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Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E13969Pl] Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E13969Pl | Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Downstream Targets of Cyclic Nucleotides in Plants.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30327660
Publication Date : //
Efficient integration of various external and internal signals is required to maintain adaptive cellular function. Numerous distinct signal transduction systems have evolved to allow cells to receive these inputs, to translate their codes and, subsequently, to expand and integrate their meanings. Two of these, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, together referred to as the cyclic nucleotide signaling system, are between them. The cyclic nucleotides regulate a vast number of processes in almost all living organisms. Once synthesized by adenylyl or guanylyl cyclases, cyclic nucleotides transduce signals by acting through a number of cellular effectors. Because the activities of several of these effectors are altered simultaneously in response to temporal changes in cyclic nucleotide levels, agents that increase cAMP/cGMP levels can trigger multiple signaling events that markedly affect numerous cellular functions. In this mini review, we summarize recent evidence supporting the existence of cNMP effectors in plant cells. Specifically, we highlight cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), cGMP-dependent kinase G (PKG), and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Essentially this manuscript documents the progress that has been achieved in recent decades in improving our understanding of the regulation and function of cNMPs in plants and emphasizes the current gaps and unanswered questions in this field of plant signaling research.

Authors : Świeżawska Brygida, Duszyn Maria, Jaworski Krzysztof, Szmidt-Jaworska Adriana,



(2) Potential anti-vitiligo properties of cynarine extracted from Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30226537
Publication Date : //
Vitiligo is a depigmentation disorder of the skin. It is primarily caused by the destruction of melanocytes or obstruction of the melanin synthesis pathway. Melanin is a type of skin pigment that determines skin color. The seeds of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd (Kaliziri) are used for treating skin diseases including vitiligo in traditional Uyghur medicine. 1,5‑Dicaffeoylquinic acid (1,5‑diCQA) is a natural polyphenolic compound widely distributed in plants and extracted from Kaliziri seeds. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of 1,5‑diCQA on melanin synthesis in B16 cell was evaluated, and its molecular mechanism was explored. The results indicated that 1,5‑diCQA treatment of B16 cells stimulated an increase of intracellular melanin level and tyrosinase (TYR) activity without cytotoxicity. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction results also indicated that 1,5‑diCQA may markedly improve the protein expression and RNA transcription of microphthalmia‑associated transcription factor (MITF), melanogenic enzyme Tyr, tyrosinase‑related protein 1 (TRP 1) and tyrosinase‑related protein 2 (TRP 2). Additional results identified that 1,5‑diCQA may promote the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK. Notably, the increased levels of intracellular melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression induced by 1,5‑diCQA treatment were significantly attenuated by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H‑89. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration and phosphorylation of cAMP‑response element binding protein was increased following 1,5‑diCQA treatment. These results indicated that 1,5‑diCQA stimulated melanogenesis via the MAPK and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways in B16 cells, which has potential therapeutic implications for vitiligo.

Authors : Mamat Nuramina, Lu Xue Ying, Kabas Maidina, Aisa Haji Akber,



(3) Effects of CREB1 gene silencing on cognitive dysfunction by mediating PKA-CREB signaling pathway in mice with vascular dementia.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30134805
Publication Date : //
As a form of dementia primarily affecting the elderly, vascular dementia (VD) is characterized by changes in the supply of blood to the brain, resulting in cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects involved with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding (CREB)1 gene silencing on cognitive dysfunction through meditation of the protein kinase A (PKA)-CREB signaling pathway in mice with VD.

