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FSH beta 3, Clone INN_hFSH_6, Mab anti_Human; ELISA_RIA_IP

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[#YSRTMCA1028] FSH beta 3, Clone INN_hFSH_6, Mab anti_Human; ELISA_RIA_IP


YSRTMCA1028 | FSH beta 3, Clone INN_hFSH_6, Mab anti_Human; ELISA_RIA_IP, 0.5 mg.
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(1) FSH receptor-specific residues L501 and I505 in extracellular loop 2 are essential for its function.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25791375
Publication Date : //
The extracellular loop 2 (EL2) of FSH receptor (FSHR) plays a pivotal role in various events downstream of FSH stimulation. Because swapping the six FSHR-specific residues in EL2 (chimeric EL2M) with those from LH/choriogonadotropin receptor resulted in impaired internalization of FSH-FSHR complex and low FSH-induced cAMP production, six substitution mutants of EL2 were generated to ascertain the contribution of individual amino acids to the effects shown by chimeric EL2M. Results revealed that L(501)F mainly and I(505)V to a lesser extent contribute to the diminished receptor function in chimeric EL2M. HEK293 cells stably expressing WT and chimeric EL2M FSHR were generated to track the fate of the receptors post FSH induction. The chimeric EL2M FSHR stable clone showed weak internalization and cAMP response similar to transiently transfected cells. Furthermore, reduced FSH-induced ERK phosphorylation was also observed. The interaction of activated chimeric EL2M and L(501)F FSHR with β-arrestins was weak compared with WT FSHR, thus explaining the impaired internalization of chimeric EL2M and corroborating the indispensable role of EL2 in receptor function.

Authors : Banerjee Antara A, Dupakuntla Madhavi, Pathak Bhakti R, Mahale Smita D,

(2) Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the goose FSHβ gene.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25719958
Publication Date : //
The objective of this investigation was to clone goose FSHβ-subunit cDNA and to construct a FSH fusion gene to identify the function of FSHβ mRNA during stages of the breeding cycle. The FSHβ gene was obtained by reverse transcription-PCR, and the full-length FSHβ mRNA sequence was amplified by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. FSHβ mRNA expression was detected in reproductive tissues at different stages (pre-laying, laying period, and broody period). Additionally, the expression of 4 genes known to be involved in reproduction (FSHβ, GnRH, GH, and BMP) were evaluated in COS-7 cells expressing the fusion gene (pVITRO2-FSHαβ-CTP). The results show that the FSHβ gene consists of a 16 base pair (bp) 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 396 bp open reading frame, and alternative 3'-UTRs at 518 bp and 780 bp, respectively. qPCR analyses revealed that FSHβ mRNA is highly transcribed in reproductive tissues, including the pituitary, hypothalamus, ovaries, and oviduct. FSHβ mRNA expression increased and subsequently decreased in the pituitary, ovaries, and oviduct during the reproductive stages. Stable FSH expression was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays after transfection with the pVITRO2-FSHαβ-CTP plasmid. FSHβ, GnRH, and BMP expression increased significantly 36 h and 48 h after transfection with the fusion gene in COS-7 cells. The results demonstrate that the FSHβ subunit functions in the goose reproductive cycle and provides a theoretical basis for future breeding work.

Authors : Huang Z, Li X, Li Y, Liu R, Chen Y, Wu N, Wang M, Song Y, Yuan X, Lan L, Xu Q, Chen G, Zhao W,

