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Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E13969Pl] Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E13969Pl | Plant cyclic adenosine monophosphate,cAMP ELISA Kit, Species Plant, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) MoImd4 mediates crosstalk between MoPdeH-cAMP signaling and purine metabolism to govern growth and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30426699
Publication Date : //
The high-affinity cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase MoPdeH is important not only for cAMP signaling and pathogenicity, but also for cell wall integrity (CWI) maintenance in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. To explore the underlying mechanism, we identified MoImd4 as an inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) homolog that interacts with MoPdeH. Targeted deletion of MoIMD4 resulted in reduced de novo purine biosynthesis and growth, as well as attenuated pathogenicity, which were suppressed by exogenous xanthosine monophosphate (XMP). Treatment with mycophenolic acid (MPA) that specifically inhibits MoImd4 activity resulted in reduced growth and virulence attenuation. Intriguingly, further analysis showed that MoImd4 promotes the MoPdeH phosphodiesterase activity thereby decreasing intracellular cAMP levels, and MoPdeH also promotes the IMP dehydrogenase activity of MoImd4. Our studies revealed the presence of a novel crosstalk between cAMP regulation and purine biosynthesis in M. oryzae and indicated that such a link is also important in pathogenesis of M. oryzae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Authors : Yang Lina, Ru Yanyan, Cai Xingjia, Yin Ziyi, Liu Xinyu, Xiao Yuhan, Zhang Haifeng, Zheng Xiaobo, Wang Ping, Zhang Zhengguang,



(2) Cellophane surface-induced gene, VdCSIN1, regulates hyphopodium formation and pathogenesis via cAMP-mediated signalling in Verticillium dahliae.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30341832
Publication Date : //
The soil-borne vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects many dicotyledonous plants to cause devastating wilt diseases. During colonization, V. dahliae spores develop hyphae surrounding the roots. Only a few hyphae that adhere tightly to the root surface form hyphopodia at the infection site, which further differentiate into penetration pegs to facilitate infection. The molecular mechanisms controlling hyphopodium formation in V. dahliae remain unclear. Here, we uncovered a cellophane surface-induced gene (VdCSIN1) as a regulator of V. dahliae hyphopodium formation and pathogenesis. Deletion of VdCSIN1 compromises hyphopodium formation, hyphal development and pathogenesis. Exogenous application of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) degradation inhibitor or disruption of the cAMP phosphodiesterase gene (VdPDEH) partially restores hyphopodium formation in the VdΔcsin1 mutant. Moreover, deletion of VdPDEH partially restores the pathogenesis of the VdΔcsin1 mutant. These findings indicate that VdCSIN1 regulates hyphopodium formation via cAMP-mediated signalling to promote host colonization by V. dahliae.

Authors : Sun Lifan, Qin Jun, Rong Wei, Ni Hao, Guo Hui-Shan, Zhang Jie,



(3) Downstream Targets of Cyclic Nucleotides in Plants.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30327660
Publication Date : //
Efficient integration of various external and internal signals is required to maintain adaptive cellular function. Numerous distinct signal transduction systems have evolved to allow cells to receive these inputs, to translate their codes and, subsequently, to expand and integrate their meanings. Two of these, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, together referred to as the cyclic nucleotide signaling system, are between them. The cyclic nucleotides regulate a vast number of processes in almost all living organisms. Once synthesized by adenylyl or guanylyl cyclases, cyclic nucleotides transduce signals by acting through a number of cellular effectors. Because the activities of several of these effectors are altered simultaneously in response to temporal changes in cyclic nucleotide levels, agents that increase cAMP/cGMP levels can trigger multiple signaling events that markedly affect numerous cellular functions. In this mini review, we summarize recent evidence supporting the existence of cNMP effectors in plant cells. Specifically, we highlight cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), cGMP-dependent kinase G (PKG), and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Essentially this manuscript documents the progress that has been achieved in recent decades in improving our understanding of the regulation and function of cNMPs in plants and emphasizes the current gaps and unanswered questions in this field of plant signaling research.

