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Mouse advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit SpeciesMouse

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[#CSB-E09414m] Mouse advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit SpeciesMouse

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CSB-E09414m | Mouse advanced glycation end products,AGEs ELISA Kit SpeciesMouse, 96T
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(1) Age-related alteration in the distribution of methylglyoxal and its metabolic enzymes in the mouse brain.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30508605
Publication Date : //
Methylglyoxal (MG) is an α-dicarbonyl compound that is naturally produced in vivo through glucose metabolism. In general, MG is metabolized by the glyoxalase 1(GLO1)/GLO2 system and aldose reductase (AR); however, excessive MG can react with proteins and nucleic acids to induce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Recently, the accumulation of AGEs in the brain has been presumed to be related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Research investigating the role of AGEs in such diseases is ongoing. However, the changes in MG concentration that occur in the brain during healthy ageing remain unclear. Therefore, we performed fractionation of the brains of aged and young mice, measured the MG concentration in each part of the brain, and then examined the distribution. We also investigated the expression levels of GLO1 and AR, the main metabolizing enzymes of MG, in various brain regions, across age groups. We show that MG concentration varies among different regions of the brain, and that MG concentration in aged mice is significantly lower than that in young mice across all regions of the brain, except the brain stem. In addition, although the expression level of the GLO1 protein in the brain did not change with ageing, the expression level of AR was higher in aged than in young mice. Moreover, although a significant positive correlation was observed between GLO1 expression and MG concentration in the brains of young mice, no significant correlations were observed in the brains of aged mice. Meanwhile, the production of protein carbonyls and the accumulation of AGEs were not observed in the brains of aged mice. These results suggest that the accumulation of MG in the brain, along with the carbonyl stress are suppressed and regionally controlled during healthy ageing. This finding is useful as the foundation for further studies to investigate the role and toxicity of MG in various age-related disease conditions.

Authors : Koike Shin, Ando Chihiro, Usui Yosuke, Kibune Yosuke, Nishimoto Shoichi, Suzuki Toshihiro, Ogasawara Yuki,



(2) Dietary Early Glycation Products Promote the Growth of Prostate Tumors More than Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) Through Modulation of Macrophage Polarization.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30512230
Publication Date : //
Glycation products are ubiquitous in food at high concentrations in the Western diet. The well-controlled glycation resulting in the production of early glycation products (EGPs) has been proposed as a strategy to improve the physicochemical properties of food proteins. However, the health effects of EGPs are unknown. It has been shown that the Western diet (glycation prone) is associated with a higher mortality in prostate cancer (PCa) patients than the prudent diet; therefore, we have investigated the role of EGPs in prostate tumorigenesis.

Authors : Chen Yingjia, Guo Tai L,



(3) Dietary advanced glycation end-product consumption leads to mechanical stiffening of murine intervertebral discs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30498097
Publication Date : //
Back pain is a leading cause of disability strongly associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Reducing structural disruption and catabolism in IVD degeneration remains an important clinical challenge. Pro-oxidant and structure-modifying advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) contribute to obesity and diabetes, which are associated with increased back pain, and accumulate in tissues due to hyperglycemia or ingestion of foods processed at high heat. Collagen-rich IVDs are particularly susceptible to AGE accumulation due to their slow metabolic rates yet it is unclear if dietary AGEs can cross the endplates to accumulate in IVDs. A dietary mouse model was used to test the hypothesis that chronic consumption of high AGE diets results in sex-specific IVD structural disruption and functional changes. High AGE diet resulted in AGE accumulation in IVDs and increased IVD compressive stiffness, torque range, and failure torque, particularly for females. These biomechanical changes were likely caused by significantly increased AGE crosslinking in the annulus fibrosus, measured by multiphoton imaging. Increased collagen damage measured with collagen hybridizing peptide did not appear to influence biomechanical properties and may be a risk factor as these animals age. The greater influence of high AGE diet on females is an important area of future investigation that may involve AGE receptors known to interact with estrogen. We conclude high AGE diets can be a source for IVD crosslinking and collagen damage known to be important in IVD degeneration. Dietary modifications and interventions that reduce AGEs warrant further investigation and may be particularly important for diabetics where AGEs accumulate more rapidly.