(3) Sertoli cell proliferation in the adult testis is induced by unilateral gonadectomy in African catfish.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22465554
Publication Date : //
Survival and development of male germ cells depends on their close contact with Sertoli cells. In the cystic spermatogenesis found in fish, one germ cell clone, initially a single undifferentiated spermatogonium type A, is enclosed by and accompanied through spermatogenesis by a group of Sertoli cells. Previous work showed that after forming such spermatogenic cysts, Sertoli cells proliferated mainly during the mitotic expansion of the spermatogonial clone in the cyst. Here, we used unilateral gonadectomy (ULG) as experimental model to study Sertoli cell proliferation at the start of cyst development in adult African catfish testis. Four days after surgery, we observed a particularly strong increase in the number of mitotic Sertoli cells along with a significant increase in the number of mitotic single type A spermatogonia. Proliferation of pairs of spermatogonia or of larger germ cell clones, however, did not change. At the same time, pituitary transcript levels of the three gonadotropin-subunits (cga, glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide; fshb, follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide; lhb, luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide) were not different between sham-operated and ULG males. However, expression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene gnrhr1 was significantly reduced after ULG, and Lh plasma levels were slightly elevated. In the testis remaining after ULG, Fsh receptor (fshr) mRNA levels increased significantly but luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (lhcgr) mRNA levels did not change. Circulating androgen levels did not differ between groups, but testicular androgen release increased significantly 2- to 3-fold after ULG. Considering the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh and the expression of the fshr gene by Leydig cells in catfish, we explain the absence of an effect of ULG on circulating androgen levels by an Fshr-mediated, compensatory increase in the steroid production of the remaining testis, perhaps supported in addition by the increased Lh plasma levels. Since Fsh is a major stimulator of mammalian Sertoli cell proliferation, we propose that ULG-induced activation of the Fsh signalling system also promoted Sertoli cell proliferation and - possibly as a consequence of that - proliferation of single type A spermatogonia, providing the basis for an increased spermatogenic capacity.

Authors : Schulz Rüdiger W, van Dijk Wytske, Chaves-Pozo Elena, García-López Angel, de França Luiz R, Bogerd Jan,

(4) Follistatin gene expression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone: a role for cyclic AMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in clonal gonadotroph LbetaT2 cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :19533841
Publication Date : //
The purpose of the present study was to examine the signal transduction pathways involved in follistatin gene expression induced by GnRH in the LbetaT2 cell line. The LHbeta-subunit was predominantly increased by high frequency GnRH pulses (30 min interval); whereas low frequency pulses (120 min) increased FSHbeta. In a static culture, follistatin expression was significantly increased at 12 h (2.35 +/- 0.80-fold) after the addition of GnRH. Following pulsatile stimulation, follistatin mRNA was increased by high frequency GnRH pulses, but not by low frequency pulses. In a static culture, GnRH maximally activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 10 min (3.2 +/- 0.55-fold) after treatment. In addition, intracellular cAMP accumulated up to 2.1 +/- 0.76-fold. Follistatin promoter activity was significantly increased following transfection with either a constitutively active cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) or a constitutively active MEK kinase (MEKK). The induction of follistatin gene expression by GnRH was completely inhibited by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor. Follistatin gene expression was also activated by both PACAP and CPT-cAMP under static culture conditions. Maximal ERK activation levels were nearly identical regardless of GnRH pulse frequency; however, high frequency GnRH pulses elevated both the intracellular cAMP level as well as cAMP-response element (Cre) promoter activity. These results suggest that both the PKA and ERK pathways are necessary for the induction of the follistatin promoter. Furthermore, the intracellular cAMP level, but not ERK activity, determined whether follistatin was induced following high frequency GnRH pulses.

Authors : Mutiara Sandra, Kanasaki Haruhiko, Oride Aki, Purwana Indri N, Shimasaki Shunichi, Yamamoto Hideyuki, Miyazaki Kohji,

