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IgG (Fc), Goat anti_Mouse; ELISA

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[#YSRTSTAR120] IgG (Fc), Goat anti_Mouse; ELISA


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(1) Enzyme-assisted polymer film degradation-enabled biomolecule sensing with poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-based optical devices.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29254565
Publication Date : //
A biosensor for mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was generated from responsive polymer-based interference filters (etalons). To accomplish this, an excess amount of alkaline phosphatase-modified goat anti-mouse IgG (AP-GAM, F(ab') fragment specific to mouse IgG) was added to mouse IgG, and allowed to react for some time. After a given reaction time, the bound AP-GAM could be isolated from the unbound, excess AP-GAM by addition of goat anti-mouse IgG (Fc fragment specific)-modified magnetic microspheres (GAM-M) that bind the mouse IgG bound to AP-GAM. After application of a magnetic field, the free, unbound AP-GAM was isolated from the mixture and exposed to an etalon that has its upper Au surface modified with phosphate-containing polymer that can be degraded by AP-GAM. By the phosphate-containing polymer being degraded by the excess AP-GAM, the cleaved phosphate groups can diffuse into the interference filter's active polymer layer that yields a change in the optical properties that can be related to the amount of IgG in the sample. This concept is extremely straightforward to implement, and can be modified to detect a variety of other analytes of interest.

Authors : Zhang Wei, Wei Menglian, Carvalho Wildemar S P, Serpe Michael J,

(2) Protein L: a novel reagent for the detection of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expression by flow cytometry.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22330761
Publication Date : //
There has been significant progress in the last two decades on the design of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for adoptive immunotherapy targeting tumor-associated antigens. Structurally CARs consist of a single chain antibody fragment directed against a tumor-associated antigen fused to an extracellular spacer and transmembrane domain followed by T cell cytoplasmic signaling moieties. Currently several clinical trials are underway using gene modified peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with CARs directed against a variety of tumor associated antigens. Despite the improvements in the design of CARs and expansion of the number of target antigens, there is no universal flow cytometric method available to detect the expression of CARs on the surface of transduced lymphocytes.

Authors : Zheng Zhili, Chinnasamy Nachimuthu, Morgan Richard A,

(3) Flow immunoassay of trinitrophenol based on a surface plasmon resonance sensor using a one-pot immunoreaction with a high molecular weight conjugate.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :18970305
Publication Date : //
A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor based on a competitive immunoreaction for the determination of trinitrophenol (TNP) is described. A goat anti-mouse IgG (1st antibody), which recognizes an Fc moiety of an antibody, was immobilized on a gold film of an SPR sensor chip by physical adsorption. A TNP solution containing a fixed concentration of a mouse anti-TNP monoclonal antibody (2nd antibody) and a TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was incubated in one-pot and introduced into the sensor chip. The TNP-KLH conjugate competes with TNP for binding with the 2nd antibody. The resulting complex of the 2nd antibody with the TNP-KLH conjugate was bound to the 1st antibody, which is immobilized on the sensor chip. The SPR sensor signal based on resonance angle shift is dependent on the concentration of TNP in the incubation solution in the range from 25ppt to 25ppb, and the coefficient of variation of the SPR signals for the 25ppb TNP solution was determined to be 13% (n=4). The experimental results for the adsorption constant of the 1st antibody on the sensor chip and the binding constant of the 1st antibody complex with the 2nd antibody are discussed, together with theoretical considerations.

Authors : Kobayashi Masatoshi, Sato Masahiro, Li Yan, Soh Nobuaki, Nakano Koji, Toko Kiyoshi, Miura Norio, Matsumoto Kiyoshi, Hemmi Akihide, Asano Yasukazu, Imato Toshihiko,

(4) Apoptosis of malignant human B cells by ligation of CD20 with monoclonal antibodies.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :9473230
Publication Date : //
CD20 is a nonglycosylated 33 to 37 kD phosphoprotein involved in B-cell signaling that subserves important functions in the regulation of B-cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition, this B-cell surface antigen has been shown recently to be an effective target for immunotherapy of B-cell malignancies using chimeric (mouse/human) or radiolabeled murine monoclonal anti-CD20 antibodies. In this report we show that extensive crosslinking of CD20 with murine anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in the presence of either goat anti-mouse IgG or Fc receptor (FcR)-expressing cells directly inhibits B-cell proliferation, induces nuclear DNA fragmentation, and leads to cell death by apoptosis. The apoptotic effects of these MoAbs can be inhibited by chelation of extracellular or intracellular Ca2+ by EGTA or Bapta AM, indicating that anti-CD20-mediated apoptosis may be related to changes in Ca2+ concentration. These findings suggest that ligation of CD20 in vivo by anti-CD20 antibodies in the presence of FcR-expressing cells may initiate signal transduction events that induce elevation of [Ca2+]i and lead to apoptosis of malignant B cells, thereby contributing to the impressive tumor regressions observed in mouse models and clinical trials using anti-CD20 MoAbs.

