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Hamster apolipoprotein B (APOB) ELISA kit, Species , Sample Type

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[#CSB-EL001918HA] Hamster apolipoprotein B (APOB) ELISA kit, Species , Sample Type

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CSB-EL001918HA | Hamster apolipoprotein B (APOB) ELISA kit, Species , Sample Type , 96T
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(1) Hypolipidemic effect of XH601 on hamsters of Hyperlipidemia and its potential mechanism.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28464894
Publication Date : //
The novel compound XH601 is a synthesized derivative of formononetin. The present study was to investigate the hypolipidemia effect and potential mechanism of XH601.

Authors : Zhao Meng-Jie, Wang Shan-Shan, Jiang Yao, Wang Ying, Shen Hong, Xu Pei, Xiang Hua, Xiao Hong,



(2) Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Improves Overall Efficacy of Postprandial Reverse Cholesterol Transport.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26681758
Publication Date : //
Postprandial atherogenic lipoproteins, characterizing high-risk patients, correlate positively with cardiovascular events. Although the effect of niacin on fasting lipids is well established, its impact on atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway and on functional features of circulating lipoproteins during the postprandial state remains indeterminate.

Authors : El Khoury Petra, Waldmann Elisa, Huby Thierry, Gall Julie, Couvert Philippe, Lacorte Jean-Marc, Chapman John, Frisdal Eric, Lesnik Philippe, Parhofer Klaus G, Le Goff Wilfried, Guerin Maryse,



(3) Differential complement activation pathways promote C3b deposition on native and acetylated LDL thereby inducing lipoprotein binding to the complement receptor 1.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25349208
Publication Date : //
Lipoproteins can induce complement activation resulting in opsonization and binding of these complexes to complement receptors. We investigated the binding of opsonized native LDL and acetylated LDL (acLDL) to the complement receptor 1 (CR1). Binding of complement factors C3b, IgM, C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and properdin to LDL and acLDL were investigated by ELISA. Subsequent binding of opsonized LDL and acLDL to CR1 on CR1-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovarian cells (CHO-CR1) was tested by flow cytometry. Both native LDL and acLDL induced complement activation with subsequent C3b opsonization upon incubation with normal human serum. Opsonized LDL and acLDL bound to CR1. Binding to CHO-CR1 was reduced by EDTA, whereas MgEGTA only reduced the binding of opsonized LDL, but not of acLDL suggesting involvement of the alternative pathway in the binding of acLDL to CR1. In vitro incubations showed that LDL bound C1q, whereas acLDL bound to C1q, IgM, and properdin. MBL did neither bind to LDL nor to acLDL. The relevance of these findings was demonstrated by the fact that ex vivo up-regulation of CR1 on leukocytes was accompanied by a concomitant increased binding of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to leukocytes without changes in LDL-receptor expression. In conclusion, CR1 is able to bind opsonized native LDL and acLDL. Binding of LDL to CR1 is mediated via the classical pathway, whereas binding of acLDL is mediated via both the classical and alternative pathways. Binding of lipoproteins to CR1 may be of clinical relevance due to the ubiquitous cellular distribution of CR1.

Authors : Klop Boudewijn, van der Pol Pieter, van Bruggen Robin, Wang Yanan, de Vries Marijke A, van Santen Selvetta, O'Flynn Joseph, van de Geijn Gert-Jan M, Njo Tjin L, Janssen Hans W, de Man Peter, Jukema J Wouter, Rabelink Ton J, Rensen Patrick C N, van Kooten Cees, Cabezas Manuel Castro,



(4) Comparison of five peptide vectors for improved brain delivery of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24573272
Publication Date : //
Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a treatment option for lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) caused by deficiencies of soluble lysosomal enzymes. ERT depends on receptor-mediated transport of intravenously injected recombinant enzyme to lysosomes of patient cells. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents efficient transfer of therapeutic polypeptides from the blood to the brain parenchyma and thus hinders effective treatment of LSDs with CNS involvement. We compared the potential of five brain-targeting peptides to promote brain delivery of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A (ASA). Fusion proteins between ASA and the protein transduction domain of the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein (Tat), an Angiopep peptide (Ang-2), and the receptor-binding domains of human apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and ApoE (two versions, ApoE-I and ApoE-II) were generated. All ASA fusion proteins were enzymatically active and targeted to lysosomes when added to cultured cells. In contrast to wild-type ASA, which is taken up by mannose-6-phosphate receptors, all chimeric proteins were additionally endocytosed via mannose-6-phosphate-independent routes. For ASA-Ang-2, ASA-ApoE-I, and ASA-ApoE-II, uptake was partially due to the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1. Transendothelial transfer in a BBB cell culture model was elevated for ASA-ApoB, ASA-ApoE-I, and ASA-ApoE-II. Brain delivery was, however, increased only for ASA-ApoE-II. ApoE-II was also superior to wild-type ASA in reducing lysosomal storage in the CNS of ASA-knock-out mice treated by ERT. Therefore, the ApoE-derived peptide appears useful to treat metachromatic leukodystrophy and possibly other neurological disorders more efficiently.