(5) The involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced gonadotropin alpha- and FSHbeta-subunit genes expression in clonal gonadotroph LbetaT2 cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :18206295
Publication Date : //
Akt/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), which is activated by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-kinase), plays an important role in cell survival and cell proliferation. Using the well differentiated, clonal gonadotroph cell line, LbetaT2, we examined (1) whether Akt/PKB was activated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); (2) the contribution of PI3-kinase-Akt/PKB pathway in each of gonadotropin subunit gene expression; (3) crosstalk between extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt/PKB pathways. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was used as Akt/PKBs classic activator. Western blot analyses using antibodies specific for the phosphorylated forms of ERK and Akt/PKB demonstrated that both were rapidly phosphorylated following treatment with GnRH and IGF-1. Akt/PKB activation by GnRH and IGF-1 was completely eliminated in the presence of the PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY 294002, but not in the presence of an Akt/PKB inhibitor. Interestingly, the total amount of Akt/PKB protein was dramatically increased in the presence of LY 294002. Phosphorylation of ERK was significantly increased in the presence of LY 294002 alone, and was further increased when GnRH was used in combination with LY 294002. In experiments using a luciferase reporter construct containing the serum response element (SRE), a known target of the ERK pathway, LY 294002 but not the Akt/PKB inhibitor increased SRE-luciferase activity. GnRH-induced SRE-luciferase activity was significantly increased by LY 294002. GnRH stimulation resulted in gonadotropin LHbeta, FSHbeta, and alpha-subunit promoter activation, while IGF-1 failed to stimulate any of them. GnRH-induced gonadotropin promoter activities were not modulated in the presence of an Akt/PKB inhibitor, but treatment with LY 294002 or Wortmannin resulted in a significant increase in alpha- and FSHbeta-subunit promoter activation, both with and without GnRH. LY 294002, but not the Akt/PKB inhibitor, significantly inhibited cell proliferation. These results suggest that GnRH-induced gonadotropin gene expression is not regulated through the Akt/PKB pathway; however, PI3-kinase may be involved in the negative regulation of alpha- and FSHbeta-subunit gene expression as well as cell proliferation.

Authors : Mutiara Sandra, Kanasaki Haruhiko, Harada Takashi, Oride Aki, Miyazaki Kohji,

(6) Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of the snake follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :15201068
Publication Date : //
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) control gonadal function in mammalian and many non-mammalian vertebrates through the interaction with their receptors, FSHR and LHR. Although the same is true for some reptilian species, in Squamata (lizards and snakes) there is no definitive evidence for the presence of either two distinct gonadotropins or two distinct gonadotropin receptors. Our aim was to characterize the gonadotropin receptor(s) of the Bothrops jararaca snake. Using a cDNA library from snake testis and amplification of the 5'-cDNA ending, we cloned a cDNA related to FSHR. Attempts to clone a cDNA more closely related to LHR were unsuccessful. Expression of FSHR mRNA was restricted to gonadal tissues. The snake FSHR is a G protein-coupled receptor with 673 amino acids, and the aminoterminal domain with 346 amino acids consists of a nine leucine-rich repeat-containing subdomain (LRR) flanked by two cysteine-rich subdomains. The beta-strands in the LRR are conserved with exception of the third, a region that may be important for FSH binding. In contrast with mammalian, avian and amphibian FSHRs, the snake FSHR presents amino acid deletions in the carboxyterminal region of the extracellular domain which are also seen in fish and lizard FSHRs. cAMP assays with the recombinant protein transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells showed that the snake FSHR is more sensitive to human FSH (hFSH) than to human chorionic gonadotropin. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the squamate FSHRs group separately from mammalian FSHRs. Our data are consistent with the apparently unique gonadotropin-receptor system in Squamata reptilian subgroup. Knowledge about the snake FSHR structure may help identify structural determinants for receptor function.

Authors : Bluhm Ana P C, Toledo Rodrigo A, Mesquita Fernando M, Pimenta Maristela T, Fernandes Flora M C, Ribela Maria Teresa C P, Lazari Maria Fátima M,