Authors : Krishnamoorthy Divya, Hoy Robert C, Natelson Devorah M, Torre Olivia M, Laudier Damien M, Iatridis James C, Illien-Jünger Svenja,



(4) Generation of sRAGE transgenic mice to study inflammaging.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30468673
Publication Date : //
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) interacts with multiple ligands and transmits inflammatory signals from damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and PAMPs) to cellular programs. RAGE shares ligands with another group of PRRs, Toll-like receptors. Such ligand-receptor promiscuity generates coordinated and complex signaling patterns that provide a basis for the development of multiple inflammaging diseases. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) functions as a RAGE decoy that scavenges DAMP/PAMP ligands and dampens inflammatory signals. Epidemiological studies have shown that a lower level of circulating sRAGE is associated with metabolic syndromes including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and subclinical brain disease. We hypothesize that an elevated level of circulating sRAGE serves to modulate systemic and low-grade chronical inflammation that often occurs in old age, and therefore minimizes the risk of inflammaing diseases. Consequently, a higher level of circulating sRAGE may improve the health-span of the organism. A newly generated transgenic mouse that has a higher level of circulating sRAGE and maintains normal expression levels of RAGE serves as a model to test this hypothesis.

Authors : Peng Yunqian, Park Han-Sol, Tang Lisa Ann, Horwitz Naftali, Lin Li,



(5) Advanced Glycation End Products Stimulate Angiotensinogen Production in Renal Proximal Tubular Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30466736
Publication Date : //
Elevated advanced glycation end products (AGE) in diabetes mellitus (DM) are implicated in the progression of DM-associated tissue injury, including diabetic nephropathy. The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, in particular augmentation of angiotensinogen (AGT) in proximal tubular cells (PTC), plays a crucial role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. This study investigated hypothesis that AGE stimulates AGT production in PTC.

Authors : Garagliano Joseph M, Katsurada Akemi, Miyata Kayoko, Derbenev Andrei V, Zsombok Andrea, Navar L Gabriel, Satou Ryousuke,



(6) Evidence of metabolic memory-induced neurodegeneration and the therapeutic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists via Forkhead box class O.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30465895
Publication Date : //
Metabolic memory, which refers to diabetic stresses that persist after glucose normalization, is considered a major factor in addition to hyperglycaemia for diabetes complications, including dementia. We previously reported that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) alleviated neuronal injury in diabetes-related dementia models. However, our understanding of the effects and mechanisms of GLP-1RA on metabolic memory-induced neurodegeneration are limited. The present study mainly focuses on the mechanisms of action of GLP-1RA on metabolic memory-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. Thus, in this study, aiming at mimicking metabolic memory phenomena, in vivo and in vitro models were exposed to high glucose first and then normal glucose. We also used advanced glycation end products, which are key metabolic memory-related factors, to induce neuronal injury in vitro. Based on the models, here, we report that GLP-1RA alleviated neurodegeneration in db/db mice with normalized blood glucose levels controlled with metformin and neuronal damage induced by high glucose treatment followed by withdrawal. GLP-1RA ameliorated metabolic memory-induced amyloid-β and tau pathologies in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the data suggested that GLP-1RA can protect neurons against metabolic memory via Forkhead box class O (FoxO) pathways, and silent information regulator 2 homolog 1-dependent deacetylation and protein kinase B-dependent phosphorylation of FoxO1 were involved in the mechanisms underlying protective effects. This study provides evidence of the beneficial effects of GLP-1RA on neuronal cell metabolic memory, as well as GLP-1 analogues and metformin combination therapy efficiency on cognitive impairment.