Authors : Świeżawska Brygida, Duszyn Maria, Jaworski Krzysztof, Szmidt-Jaworska Adriana,



(4) Potential anti-vitiligo properties of cynarine extracted from Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30226537
Publication Date : //
Vitiligo is a depigmentation disorder of the skin. It is primarily caused by the destruction of melanocytes or obstruction of the melanin synthesis pathway. Melanin is a type of skin pigment that determines skin color. The seeds of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd (Kaliziri) are used for treating skin diseases including vitiligo in traditional Uyghur medicine. 1,5‑Dicaffeoylquinic acid (1,5‑diCQA) is a natural polyphenolic compound widely distributed in plants and extracted from Kaliziri seeds. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of 1,5‑diCQA on melanin synthesis in B16 cell was evaluated, and its molecular mechanism was explored. The results indicated that 1,5‑diCQA treatment of B16 cells stimulated an increase of intracellular melanin level and tyrosinase (TYR) activity without cytotoxicity. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction results also indicated that 1,5‑diCQA may markedly improve the protein expression and RNA transcription of microphthalmia‑associated transcription factor (MITF), melanogenic enzyme Tyr, tyrosinase‑related protein 1 (TRP 1) and tyrosinase‑related protein 2 (TRP 2). Additional results identified that 1,5‑diCQA may promote the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK. Notably, the increased levels of intracellular melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression induced by 1,5‑diCQA treatment were significantly attenuated by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H‑89. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration and phosphorylation of cAMP‑response element binding protein was increased following 1,5‑diCQA treatment. These results indicated that 1,5‑diCQA stimulated melanogenesis via the MAPK and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways in B16 cells, which has potential therapeutic implications for vitiligo.

Authors : Mamat Nuramina, Lu Xue Ying, Kabas Maidina, Aisa Haji Akber,



(5) Effects of CREB1 gene silencing on cognitive dysfunction by mediating PKA-CREB signaling pathway in mice with vascular dementia.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30134805
Publication Date : //
As a form of dementia primarily affecting the elderly, vascular dementia (VD) is characterized by changes in the supply of blood to the brain, resulting in cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects involved with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding (CREB)1 gene silencing on cognitive dysfunction through meditation of the protein kinase A (PKA)-CREB signaling pathway in mice with VD.

Authors : Han Xin-Rui, Wen Xin, Wang Yong-Jian, Wang Shan, Shen Min, Zhang Zi-Feng, Fan Shao-Hua, Shan Qun, Wang Liang, Li Meng-Qiu, Hu Bin, Sun Chun-Hui, Wu Dong-Mei, Lu Jun, Zheng Yuan-Lin,



(6) Thyme extract increases mucociliary-beating frequency in primary cell lines from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30021361
Publication Date : //
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disorder characterized by a progressive and irreversible airflow limitation. COPD is associated to a chronic inflammatory response with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the surface epithelium of large airways and abnormalities in structure and functions of cilia. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a traditional medicinal plant of the Mediterranean area used to treat respiratory disorders. We previously evidenced that thyme extract reduce IL-1beta and IL-8, by downregulating the activated NF-κB levels, suggesting its potential therapeutically use in COPD. Cilia beating frequency (CBF) is dramatically impaired in COPD and different pharmacological agents can modulate cilia function. Herein we evaluated the effect of a commercial thyme extract in modulating CBF by measuring its activity in stimulating cAMP, Ca levels and CBF in a MucilAir 3D human COPD airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro system using salmeterol, YM976, isoproterenol and GSK1016790 A as positive controls. Results showed that thyme extract increased cAMP levels starting from 12 h post-treatment, decreased extracellular Ca levels and increased the CBF in airway epithelia from COPD donors. Overall, this work demonstrated that thyme extract is effective in stimulating CBF by inducing an increase of cAMP and Ca levels, thus supporting its therapeutical use in the treatment of COPD.

Authors : Nabissi Massimo, Marinelli Oliviero, Morelli Maria Beatrice, Nicotra Giovanna, Iannarelli Romilde, Amantini Consuelo, Santoni Giorgio, Maggi Filippo,