(7) Cloning of complimentary deoxyribonucleic acid encoding follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone beta subunit precursor molecules in Reeves's turtle (Geoclemys reevesii) and Japanese grass lizard (Takydromus tachydromoides).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :12849970
Publication Date : //
Reptilia is the only vertebrate class in which cDNA for the gonadotropin beta subunit precursor molecule has not been cloned. We have isolated the full-length cDNA clone encoding the LH beta subunit precursor molecule and a partial cDNA clone encoding the FSH beta subunit precursor molecule from a pituitary cDNA library of Reeves's turtle. We further clarified the nucleotide sequence of the remaining part of the turtle FSH beta cDNA and that of full-length cDNA encoding the LH beta subunit precursor molecule of the Japanese grass lizard, by means of the 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) and 3' RACE. The nucleotide sequence of the turtle FSH beta cDNA we determined was 584 bp long and contained the coding sequence, 5' untranslated region (UTR) and 3' UTR of 396, 34, and 154 bp, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of the turtle LH beta we isolated was 498 bp long and contained the coding sequence, 5' UTR and 3' UTR of 420, 7, and 71 bp, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of the lizard LH beta we determined was 537 bp long and contained the coding sequence, 5' UTR and 3' UTR of 441, 35, and 61 bp, respectively. Amino acid sequences deduced from coding regions of the turtle FSH beta, LH beta and the lizard LH beta were 131, 139, and 146 residues, respectively. Referring to the amino acid sequences of the bullfrog FSH and LH beta subunit molecules determined chemically, we deduced the amino acid sequences of mature peptide. Amino acid sequences of mature peptides of the turtle FSH, turtle LH, and the lizard LH were 111, 112, and 112 residues, respectively. Amino acid sequences of the mature peptides were compared with those of other vertebrates. The amino acid sequence of the turtle FSH beta subunit molecule was 84.7-85.6, 67.8-71.4, and 61.3-62.2% identical to the FSH sequence of birds, mammals, and amphibians, respectively. The amino acid sequence of the turtle LH beta subunit molecule was 51.6-54.6, 36.2-48.7, and 56.3-57.5% identical to the LH sequence of birds, mammals, and amphibians, respectively. The amino acid sequence of the lizard LH beta subunit molecule was 39.1-47.1, 32.9-43.0, and 46.0-47.3% identical to the LH sequence of birds, mammals, and amphibians, respectively. These identity values suggest that the turtle or reptilian FSH beta subunit molecule is more closely related to avian and mammalian FSH beta subunit molecules than to amphibian FSH beta subunit molecules but reptilian LH beta subunit molecules are more closely related to amphibian LH beta subunit molecules than to avian and mammalian LH beta subunit molecules. This discrepancy in the molecular similarity relationship found in the reptilian FSH and LH beta subunit molecules can be interpreted by assuming that evolution speed was not the same among hormone species and also among vertebrate groups.

Authors : Aizawa Youichi, Ishii Susumu,

(8) Molecular cloning of the porcine inhibin-betaB gene and reassignment to chromosome 15.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :12755822
Publication Date : //
Inhibins are gonadal glycoproteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily that act to suppress pituitary follicle stimulating hormone and are composed of a common alpha-subunit linked by disulphide bonds to either a betaA- or betaB-subunit. The porcine inhibin-alpha, -betaA (INHBA) and -betaB (INHBB) subunit genes have previously been mapped to chromosomes 15, 18 and 12, respectively. Over 6.7 kb of the INHBB gene was sequenced from a porcine genomic cosmid clone and found to contain two microsatellites, one in intron 1 and the other in the 3'-untranslated region. Both microsatellites mapped to pig chromosome 15 at relative position 48 cm. This sequence was greater than 99% identical to two previously reported partial non-contiguous cDNAs for porcine INHBB. Non-coding regions also had a high degree (79-88%) of identity with the corresponding regions of the human gene. Based on sequence information and mapping of two novel microsatellite markers, we reassigned porcine INHBB to chromosome 15, which is consistent with comparative physical and linkage maps of this chromosome and human chromosome 2.