Authors : Böckenhoff Annika, Cramer Sandra, Wölte Philipp, Knieling Simeon, Wohlenberg Claudia, Gieselmann Volkmar, Galla Hans-Joachim, Matzner Ulrich,



(5) An antibody against the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 lowers LDL cholesterol levels in vivo.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24252255
Publication Date : //
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is associated with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, a state of elevated levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia can result in severe implications such as stroke and coronary heart disease. The inhibition of PCSK9 function by therapeutic antibodies that block interaction of PCSK9 with the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A domain of LDL receptor (LDLR) was shown to successfully lower LDL cholesterol levels in clinical studies. Here we present data on the identification, structural and biophysical characterization and in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of a PCSK9 antibody (mAb1). The X-ray structure shows that mAb1 binds the module 1 of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of PCSK9. It blocks access to an area bearing several naturally occurring gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations. Although the antibody does not inhibit binding of PCSK9 to epidermal growth factor-like repeat A, it partially reverses PCSK9-induced reduction of the LDLR and LDL cholesterol uptake in a cellular assay. mAb1 is also effective in lowering serum levels of LDL cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys in vivo. Complete loss of PCSK9 is associated with insufficient liver regeneration and increased risk of hepatitis C infections. Blocking of the CTD is sufficient to partially inhibit PCSK9 function. Antibodies binding the CTD of PCSK9 may thus be advantageous in patients that do not tolerate complete inhibition of PCSK9.

Authors : Schiele Felix, Park John, Redemann Norbert, Luippold Gerd, Nar Herbert,



(6) Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24096944
Publication Date : //
Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat type on aortic cholesterol accumulation, lipoprotein profiles, hepatic lipids and selected genes. F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (20/group) were fed (12 weeks) semi-purified or non-purified diets containing either 10 % (w/w) coconut oil or safflower oil and 0.15 % (w/w) cholesterol. The non-purified diets relative to semi-purified diets resulted in significantly higher TC (72 % [percent difference] and 38 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) and nHDL-C (84 and 61 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively), and lower HDL-C (-47 and -45 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) concentrations. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the hamsters fed the non-purified coconut oil-supplemented diets were three- to fourfold higher than non-purified safflower oil-supplemented, and both semi-purified diets. With the exception of HDL-C, a significant effect of fat type was observed in TC, nHDL-C and triacylglycerol (all P < 0.05) concentrations. Regardless of diet induced differences in lipoprotein profiles, there was no significant effect on aortic cholesterol accumulation. There was an inverse relationship between plasma nHDL-C and triacylglycerol, and hepatic cholesteryl ester content (P < 0.001). Diet induced differences in hepatic gene transcription (LDL receptor, apoB-100, microsomal transfer protein) were not reflected in protein concentrations. Although hamsters fed non-purified and/or saturated fatty acid-supplemented diets had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles compared to hamsters fed semi-purified and/or polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented diets these differences were not reflected in aortic cholesterol accumulation.

Authors : Dillard Alice, Matthan Nirupa R, Spartano Nicole L, Butkowski Ann E, Lichtenstein Alice H,



(7) Inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis improves dyslipidemia in the diet-induced hamster model of insulin resistance: evidence for the role of sphingosine and sphinganine in hepatic VLDL-apoB100 overproduction.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23466071
Publication Date : //
Sphingolipids have emerged as important bioactive lipid species involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known of the regulatory role of sphingolipids in dyslipidemia of insulin-resistant states. We employed hamster models of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance to investigate the role of sphingolipids in hepatic VLDL overproduction, induction of insulin resistance, and inflammation. Hamsters were fed either a control chow diet, a high fructose diet, or a diet high in fat, fructose and cholesterol (FFC diet). They were then treated for 2 weeks with vehicle or 0.3 mg/kg myriocin, a potent inhibitor of de novo sphingolipid synthesis. Both fructose and FFC feeding induced significant increases in hepatic sphinganine, which was normalized to chow-fed levels with myriocin (P < 0.05); myriocin also lowered hepatic ceramide content (P < 0.05). Plasma TG and cholesterol as well as VLDL-TG and -apoB100 were similarly reduced with myriocin treatment in all hamsters, regardless of diet. Myriocin treatment also led to improved insulin sensitivity and reduced hepatic SREBP-1c mRNA, though it did not appear to ameliorate the activation of hepatic inflammatory pathways. Importantly, direct treatment of primary hamster hepatocytes ex vivo with C2 ceramide or sphingosine led to an increased secretion of newly synthesized apoB100. Taken together, these data suggest that a) hepatic VLDL-apoB100 overproduction may be stimulated by ceramides and sphingosine and b) inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis can reduce circulating VLDL in hamsters and improve circulating lipids--an effect that is possibly due to improved insulin signaling and reduced lipogenesis but is independent of changes in inflammation.