Authors : Chen Song, Tang Qian, Wang Ying, Xu Zheng, Chen Su-Ting, Sun Yan, Yao Wen-Bing, Gao Xiang-Dong,



(7) Melatonin protects endothelial progenitor cells against AGE-induced apoptosis via autophagy flux stimulation and promotes wound healing in diabetic mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30459300
Publication Date : //
Wound healing is delayed in diabetic patients. Increased apoptosis and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) dysfunction are implicated in delayed diabetic wound healing. Melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, promotes diabetic wound healing; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, EPCs were isolated from the bone marrow of mice. Treatment of EPCs with melatonin alleviated advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced apoptosis and cellular dysfunction. We further examined autophagy flux after melatonin treatment and found increased light chain 3 (LC3) and p62 protein levels in AGE-treated EPCs. However, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 expression was decreased, indicating that autophagy flux was impaired in EPCs treated with AGEs. We then evaluated autophagy flux after melatonin treatment and found that melatonin increased the LC3 levels, but attenuated the accumulation of p62, suggesting a stimulatory effect of melatonin on autophagy flux. Blockage of autophagy flux by chloroquine partially abolished the protective effects of melatonin, indicating that autophagy flux is involved in the protective effects of melatonin. Furthermore, we found that the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway is involved in autophagy flux stimulation by melatonin. An in vivo study also illustrated that melatonin treatment ameliorated impaired wound healing in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic wound healing model. Thus, our study shows that melatonin protects EPCs against apoptosis and dysfunction via autophagy flux stimulation and ameliorates impaired wound healing in vivo, providing insight into its mechanism of action in diabetic wound healing.

Authors : Jin Haiming, Zhang Zengjie, Wang Chengui, Tang Qian, Wang Jianle, Bai Xueqin, Wang Qingqing, Nisar Majid, Tian Naifeng, Wang Quan, Mao Cong, Zhang Xiaolei, Wang Xiangyang,



(8) JNK and ATF4 as two important platforms for tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated shedding of receptor for advanced glycation end products.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30452882
Publication Date : //
Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), shed from cell surfaces, is found in human circulation and has been implicated in cardiovascular disease. Its pathophysiological regulation and underlying mechanisms are scarcely understood. In endothelium-specific human RAGE transgenic mice, human sRAGE was detected in circulation, whereas its level was markedly increased after LPS treatment. That increase was preceded by a rapid rise in TNF-α level. Treatment with TNF-α also significantly increased serum sRAGE. In human microvascular endothelial cells or human umbilical vein endothelial cells with RAGE overexpression, TNF-α markedly induced RAGE shedding, which was dependent on MMP9 and ADAM10. TNF-α-stimulated MMP9 expression was completely dependent on JNK activation, with its inhibition partially effective in suppressing TNF-α-induced RAGE shedding. In contrast, TNF-α transiently induced activation transcription factor (ATF)4, a major component in unfolded protein response (UPR), whereas knockdown of ATF4 abrogated TNF-α-stimulated RAGE shedding. Protein levels of the pro and activated forms of ADAM10 were also decreased by ATF4 knockdown, whereas inhibition of other components of UPR, including XBP1 and ATF6, failed to block TNF-α-stimulated RAGE shedding. Although the endoplasmic reticulum stressors thapsigargin and tunicamycin induced markedly and sustained expression of ATF4 and XBP-1, they did not induce RAGE shedding to the same level as TNF-α, suggesting that ATF4 is necessary but not sufficient alone for TNF-α-mediated RAGE shedding. ATF4 inhibition did not affect TNF-α-stimulated MMP9 expression, whereas inhibition of JNK activity did not influence ADAM10 activation. Thus, inflammatory cascades including TNF-α induced RAGE shedding in endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. JNK and ATF4 may be 2 platforms for regulation of TNF-α-stimulated RAGE shedding.-Miyoshi, A., Koyama, S., Sasagawa-Monden, M., Kadoya, M., Konishi, K., Shoji, T., Inaba, M., Yamamoto, Y., Koyama, H. JNK and ATF4 as two important platforms for tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated shedding of receptor for advanced glycation end products.