Authors : Nonneman D, Rohrer G A,

(9) Purification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the free alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :11395860
Publication Date : //
Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) were raised by hybridoma technology using Sp2/0 myeloma cells as fusion partner. Sixty-five percent of the total culture wells exhibited hybrid growth and 8% of the total wells (13 culture wells) contained anti-hCG secreting hybrids. A positive hybrid cell line secreting antibodies against the free alpha-subunit of hCG was cloned twice by limiting dilution method and eighty four clones were obtained that secreted monoclonal antibodies anti-alpha hCG. One of these hybridoma clones (1C4) secreting monoclonal antibodies against the free alpha-subunit of hCG was selected for purification and characterization purposes. This hybridoma cell line secreted monoclonal antibodies of IgG1 subclass, which were purified by affinity chromatography on Protein A Sepharose CL-4B column with a final relative recovery of antibody activity of 75% and a purification factor of about 12. The purified preparation was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, native PAGE, and IEF. Specificity studies of this Mab revealed that it recognized specifically an epitope on the free alpha-subunits of hCG, FSH, LH, and TSH as determined by enzyme immunoassays. On the other hand, this Mab exhibited crossreactivity with other pituitary hormones either as free subunits or intact molecules as follows: alpha hCG 100%; intact hCG 1.8%; beta hCG 0.14%; alpha FSH 24.5%; intact FSH 0.8%; beta FSH 0.09%; alpha LH 20.5%; intact LH 0.9%; beta LH 0.08%; alpha TSH 50.5%; intact TSH 3.7%; beta TSH 0.07%; The affinity constant (K) of this Mab with respect to free alpha-subunit of hCG was found to be 1.5 x 10(7) I/mol as determined by the simple antibody dilution analysis method.

Authors : Novo C, Domingos A, Karmali A,

(10) Expression of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rp) and its receptorin the porcine ovary: regulation by transforming growth factor-beta and possible paracrine effects of granulosa cell PTH-rp secretion on theca cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :10642570
Publication Date : //
Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rp) and the PTH-rp receptor are expressed in certain cancers as well as in many normal tissues. To evaluate the expression of this Ca(2+)-regulating hormone and its receptor in porcine ovary, we isolated partial cDNAs encoding homologous PTH-rp and PTH-rp receptor using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cDNA encoding PTH-rp (419 base pairs [bp]) was 92% and 87% homologous to human and rat sequences, respectively, while the PTH-rp receptor clone (167 bp) was 94% and 91% identical to the human and rat genes. Qualitative estimates of PTH-rp mRNA by RT-PCR indicated that the PTH-rp gene is expressed at high levels in the corpus luteum but is undetectable in granulosa and theca cells isolated from small (1-5 mm) and medium-sized (5-8 mm) antral follicles. In contrast, PTH-rp receptor transcripts were most abundant in corpora lutea and theca cells, and least abundant (albeit detectable) in granulosa cells. Regulation of PTH-rp protein production was assessed in serum-free monolayer cultures of porcine granulosa cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 (100 ng/ml) increased PTH-rp concentrations (assayed by two-site immunoradiometric assay of culture media) as well as corresponding PTH-rp mRNA accumulation (assessed by RT-PCR) in a time-dependent manner, with maximal responses of 3- to 5-fold at 96 h. TGF-beta1 dose-response studies revealed an ED(50) of 0. 24-0.38 ng/ml with a maximal effect at 30 ng/ml. Other growth factors and hormones, including insulin, insulin-like growth factor (type I), epidermal growth factor, FSH, estradiol, and interleukin-1, failed to alter PTH-rp secretion. Biological effects of PTH-rp were evident in purified porcine theca cells. Using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicator dye, fura-2, and digital imaging videomicroscopy, we found that PTH-rp (1 microM) stimulated intracellular free calcium ion concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) in single porcine theca cells. The [Ca(2+)](i) elevation was characterized by a slow and prolonged rise. After PTH-rp stimulation, theca cells maintained responsiveness to hormone stimulation by LH, which elicited a typical theca cell [Ca(2+)](i) response. Our results allow a hypothesis of a paracrine intrafollicular signaling system involving interaction between theca cell-derived TGF-beta and granulosa cell-derived PTH-rp, with feedback by PTH-rp on theca cells. Alternatively, expression of mRNAs encoding PTH-rp and its receptor in corpora lutea suggests that this peptide may play a role in luteal cell function. The precise role of this intraovarian PTH-rp system will require further study.

Authors : Garmey J C, Schnorr J A, Bruns M E, Bruns D E, Seaner R M, Ferguson II J E, Luking Jayes F C, Aguirre C, Veldhuis J D,