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Albuwell H (hamster ELISA, Strip plate) Urinary Albumin

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[#1018] Albuwell H (hamster ELISA, Strip plate) Urinary Albumin


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(1) Chemical composition, immunostimulatory, cytotoxic and antiparasitic activities of the essential oil from Brazilian red propolis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29390009
Publication Date : //
Most studies of Brazilian red propolis have explored the composition and biological properties of its ethanolic extracts. In this work, we chemically extracted and characterized the essential oil of Brazilian red propolis (EOP) and assessed its adjuvant, antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities. The chemical composition of EOP was analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). EOP was tested for in vitro activity against Trichomonas vaginalis (ATCC 30236 isolate); trophozoites were treated with different concentrations of EOP (ranging from 25 to 500 μg/mL) in order to establish the MIC and IC50 values. A cytotoxicity assay was performed in CHO-K1 cells submitted to different EOP concentrations. BALB/c mice were used to test the adjuvant effect of EOP. The animals were divided in 3 groups and inoculated as follows: 0.4 ng/kg BW EOP (G1); 50 μg of rCP40 protein (G2); or a combination of 0.4 ng/kg BW EOP and 50 μg of rCP40 (G3). Total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a levels were assessed by ELISA. The major constituent compounds of EOP were methyl eugenol (13.1%), (E)-β-farnesene (2.50%), and δ-amorphene (2.3%). Exposure to EOP inhibited the growth of T. vaginalis, with an IC50 value of 100 μg/mL of EOP. An EOP concentration of 500 μg/mL was able to kill 100% of the T. vaginalis trophozoites. The EOP kinetic growth curve showed a 36% decrease in trophozoite growth after a 12 h exposure to 500 μg/mL of EOP, while complete parasite death was induced at 24 h. With regard to CHO-K1 cells, the CC50 was 266 μg/mL, and 92% cytotoxicity was observed after exposure to 500 μg/mL of EOP. Otherwise, a concentration of 200 μg/mL of EOP was able to reduce parasite proliferation by 70% and was not cytotoxic to CHO-K1 cells. As an adjuvant, a synergistic effect was observed when EOP was combined with the rCP40 protein (G3) in comparison to the administration of each component alone (G1 and G2), resulting in higher concentrations of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a. EOP is constituted by biologically active components with promising antiparasitic and immunostimulatory activities and can be investigated for the formulation of new vaccines or trichomonacidal drugs.

Authors : Sena-Lopes Ângela, Bezerra Francisco Silvestre Brilhante, das Neves Raquel Nascimento, de Pinho Rodrigo Barros, Silva Mara Thais de Oliveira, Savegnago Lucielli, Collares Tiago, Seixas Fabiana, Begnini Karine, Henriques João Antonio Pêgas, Ely Mariana Roesch, Rufatto Luciane C, Moura Sidnei, Barcellos Thiago, Padilha Francine, Dellagostin Odir, Borsuk Sibele,

(2) Selenium and Zinc against Aβ-Induced Cytotoxicity and Tau Phosphorylation in PC12 Cells and Inhibits γ-cleavage of APP.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29081063
Publication Date : //
Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the main component of the amyloid plaques that accumulate in the brains of Alzheimer patients. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the combined treatment with selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) offers more beneficial effects than that provided by either of them alone in reversing Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Cells were pretreated with 0.1 μmol/L of Se and Zn for 4 h, after treated with 10 mmol/L Aβ for 24 h. Cells were divided into control and five treated groups, and received either 10 mmol/L Aβ10 mmol/L Aβ + 0.1 μmol/L Se, 10 mmol/L Aβ + 0.1 μmol/L Zn, 10 mmol/LAβ + 0.1 μmol/L Se + 0.1 μmol/L Zn, or 0.1 μmol/L Se + 0.1 μmol/L Zn. The result showed that cell viability was decreased in MTT metabolic rate; LDH release and MDA, HO, and NO levels were increased and the GSK-3β and phosphorylated tau protein level were increased in Aβ-treated group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), which whole changes were attenuated by Se and Zn and Se combined Zn. In order to evaluate whether the Se and Zn have an effect on processing pathway of amyloid precursor protein (APP), we examined the activity of γ-secretase in primary cultured cortical neuron cells. ELISA analysis showed that Se and Zn could inhibit the activity of γ-secretase. Then we also investigated the effect of Se and Zn on the Aβ concentration and APP-N-terminal fragment expression from APP695 stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. APP695 stably transfected CHO cells were treated with 0.1 μmol/L Se and Zn; cells were divided into control and four treated groups, which received either 0.5 M DAPT, 0.1 μmol/L Se, 0.1 μmol/L Zn, or 0.1 μmol/L Se + 0.1 μmol/L Zn. Se and Zn could decrease Aβ production and increase the APP-N-terminal fragment protein expression. These experiments indicate that Se and Zn have a protective effect on AD pathology that a possible mechanism is inhibiting the activity of γ-secretase to decreasing Aβ production further influencing the APP processing. Altogether, our findings may provide a novel therapeutic target to treat AD sufferers.