(7) Extract Supplementation Attenuates Memory Deficits by Modulating BDNF-CREB and Its Downstream Molecules, in Animal Models of Memory Impairment.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30018265
Publication Date : //
Cholinergic dysfunction, impaired brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cAMP response element binding protein (BDNF-CREB) signaling are one of the major pathological hallmarks of cognitive impairment. Therefore, improving cholinergic neurotransmission, and regulating the BDNF-CREB pathway by downregulating apoptosis genes is one strategy for inhibiting the etiology of dementia. This study evaluates the potential effects of MIQ (SS) extract against cognitive dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms. SS supplementation for 33 days improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment symptoms in Morris water maze test and Y-maze test. SS reduced the acetylcholineesterase activity and significantly increase acetylcholine and cholineacetyltransferase activity in the brain. In the subsequent mechanism study, SS regulated the mRNA expression level of neuronal plasticity molecules such as (nerve growth factor) NGF, BDNF, CREB, and its downstream molecules such as Bcl-2 and Egr-1 by downregulating the neuronal apoptosis targets in both hippocampus and frontal cortex. Additionally, inward currents caused by SS in hippocampal CA1 neurons was partially blocked by the GABA receptor antagonist picrotoxin (50 μM), suggesting that SS acts on synaptic/extrasynaptic GABA receptors. These findings indicate that SS may function in a way that is similar to nootropic drugs by inhibiting cholinergic abnormalities, and neuronal apoptosis targets and ultimately increasing the expression of BDNF-CREB.

Authors : Ravichandran Vijaya Abinaya, Kim Mina, Han Seong Kyu, Cha Youn Soo,



(8) Aluminum toxicity related to SOD and expression of presenilin and CREB in Bombyx mori.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29978503
Publication Date : //
Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental metal factor that can be potentially associated with pathological changes leading to neurotoxicity. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important economic insect and has also been used as a model organism in various research areas. However, the toxicity of Al on silkworm physiology has not been reported. Here, we comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of Al on the silkworm, focusing on its effects on viability and development, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and the expression of presenilin and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in BmE cells and silkworm larvae. BmE cell viability decreased after treatment with aluminum chloride (AlCl ) in both dose- and time-dependent manners. When AlCl solution was injected into newly hatched fifth instar larvae, both larval weight gain and survival rate were significantly decreased in a manner correlating with AlCl dose and developmental stage. Furthermore, when BmE cells and silkworm larvae were exposed to AlCl , SOD activity decreased significantly relative to the control group, whereas presenilin expression increased more than twofold. Additionally, CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) expression in the heads of fifth instar larvae decreased by 28.0% and 50.0%, respectively. These results indicate that Al inhibits the growth and development of silkworms in vitro and in vivo, altering SOD activity and the expressions of presenilin, CREB, and p-CREB. Our data suggest that B. mori can serve as a model animal for studying Al-induced neurotoxicity or neurodegeneration.

Authors : Liu Longhai, Qian Xiaoran, Chao Mengling, Zhao Yijiao, Huang Junyi, Wang Taichu, Sun Fan, Ling Erjun, Song Hongsheng,



(9) Melatonin: A Multifunctional Molecule That Triggers Defense Responses against High Light and Nitrogen Starvation Stress in Haematococcus pluvialis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29975059
Publication Date : //
Melatonin (MLT), a ubiquitously distributed small molecule, functions in plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the interactions between melatonin and other important molecules in Haematococcus pluvialis response stresses are largely unknown. In the present study, exogenous melatonin improved H. pluvialis resistance to nitrogen starvation and high light. We concluded that exogenous melatonin treatment prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and limited cell damage induced by abiotic stress through activation of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants. Astaxanthin, a major antioxidant in H. pluvialis cells, exhibited a 2.25-fold increase in content after treatment with melatonin. The maximal astaxanthin content was 32.4 mg g. The functional roles of the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway induced by melatonin were also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that cAMP signaling pathways are positively associated with microalgal astaxanthin biosynthesis. Additionally, the NO-dependent MAPK signaling cascade is activated in response to astaxanthin accumulation induced by melatonin, confirming that MAPK is a target of NO action in physiological processes. This work is the first to use H. pluvialis as in vivo model and documents the influence of melatonin on the physiological response to abiotic stress in this microalgae.

Authors : Ding Wei, Zhao Yongteng, Xu Jun-Wei, Zhao Peng, Li Tao, Ma Huixian, Reiter Russel J, Yu Xuya,



(10) Possible mechanism of Vitis vinifera L. flavones on neurotransmitters, synaptic transmission and related learning and memory in Alzheimer model rats.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29973282
Publication Date : //
This study explored the possible mechanism of flavones from Vitis vinifera L. (VTF) on neurotransmitters, synaptic transmission and related learning and memory in rats with Alzheimer disease (AD).

Authors : Ma Lijuan, Xiao Hui, Wen Juan, Liu Zhan, He Yi, Yuan Fang,