Authors : Han Xin-Rui, Wen Xin, Wang Yong-Jian, Wang Shan, Shen Min, Zhang Zi-Feng, Fan Shao-Hua, Shan Qun, Wang Liang, Li Meng-Qiu, Hu Bin, Sun Chun-Hui, Wu Dong-Mei, Lu Jun, Zheng Yuan-Lin,



(4) Aluminum toxicity related to SOD and expression of presenilin and CREB in Bombyx mori.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29978503
Publication Date : //
Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental metal factor that can be potentially associated with pathological changes leading to neurotoxicity. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect and has also been used as a model organism in various research areas. However, the toxicity of Al on silkworm physiology has not been reported. Here, we comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of Al on the silkworm, focusing on its effects on viability and development, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and the expression of presenilin and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in BmE cells and silkworm larvae. BmE cell viability decreased after treatment with aluminum chloride (AlCl ) in both dose- and time-dependent manners. When AlCl solution was injected into newly hatched fifth instar larvae, both larval weight gain and survival rate were significantly decreased in a manner correlating with AlCl dose and developmental stage. Furthermore, when BmE cells and silkworm larvae were exposed to AlCl , SOD activity decreased significantly relative to the control group, whereas presenilin expression increased more than twofold. Additionally, CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) expression in the heads of fifth instar larvae decreased by 28.0% and 50.0%, respectively. These results indicate that Al inhibits the growth and development of silkworms in vitro and in vivo, altering SOD activity and the expressions of presenilin, CREB, and p-CREB. Our data suggest that B. mori can serve as a model animal for studying Al-induced neurotoxicity or neurodegeneration.

Authors : Liu Longhai, Qian Xiaoran, Chao Mengling, Zhao Yijiao, Huang Junyi, Wang Taichu, Sun Fan, Ling Erjun, Song Hongsheng,



(5) Melatonin: A Multifunctional Molecule That Triggers Defense Responses against High Light and Nitrogen Starvation Stress in Haematococcus pluvialis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29975059
Publication Date : //
Melatonin (MLT), a ubiquitously distributed small molecule, functions in plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the interactions between melatonin and other important molecules in Haematococcus pluvialis response stresses are largely unknown. In the present study, exogenous melatonin improved H. pluvialis resistance to nitrogen starvation and high light. We concluded that exogenous melatonin treatment prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and limited cell damage induced by abiotic stress through activation of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants. Astaxanthin, a major antioxidant in H. pluvialis cells, exhibited a 2.25-fold increase in content after treatment with melatonin. The maximal astaxanthin content was 32.4 mg g. The functional roles of the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway induced by melatonin were also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that cAMP signaling pathways are positively associated with microalgal astaxanthin biosynthesis. Additionally, the NO-dependent MAPK signaling cascade is activated in response to astaxanthin accumulation induced by melatonin, confirming that MAPK is a target of NO action in physiological processes. This work is the first to use H. pluvialis as in vivo model and documents the influence of melatonin on the physiological response to abiotic stress in this microalgae.

Authors : Ding Wei, Zhao Yongteng, Xu Jun-Wei, Zhao Peng, Li Tao, Ma Huixian, Reiter Russel J, Yu Xuya,



(6) Conserved and Divergent Functions of the cAMP/PKA Signaling Pathway in and .[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29890663
Publication Date : //
Fungal species undergo many morphological transitions to adapt to changing environments, an important quality especially in fungal pathogens. For decades, has been one of the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, and recently, the prevalence of as a causative agent of candidiasis has increased. In the ability to switch between yeast and hyphal forms is thought to be a key virulence factor and is regulated by multiple signaling cascades—including the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA), calcineurin, high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways—upon receiving environmental cues. The cAMP/PKA signaling pathway also triggers white-opaque switching in . However, studies on morphogenesis are limited. In this minireview, we discuss the regulation of the yeast-hypha transition, virulence, and white-opaque switching through the cAMP/PKA pathway in the closely related species and .

Authors : Lin Chi-Jan, Chen Ying-Lien,



(7) Total flavonoid extract of Epimedium herb increases the peak bone mass of young rats involving enhanced activation of the AC10/cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29783019
Publication Date : //
Epimedium sagittatum brevicornum Maxim. is an important traditional Chinese herb that has long been used to promote bone fracture healing and treat osteoporosis.