Authors : Shan D, Ledbetter J A, Press O W,

(5) Piezoelectric immunosensors for urine specimens of Chlamydia trachomatis employing quartz crystal microbalance microgravimetric analyses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :9286162
Publication Date : //
The assembly of a biosensor for Chlamydia trachomatis based on the microgravimetric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) analysis of the bacteria association to an antibody-functionalized electrode is described. The sensing interfaces consist of a primary cystamine monolayer assembled onto Au electrodes associated with the quartz crystal. The monolayer is further modified with sulfosuccinylimidyl 4-(p-maleimidophenyl)butyrate (sulfo-SMPB) and the goat IgG-anti-mouse IgG Fc-specific Ab or the fragmented F(ab')2 anti-mouse IgG Ab that act as sublayers for the association of the sensor-active anti-C. trachomatis LPS-Ab. Bacteria in the concentration range from 260 ng.mL-1 to 7.8 micrograms.mL-1 are sensed by the functionalized crystals. The association of C. trachomatis to the sensing interface can be confirmed and amplified via interaction of the crystal with various anti-C. trachomatis antibodies. Urine-pretreated functionalized quartz crystals are applied in the analysis of C. trachomatis in urine samples. The sensitivity limits of the electrodes for sensing the bacteria in urine samples corresponds to approximately 260 ng.mL-1. The functionalized crystals assembled via association of anti-C. trachomatis LPS-Ab to the fragmented F(ab')2 anti-mouse IgG Ab reveal long-term stability upon storage at 4 degrees C.

Authors : Ben-Dov I, Willner I, Zisman E,

(6) Cloning and expression of a single-chain antibody fragment specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :8874516
Publication Date : //
The gene for a single-chain antibody (VHK) to a conformational epitope on the type A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particle was assembled and expressed in Escherichia coli. The VHK, purified from periplasmic extracts immunoprecipitated virus as efficiently as its parental monoclonal antibody (MAb) and exhibited the same binding specificity when tested against panel of natural and genetically engineered virus particles. The VHK neutralized type A12 virus in the presence of goat anti-mouse IgG; however, in the absence of the second antibody, only weak neutralizing activity was detected. Preliminary analysis of the mechanism of viral neutralization indicated that both the MAb and the VHK neutralize by the same mechanism. Small amounts of the VHK allowed infection of cells via Fc receptor-mediated adsorption in the presence of the second antibody. These data represent the first report of a single-chain neutralizing antibody for a picornavirus and provide insights into the mechanisms of viral neutralization and virus uptake.

Authors : Mason P, Berinstein A, Baxt B, Parsells R, Kang A, Rieder E,

(7) Monoclonal antibody 197 (anti-Fc gamma RI) infusion in a patient with immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) results in down-modulation of Fc gamma RI on circulating monocytes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :8616043
Publication Date : //
A 44-year old woman with refractory immune thrombocytopenia purpura was treated with the murine monoclonal antibody 197 in a phase 1 trial. It vitro studies have demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody 197 (subclass IgG2a) binds to two distinct epitopes of Fc gamma RI, with the constant domain binding to the Fc-binding portion of the Fc gamma RI and the variable domain binding to a different epitope, resulting in crosslinking and modulation of this receptor. The monoclonal antibody 197 was administered on days 1, 3 and 5 at doses of 0.25 mg/kg, 0.35 mg/kg and 0.45 mg/kg, respectively. The fusions were well tolerated with transient facial flushing, and wheal-and-flare rash during the first infusion, which resolved with a slower infusion rate and the administration of diphenhydramine and acetaminophen. Although a marked clinical improvement did occur with resolution of oral ecchymoses and epistaxis after the first mAb infusion, the initial platelet count of 6 x 10(9)/I did not change appreciable over the 5 d course of monoclonal antibody treatment. Binding of fluorescein-labelled monoclonal antibody 197 to peripheral monocytes showed a rapid and persistently decreased mean fluorescein intensity, indicated binding of administered 197 to the monocytes in vivo. Indirect staining for FcgammaRI using fluorescein-labelled goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin was also decreased, suggesting modulation of the receptor. The patient experienced monocytopenia which persisted throughout the 5 d of monoclonal antibody 197 therapy, but reversed following institution of intravenous IgG. These data indicate that intravenous monoclonal antibody 197 induces specific down-modulation of Fc gamma RI expression on monocytes.