Authors : Miyoshi Akio, Koyama Sachie, Sasagawa-Monden Masayo, Kadoya Manabu, Konishi Kosuke, Shoji Takuhito, Inaba Masaaki, Yamamoto Yasuhiko, Koyama Hidenori,



(9) Notoginsenoside R1 Protects Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Through Activating Estrogen Receptor α and Its Downstream Signaling.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30450046
Publication Date : //
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) leads to heart failure and death in diabetic patients, no effective treatment is available. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a novel saponin that is derived from Panax notoginseng and our previous studies have showed cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects of NGR1. However, its role in protecting against DCM remains unexplored. Herein, we examine potential effects of NGR1 on cardiac function of diabetic db/db mice and H9c2 cardiomyocytes treated by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). experiments revealed that pretreatment with NGR1 significantly decreased AGEs-induced mitochondria injury, limited an increase in ROS, and reduced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. NGR1 eliminated ROS by promoting estrogen receptor α expression, which subsequently activated Akt and Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidant enzymes. investigation demonstrated that NGR1 significantly reduced serum lipid levels, insulin resistance, the expression of enzymes related to cardiomyopathy, and the expression of apoptotic proteins. Finally, NGR1 improved cardiac dysfunction and attenuated histological abnormalities, as evidenced by elevating ejection fraction and fractional shortening, and reducing cardiac fibrosis. Mechanistically, NGR1 promoted ERα expression, which led to the activation of Akt-Nrf2 signaling and the inhibition of the TGFβ pathway. Collectively, these results strongly indicate that NGR1 exerts cardioprotective effects against DCM through its inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis, and eventually suppresses cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy, which suggests that NGR1 is a potential therapeutic medicine for the treatment of DCM.

Authors : Zhang Bin, Zhang Jingyi, Zhang Chenyang, Zhang Xuelian, Ye Jingxue, Kuang Shihuan, Sun Guibo, Sun Xiaobo,



(10) proBDNF is modified by advanced glycation end products in Alzheimer's disease and causes neuronal apoptosis by inducing p75 neurotrophin receptor processing.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30428894
Publication Date : //
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex pathology related to multiple causes including oxidative stress. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neutrotrophic factor essential for the survival and differentiation of neurons and is considered a key target in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases, as for example AD. Contrarily to BDNF, the precursor form of BDNF (proBDNF) induces apoptosis through the specific interaction with p75 and its co-receptor, Sortilin.We used hippocampal tissue and cerebrospinal fluid from AD patients and controls. to study the localization and the levels of proBDNF, p75 and Sortilin as well as the post-traduccional modifications of proBDNF induced by Radical Oxygen Species, by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Differentiation and survival were assessed on differentiated mouse hippocampal neurons derived from postnatal neural stem cells from WT animals or from the transgenic AD animal model APP/PS1∆E9, based on mutations of familiar AD. In AD patients we observe a significative increase of proBDNF and Sortilin expression and a significative increase of the ratio proBDNF/BDNF in their cerebrospinal fluid compared to controls. In addition, the proBDNF of AD patients is modified by ROS-derived advanced glycation end products, which prevent the processing of the proBDNF to the mature BDNF, leading to an increase of pathogenicity and a decrease of trophic effects. The cerebrospinal fluid from AD patients, but not from controls, induces apoptosis in differentiated hippocampal neurons mainly by the action of AGE-modified proBDNF present in the cerebrospinal fluid of the patients. This effect is triggered by the activation and processing of p75 that stimulate the internalization of the intracellular domain (ICD) within the nucleus causing apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis and p75 ICD internalization by AD patients-derived proBDNF is further enhanced in neuron cultures from the AD model expressing the APP/PS1∆E9 transgene.Our results indicate the importance of proBDNF neurotoxic signaling in AD pathology essentially by three mechanisms: i) by an increase of proBDNF stability due to ROS-induced post-traductional modifications; ii) by the increase of expression of the p75 co-receptor, Sortilin and iii) by the increase of the basal levels of p75 processing found in AD.

Authors : Fleitas Catherine, Piñol-Ripoll Gerard, Marfull Pau, Rocandio Daniel, Ferrer Isidro, Rampon Claire, Egea Joaquim, Espinet Carme,