Authors : Dekker Mark J, Baker Chris, Naples Mark, Samsoondar Josh, Zhang Rianna, Qiu Wei, Sacco Jennifer, Adeli Khosrow,



(8) GLP-1 and GLP-2 as yin and yang of intestinal lipoprotein production: evidence for predominance of GLP-2-stimulated postprandial lipemia in normal and insulin-resistant states.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23028139
Publication Date : //
The glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) are processed from the proglucagon polypeptide and secreted in equimolar amounts but have opposite effects on chylomicron (CM) production, with GLP-1 significantly reducing and GLP-2 increasing postprandial chylomicronemia. In the current study, we evaluated the apparent paradoxical roles of GLP-1 and GLP-2 under physiological conditions in the Syrian golden hamster, a model with close similarity to humans in terms of lipoprotein metabolism. A short (30-min) intravenous infusion of GLP-2 resulted in a marked increase in postprandial apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48) and triglyceride (TG) levels in the TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction, whereas GLP-1 infusion decreased lipid absorption and levels of TRL-TG and apoB48. GLP-1 and GLP-2 coinfusion resulted in net increased lipid absorption and an increase in TRL-TG and apoB48. However, prolonged (120-min) coinfusion of GLP-1 and GLP-2 decreased postprandial lipemia. Blocking dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity resulted in decreased postprandial lipemia. Interestingly, fructose-fed, insulin-resistant hamsters showed a more pronounced response, including possible hypersensitivity to GLP-2 or reduced sensitivity to GLP-1. In conclusion, under normal physiological conditions, the actions of GLP-2 predominate; however, when GLP-1 activity is sustained, the hypolipidemic action of GLP-1 predominates. Pharmacological inhibition of GLP-1 degradation tips the balance toward an inhibitory effect on intestinal production of atherogenic CM particles.

Authors : Hein Gustavo J, Baker Chris, Hsieh Joanne, Farr Sarah, Adeli Khosrow,



(9) Diphenylpyridylethanamine (DPPE) derivatives as cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22650305
Publication Date : //
A series of diphenylpyridylethanamine (DPPE) derivatives was identified exhibiting potent CETP inhibition. Replacing the labile ester functionality in the initial lead 7 generated a series of amides and ureas. Further optimization of the DPPE series for potency resulted in the discovery of cyclopentylurea 15d, which demonstrated a reduction in cholesterol ester transfer activity (48% of predose level) in hCETP/apoB-100 dual transgenic mice. The PK profile of 15d was suboptimal, and further optimization of the N-terminus resulted in the discovery of amide 20 with an improved PK profile and robust efficacy in transgenic hCETP/apoB-100 mice and in hamsters. Compound 20 demonstrated no significant changes in either mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate in telemeterized rats despite sustained high exposures.

Authors : Harikrishnan Lalgudi S, Finlay Heather J, Qiao Jennifer X, Kamau Muthoni G, Jiang Ji, Wang Tammy C, Li James, Cooper Christopher B, Poss Michael A, Adam Leonard P, Taylor David S, Chen Alice Ye A, Yin Xiaohong, Sleph Paul G, Yang Richard Z, Sitkoff Doree F, Galella Michael A, Nirschl David S, Van Kirk Katy, Miller Arthur V, Huang Christine S, Chang Ming, Chen Xue-Qing, Salvati Mark E, Wexler Ruth R, Lawrence R Michael,



(10) Impact of LDL apheresis on atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway in familial hypercholesterolemia.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22338009
Publication Date : //
In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with functional alterations of HDL particles that reduce their capacity to mediate the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of LDL apheresis on the efficacy of the RCT pathway in FH patients. LDL apheresis markedly reduced abnormal accelerated cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-mediated cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer from HDL to LDL, thus reducing their CE content. Equally, we observed a major decrease (-53%; P < 0.0001) in pre-β1-HDL levels. The capacity of whole plasma to mediate free cholesterol efflux from human macrophages was reduced (-15%; P < 0.02) following LDL apheresis. Such reduction resulted from a marked decrease in the ABCA1-dependent efflux (-71%; P < 0.0001) in the scavenger receptor class B type I-dependent efflux (-21%; P < 0.0001) and in the ABCG1-dependent pathway (-15%; P < 0.04). However, HDL particles isolated from FH patients before and after LDL apheresis displayed a similar capacity to mediate cellular free cholesterol efflux or to deliver CE to hepatic cells. We demonstrate that rapid removal of circulating lipoprotein particles by LDL apheresis transitorily reduces RCT. However, LDL apheresis is without impact on the intrinsic ability of HDL particles to promote either cellular free cholesterol efflux from macrophages or to deliver CE to hepatic cells.

Authors : Orsoni Alexina, Villard Elise F, Bruckert Eric, Robillard Paul, Carrie Alain, Bonnefont-Rousselot Dominique, Chapman M John, Dallinga-Thie Geesje M, Le Goff Wilfried, Guerin Maryse,