorphism and adhesion. Both Tpk1 and Tpk2 are required for growth and full virulence in C. tropicalis.

Authors : Lin Chi-Jan, Wu Chia-Yen, Yu Shang-Jie, Chen Ying-Lien,

(9) An adenylyl cyclase like-9 gene (NlAC9) influences growth and fecundity in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29236776
Publication Date : //
The cAMP/PKA intracellular signaling pathway is launched by adenylyl cyclase (AC) conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to 3', 5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent activation of PKA. Although this pathway is very well known in insect physiology, there is little to no information on it in some very small pest insects, such as the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål. BPH is a destructive pest responsible for tremendous crop losses in rice cropping systems. We are investigating the potentials of novel pest management technologies from RNA interference perspective. Based on analysis of transcriptomic data, the BPH AC like-9 gene (NlAC9) was up-regulated in post-mating females, which led us to pose the hypothesis that NlAC9 is a target gene that would lead to reduced BPH fitness and populations. Targeting NlAC9 led to substantially decreased soluble ovarian protein content, yeast-like symbiont abundance, and vitellogenin gene expression, accompanied with stunted ovarian development and body size. Eggs laid were decreased and oviposition period shortened. Taken together, our findings indicated that NlAC9 exerted pronounced effects on female fecundity, growth and longevity, which strongly supports our hypothesis.

Authors : Ge LinQuan, Gu HaoTian, Huang Bo, Song Qisheng, Stanley David, Liu Fang, Yang Guo-Qing, Wu Jin-Cai,

(10) Genistein attenuates isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and improves impaired spatial learning and memory by regulating cAMP/CREB and BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29200900
Publication Date : //
Anesthetics are used extensively in surgeries and related procedures to prevent pain. However, there is some concern regarding neuronal degeneration and cognitive deficits arising from regular anesthetic exposure. Recent studies have indicated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are involved in learning and memory processes. Genistein, a plant-derived isoflavone, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects. The present study was performed to examine the protective effect of genistein against isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Neonatal rats were exposed to isoflurane (0.75%, 6 hours) on postnatal day 7 (P7). Separate groups of rat pups were orally administered genistein at doses of 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg body weight from P3 to P15 and then exposed to isoflurane anesthesia on P7. Neuronal apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay and FluoroJade B staining following isoflurane exposure. Genistein significantly reduced apoptosis in the hippocampus, reduced the expression of proapoptotic factors (Bad, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3), and increased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. RT-PCR analysis revealed enhanced BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels. Genistein effectively upregulated cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB and TrkB, leading to activation of cAMP/CREB-BDNF-TrkB signaling. PI3K/Akt signaling was also significantly activated. Genistein administration improved general behavior and enhanced learning and memory in the rats. These observations suggest that genistein exerts neuroprotective effects by suppressing isoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis and by activating cAMP/CREB-BDNF-TrkB-PI3/Akt signaling.

Authors : Jiang Tao, Wang Xiu-Qin, Ding Chuan, Du Xue-Lian,