Authors : Ericson S G, Coleman K D, Wardwell K, Baker S, Fanger M W, Guyre P M, Ely P,

(8) Divergent phosphotyrosine signaling via Fc gamma RIIIA on human NK cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :8548846
Publication Date : //
Previous studies have indicated that interaction of Fc gamma RIIIA on natural killer (NK) cells with various immunoglobulin ligands or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can have either stimulatory or inhibitory effects on cytotoxic activity, but the basis for such divergent functional effects has been unclear. We report here that stimulation of NK cells via Fc gamma RIIIA by monoclonal anti-human CD16 (3G8), monomeric IgG (mIgG), or dimeric IgG (dIgG), used either alone or cross-linked by secondary Ab (goat anti-mouse IgG or goat anti-human IgG), resulted in different phosphotyrosine protein patterns. These results suggest that distinct substrates are involved in signaling pathways activated via various agonists of the same triggering surface molecule. Three protein tyrosine kinases, i.e., LCK, LYN, and SYK, were activated by occupancy of the Fc gamma RIIIA, and only LCK activity showed a divergence in effects induced by the various ligands, with strong autophosphorylation induced by mIgG upon cross-linking. We observed no ligand-induced activation of p59fyn, p60c-src, or p62c-yes, src-related protein tyrosine kinases which are expressed in NK cells. Activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) induced by receptor-specific antibodies or IgG ligands had different kinetics while the level of cytoplasmic free calcium was greatest upon 3G8-induced stimulation. Although the changes in kinase activities associated with Fc gamma RIIIA-mediated regulation of NK cells are complex, it appears that the patterns induced varied with the nature of the ligand and the direction of the regulation of NK activity.

Authors : Manciulea M, Rabinowich H, Sulica A, Lin W C, Whiteside T L, DeLeo A, Herberman R B, Corey S J,

(9) L-selectin (CD62L) cross-linking signals neutrophil adhesive functions via the Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) beta 2-integrin.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :7543524
Publication Date : //
Emigration of leukocytes at sites of inflammation is initiated by the selectin family of carbohydrate-binding adhesion molecules. Molecular crossbridges initiate rolling of cells along the vascular endothelium where chemokines such as IL-8 and platelet activating factor (PAF) may be presented to their receptors on the leukocyte surface resulting in cell stimulation. Integrin activation appears to be a requirement for subsequent cell localization and diapedesis into the tissue. Several recent reports have demonstrated that ligation and cross-linking of neutrophil L-selectin results in neutrophil activation, including intracellular calcium release, superoxide production, and induction of mRNA for production of IL-8 and TNF-alpha. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ligation and cross-linking of L-selectin would specifically result in activation of beta 2-integrin-dependent adhesion. A fluorescence flow cytometric assay was developed that directly measures Mac-1-dependent cell adhesion. Fluorescent latex beads (2-microns diameter) were adsorbed with albumin or fibrinogen and added in excess to human neutrophils in a shear-stirred suspension. Following stimulation the kinetics of bead capture by neutrophils was continuously measured in real time on the flow cytometer. The onset of bead binding was detected in the presence of extremely low concentrations of PAF (10 pM) or formyl peptide (0.2 nM) stimulation. Ligation of L-selectin with whole IgG DREG200 or DREG56 Ab, but not controls (anti-CD44, -CD45, -CD11a), resulted in a significant potentiation of bead binding. Cross-linking F(ab')2 fragments of DREG200 with a goat anti-mouse F(ab')2 secondary Ab also stimulated beta 2-integrin-dependent adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion. A chimeric form of DREG200 expressing gamma 4 or gamma 1 isotypes of human Fc domain also stimulated cell adhesion when cross-linked. Surface expression of CD18 and an activation-dependent epitope, as detected with mAb24, also increased in response to L-selectin cross-linking. Cross-linking L-selectin induced significant adhesion and transmigration of neutrophils across human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We propose that cross-linking of L-selectin results in a cell signal that directly stimulates beta 2-integrin adhesive responses.

Authors : Simon S I, Burns A R, Taylor A D, Gopalan P K, Lynam E B, Sklar L A, Smith C W,

(10) Tyrosine phosphorylation induced by cross-linking of Fc gamma-receptor type II in human neutrophils.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :7534066
Publication Date : //
Neutrophils express several receptors for the Fc region of IgG molecules. Specific cross-linking of the type II receptor (Fc gamma RII) can be achieved by treating neutrophils with the Fab fragment of a specific monoclonal antibody IV.3 against the receptor followed by goat anti-mouse IgG F(ab')2 fragment. Such treatment initiates a number of neutrophil responses including the release of O2-. and increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation is rapid and transient and correlates with O2-. release. Both responses are inhibited by pretreatment of neutrophils with a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein. The increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation is not inhibited by pretreatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin or an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, but is enhanced by a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid. The activity of a neutrophil Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMPKII) is also stimulated by cross-linking Fc gamma RII. The increase in CAMPKII activity is inhibited by pretreatment with either genistein or Ca2+ chelator. The results suggest that the increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation induced by cross-linking of Fc gamma RII requires neither pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins nor a rise in intracellular Ca2+ but can be regulated by protein phosphatases. Furthermore, protein tyrosine phosphorylation may be an early signal functionally linked to Fc gamma RII-mediated signal transduction leading to CAMPKII activation and O2-. release in human neutrophils.

Authors : Liang L, Huang C K,