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IgE, Goat anti_Mouse; ELISA,WB

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[#YSRTSTAR166] IgE, Goat anti_Mouse; ELISA,WB

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(1) The Mertk receptor tyrosine kinase promotes T-B interaction stimulated by IgD B-cell receptor cross-linking.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24768065
Publication Date : //
The Mertk receptor tyrosine kinase facilitates macrophage and DC apoptotic-cell clearance and regulates immune tolerance. Mertk may also contribute to B-cell activation, because Mertk-KO mice fail to develop autoantibodies when allo-activated by T cells. We investigated this possibility with a well-characterized model in which injection of mice with goat anti-IgD antibody causes membrane IgD cross-linking that induces T-independent B cell activation and antigen presentation to T cells. Goat anti-mouse IgD antibody-injected C57BL/6 Mertk-KO mice had normal initial B cell activation and proliferation, but significantly lower T cell activation and proliferation, as well as lower IgE and IgG anti-goat IgG responses, as compared to C57BL/6 WT controls. B cell antigen processing, analyzed by evaluating B cell fluorescence following injection of monoclonal anti-IgD antibody labeled with biotin or FITC, was comparable between Mertk-KO mice and WT mice. IgD Ab primed B cells from Mertk-KO mice exhibited significantly lower ability in activating memory T cells isolated from WT mice injected with the same antigen 10 days before. These observations suggest that Mertk expression is required for optimal B-cell antigen presentation, which is, in turn, required in this model for optimal T cell activation and subsequent T cell-dependent B cell differentiation.

Authors : Shao Wen-Hai, Zhen Yuxuan, Finkelman Fred D, Cohen Philip L,



(2) Modulation of immunoglobulin production by invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR-bearing cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :21698203
Publication Date : //
We have previously shown that invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR(+) (Vα19i T) cells suppress the disease progress in some models for organ specific autoimmune diseases and type IV allergy that deteriorate along with decline to excess in Th1- or Th17- immunity. In this study, we examined the effects of over-generation of Vα19i T cells on the Th2-controlled immunoglobulin isotype production in the models for type I allergy. IgE production by invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR transgenic (Tg) mice was suppressed compared with that by non-Tg controls following administration with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum or OVA, while IgG2a production was not influenced by the introduction of the transgene into the recipients. IgE production by wild type mice was similarly reduced when they were subjected to adoptive transfer with invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR Tg(+) but not Tg(-) cells prior to immunization. Furthermore, the suppression of IgE production by these recipients was enhanced when they were previously administered with a Vα19i T cell activator, one of the modified α-mannosyl ceramides. In summary, it is suggested that Vα19i T cells have potential to participate in the homeostasis of immunity and that they suppress disease progression resulting from not only Th1- but also Th2- immunity excess.

Authors : Shimamura Michio, Huang Yi-Ying, Hidaka Hiroshi,



(3) Basophils initiate IL-4 production during a memory T-dependent response.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :15466620
Publication Date : //
Experiments were performed to characterize and identify the cellular sources of the secondary interleukin (IL)-4 response to a T cell-dependent antigen. Mice were primed by immunization with goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (Ig)D antibody (GaMD), which stimulates naive CD4+ T cells to secrete IL-4 in 3-4 d. When challenged with goat serum 14 d after immunization, GaMD-primed mice generated an IL-4 response that exceeded the primary response by approximately 100-fold, started in <2 h, and lasted for 4 d. Studies with 4get mice, in which cells with an accessible Il4 gene express a green fluorescent protein (GFP), revealed CD4+ memory T cells, natural killer T cells, basophils, mast cells, and eosinophils as possible rapid producers of IL-4. GFP(+)CD4+ T cells and basophils expanded more in the spleen than the other cell types during the primary response to GaMD. Quantitation of in vivo IL-4 production by the in vivo cytokine capture assay after individual cell types were selectively stimulated or deleted demonstrated that basophils and memory CD4+ T cells account for most of the secondary IL-4 response, with basophils initiating that response through IgE/FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling but secreting IL-4 for <4 h and memory T cells secreting IL-4 within 4 h and continuing to secrete this cytokine for 4 d.

Authors : Khodoun Marat V, Orekhova Tatyana, Potter Crystal, Morris Suzanne, Finkelman Fred D,



(4) Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :12527407
Publication Date : //
To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

Authors : Shimamura Michio, Huang Yi-Ying, Goji Hiroshi,



(5) Pathways of anaphylaxis in the mouse.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :11941316
Publication Date : //
Although anaphylaxis is classically mediated by IgE, FcepsilonRI, mast cells, and histamine, several rodent studies suggest that an alternative pathway involving IgG, FcgammaRIII, macrophages and platelets, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) may be more important in the anaphylactic response to antigen challenge.