Authors : Xi Hui-Rong, Ma Hui-Ping, Yang Fang-Fang, Gao Yu-Hai, Zhou Jian, Wang Yuan-Yuan, Li Wen-Yuan, Xian Cory J, Chen Ke-Ming,



(8) P-like signaling protein SbtB links cAMP sensing with cyanobacterial inorganic carbon response.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29735650
Publication Date : //
Cyanobacteria are phototrophic prokaryotes that evolved oxygenic photosynthesis ∼2.7 billion y ago and are presently responsible for ∼10% of total global photosynthetic production. To cope with the evolutionary pressure of dropping ambient CO concentrations, they evolved a CO-concentrating mechanism (CCM) to augment intracellular inorganic carbon (C) levels for efficient CO fixation. However, how cyanobacteria sense the fluctuation in C is poorly understood. Here we present biochemical, structural, and physiological insights into SbtB, a unique P-like signaling protein, which provides new insights into C sensing. SbtB is highly conserved in cyanobacteria and is coexpressed with CCM genes. The SbtB protein from the cyanobacterium sp. PCC 6803 bound a variety of adenosine nucleotides, including the second messenger cAMP. Cocrystal structures unraveled the individual binding modes of trimeric SbtB with AMP and cAMP. The nucleotide-binding pocket is located between the subunit clefts of SbtB, perfectly matching the structure of canonical P proteins. This clearly indicates that proteins of the P superfamily arose from a common ancestor, whose structurally conserved nucleotide-binding pocket has evolved to sense different adenyl nucleotides for various signaling functions. Moreover, we provide physiological and biochemical evidence for the involvement of SbtB in C acclimation. Collectively, our results suggest that SbtB acts as a C sensor protein via cAMP binding, highlighting an evolutionarily conserved role for cAMP in signaling the cellular carbon status.

Authors : Selim Khaled A, Haase Florian, Hartmann Marcus D, Hagemann Martin, Forchhammer Karl,



(9) Mansonone E from Mansonia gagei Inhibited α-MSH-Induced Melanogenesis in B16 Cells by Inhibiting CREB Expression and Phosphorylation in the PI3K/Akt Pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29709914
Publication Date : //
Many natural products that inhibit melanogenesis, freckles, and hyperpigmentation have been selectively used in cosmetics because melanogenesis is linked to the multiple biogenesis cascades of melanin synthesis. However, some of these compounds have side effects that may result in their restriction in the future. We report here the isolation and structural elucidation of compounds extracted from Mansonia gagei and evaluate their activity on melanogenesis inhibition. We isolated five known compounds from M. gagei and identified them as mansonone E (1), mansorin I (2), populene F (3), mansonone G (4), and mansorin B (5). After evaluating the five compounds for cytotoxicity against B16 cells and inhibitory activity on α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) induced melanogenesis, we determined that the cytotoxicity and melanogenesis-inhibitory effect of 1 were relatively low and high, respectively. Next, the effect of 1 on the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was assessed; it was confirmed that 1 dose-dependently inhibited the expression levels of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) which were increased after stimulation by α-MSH. Furthermore, the effects of 1 on the phosphorylation levels of intracellular signaling pathway-related proteins were evaluated, and it was found that 1 dose-dependently rescued the phosphorylation of Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), which were up- or down-regulated after stimulation by α-MSH. In contrast, treatment with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitor wortmannin enhanced melanogenesis inhibition by mansonone E. Cumulatively, the data suggest that 1 suppresses α-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16 cells by inhibiting both phosphorylation in the PI3K/Akt pathway and the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins.

Authors : Nishina Atsuyoshi, Miura Airi, Goto Masaharu, Terakado Kahori, Sato Daisuke, Kimura Hirokazu, Hirai Yasuaki, Sato Hiroyasu, Phay Nyunt,



(10) Akebia quinata Decaisne aqueous extract acts as a novel anti-fatigue agent in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29630998
Publication Date : //
Akebia quinata Decaisne extract (AQE; Lardizabalaceae) is used in traditional herbal medicine for stress- and fatigue-related depression, improvement of fatigue, and mental relaxation.

Authors : Park Sun Haeng, Jang Seol, Lee Si Woo, Park Sun Dong, Sung Yoon-Young, Kim Ho Kyoung,