Authors : Strait Richard T, Morris Suzanne C, Yang Mingyan, Qu Xiao-Wu, Finkelman Fred D,



(6) Overcoming the signaling defect of Lyn-sequestering, signal-curtailing FcepsilonRI dimers: aggregated dimers can dissociate from Lyn and form signaling complexes with Syk.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :11591756
Publication Date : //
Clustering the tetrameric (alphabetagamma(2)) IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI, on basophils and mast cells activates the Src-family tyrosine kinase, Lyn, which phosphorylates FcepsilonRI beta and gamma subunit tyrosines, creating binding sites for the recruitment and activation of Syk. We reported previously that FcepsilonRI dimers formed by a particular anti-FcepsilonRI alpha mAb (H10) initiate signaling through Lyn activation and FcepsilonRI subunit phosphorylation, but cause only modest activation of Syk and little Ca(2+) mobilization and secretion. Curtailed signaling was linked to the formation of unusual, detergent-resistant complexes between Lyn and phosphorylated receptor subunits. Here, we show that H10-FcepsilonRI multimers, induced by adding F(ab')(2) of goat anti-mouse IgG to H10-treated cells, support strong Ca(2+) mobilization and secretion. Accompanying the recovery of signaling, H10-FcepsilonRI multimers do not form stable complexes with Lyn and do support the phosphorylation of Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that H10-FcepsilonRI dimers colocalize preferentially with Lyn and are rarely within the osmiophilic "signaling domains" that accumulate FcepsilonRI and Syk in Ag-treated cells. In contrast, H10-FcepsilonRI multimers frequently colocalize with Syk within osmiophilic patches. In sucrose gradient centrifugation analyses of detergent-extracted cells, H10-treated cells show a more complete redistribution of FcepsilonRI beta from heavy (detergent-soluble) to light (Lyn-enriched, detergent-resistant) fractions than cells activated with FcepsilonRI multimers. We hypothesize that restraints imposed by the particular orientation of H10-FcepsilonRI dimers traps them in signal-initiating Lyn microdomains, and that converting the dimers to multimers permits receptors to dissociate from Lyn and redistribute to separate membrane domains that support Syk-dependent signal propagation.

Authors : Lara M, Ortega E, Pecht I, Pfeiffer J R, Martinez A M, Lee R J, Surviladze Z, Wilson B S, Oliver J M,



(7) Human anti-animal antibody interferences in immunological assays.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :10388468
Publication Date : //
The scope and significance of human anti-animal antibody interference in immunological assays is reviewed with an emphasis on human anti-animal immunoglobulins, particularly human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs).

Authors : Kricka L J,



(8) Early induction and augmentation of parasitic antigen-specific antibody-producing B lymphocytes in the non-Peyer's patch region of the small intestine.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :9792905
Publication Date : //
In this study, B lymphocytes from the small intestine of immunized rats were examined for their expression of specific antibodies against Trichinella spiralis (TS) antigen. The isotypes of the antigen-specific antibodies on B cells were examined via immunofluorescence microscopy. Monoclonal mouse anti-rat IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG2c, IgA and IgM primary antibodies in conjunction with FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse Ig secondary antibody and XRITC-conjugated 9D4 T. spiralis antigen were used to study the dynamics of the appearance of activated B lymphocytes in the small intestine, Peyer's patch, both the germinal center (PP-GC) and the non-germinal center (PP-NGC), the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and the spleen. The results demonstrate that activated B cells are elicited by TS in the non-Peyer's patch region of the small intestine to express all isotypes of antibodies against TS antigen. IgG- and IgE-producing cells (Ab-PC) began proliferation only 1 and 2 days after infection, respectively. The strongest response was mounted by the IgE-PC in the lamina propria of the intestine. The response by IgA-PC generated was not only significantly delayed and also much weaker than that of the IgE- and IgG-PC. Peyer's patches failed to be a significant contributor in this immune response. Although this antigen-specific immune response was produced in the MLN and the spleen, it was weaker than that of the small intestine. The study indicates the potential ability of an immunized host to generate an early, yet effective, humoral immunity against T. spiralis in the non-Peyer's patch region of the small intestine."

Authors : Wang C H, Richards E M, Block R D, Lezcano E M, Gutierrez R,



(9) Immunoblot analysis of salivary allergens in 10 mosquito species with worldwide distribution and the human IgE responses to these allergens.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :9564803
Publication Date : //
Most people develop skin reactions to mosquito bites, however, little is known about mosquito salivary allergens and the IgE responses to them.

Authors : Peng Z, Li H, Simons F E,



(10) CD28 dependence of T cell differentiation to IL-4 production varies with the particular type 2 immune response.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :9126966
Publication Date : //
T cell differentiation to effector cell function is required for the development of a type 2 immune response. The T cell surface molecule, CD28, is widely considered to be the principal costimulatory molecule involved in T cell differentiation to effector function, including IL-4 production, although this has been difficult to directly examine in vivo. We have studied in vivo differentiation to T cell effector function during two type 2 immune responses in CD28 knockout mice: the systemic immune response to goat anti-mouse IgD Ab and the mucosal immune response following oral inoculation with the nematode parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Our results show that in C57BL/6 CD28 knockout mice elevations in IL-4 gene expression and protein secretion are blocked during the immune response to goat anti-mouse IgD, and associated increases in serum IgG1 and IgE are also inhibited to untreated control levels. In marked contrast, T cell differentiation to IL-4 production is comparable in C57BL/6 CD28 -/- and CD28 +/+ H. polygyrus-inoculated mice, and elevations in both serum IgG1 and IgE levels occur. These results indicate that the specific kind of type 2 immune response determines whether T cell differentiation to IL-4 production is CD28 dependent.

Authors : Gause W C, Chen S J, Greenwald R J, Halvorson M J, Lu P, Zhou X D, Morris S C, Lee K P, June C H, Finkelman F D, Urban J F, Abe R,