Authors : Li Guang-Zhe, Liu Fang, Xu Cui, Li Jing-Yang, Xu Yan-Ji,

(3) Regulatory role of miR-18a to CCN2 by TGF-β1 signaling pathway in pulmonary injury induced by nano-SiO.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29067610
Publication Date : //
This research is designed to investigate the regulatory effect of miR-18a to the target gene connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, or CCN2), by participating in TGF-β1 signaling pathway and explore the pathogenic mechanism of miR-18a in pulmonary injury induced by nano-SiO based on our early study. miR-18a and expression of TGF-β1 in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblasts cells stimulated by supernatants of NR8383 cells exposed to 40 μg/ml nano-SiO for 24 h demonstrated 1.58 ± 0.22-fold and 1096.00 ± 2.60 pg/ml increase compared with blank control group analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Expression increase of miR-18a and reduction of CCN2 mRNA expression levels and protein gray value ratio detected by Western blotting in CHL cells transfect miR-18a mimics for 48 h. The reverse of CHL cell transfection miR-18a inhibit is also true. The result of miR-18a and CCN2 binding sites tested by luciferase reporter gene assay shows that the report relative fluorescence value of miR-18a mimics wild type on CCN2 is 0.50 ± 0.02 with the control of mimics NC and mutant relative fluorescence report value 0.86 ± 0.04 (P < 0.05). Expression levels of miR-18a, CCN2 mRNA, and protein gray value ratio decreased in CHL cells treated by TGF-β1, respectively, and vice versa treated by TGF-β1corepressor. The results suggest that CCN2 is the target gene regulated by miR-18a and miR-18a participates in TGF-β1 signaling pathway by regulating the expression of CCN2 negatively through CCN2 3'UTR site, and thus may be involved in the development process of pulmonary injury.

Authors : Yang Hong, Li Wenchao, Zhang Yingjian, Li Mingyue, Gao Ying, Lao Canshan, Shi Bing,

(4) Novel high-throughput cell-based hybridoma screening methodology using the Celigo Image Cytometer.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28414024
Publication Date : //
Hybridoma screening is a critical step for antibody discovery, which necessitates prompt identification of potential clones from hundreds to thousands of hybridoma cultures against the desired immunogen. Technical issues associated with ELISA- and flow cytometry-based screening limit accuracy and diminish high-throughput capability, increasing time and cost. Conventional ELISA screening with coated antigen is also impractical for difficult-to-express hydrophobic membrane antigens or multi-chain protein complexes. Here, we demonstrate novel high-throughput screening methodology employing the Celigo Image Cytometer, which avoids nonspecific signals by contrasting antibody binding signals directly on living cells, with and without recombinant antigen expression. The image cytometry-based high-throughput screening method was optimized by detecting the binding of hybridoma supernatants to the recombinant antigen CD39 expressed on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Next, the sensitivity of the image cytometer was demonstrated by serial dilution of purified CD39 antibody. Celigo was used to measure antibody affinities of commercial and in-house antibodies to membrane-bound CD39. This cell-based screening procedure can be completely accomplished within one day, significantly improving throughput and efficiency of hybridoma screening. Furthermore, measuring direct antibody binding to living cells eliminated both false positive and false negative hits. The image cytometry method was highly sensitive and versatile, and could detect positive antibody in supernatants at concentrations as low as ~5ng/mL, with concurrent K binding affinity coefficient determination. We propose that this screening method will greatly facilitate antibody discovery and screening technologies.

Authors : Zhang Haohai, Chan Leo Li-Ying, Rice William, Kassam Nasim, Longhi Maria Serena, Zhao Haitao, Robson Simon C, Gao Wenda, Wu Yan,

(5) The unique prodomain of T-cadherin plays a key role in adiponectin binding with the essential extracellular cadherin repeats 1 and 2.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28325833
Publication Date : //
Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived circulating protein, accumulates in the heart, vascular endothelium, and skeletal muscles through an interaction with T-cadherin (T-cad), a unique glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cadherin. Recent studies have suggested that this interaction is essential for adiponectin-mediated cardiovascular protection. However, the precise protein-protein interaction between adiponectin and T-cad remains poorly characterized. Using ELISA-based and surface plasmon analyses, we report here that T-cad fused with IgG Fc as a fusion tag by replacing its glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor specifically bound both hexameric and larger multimeric adiponectin with a dissociation constant of ∼1.0 nm and without any contribution from other cellular or serum factors. The extracellular T-cad repeats 1 and 2 were critical for the observed adiponectin binding, which is required for classical cadherin-mediated cell-to-cell adhesion. Moreover, the 130-kDa prodomain-bearing T-cad, uniquely expressed on the cell surface among members of the cadherin family and predominantly increased by adiponectin, contributed significantly to adiponectin binding. Inhibition of prodomain-processing by a prohormone convertase inhibitor increased 130-kDa T-cad levels and also enhanced adiponectin binding to endothelial cells both by more preferential cell-surface localization and by higher adiponectin-binding affinity of 130-kDa T-cad relative to 100-kDa T-cad. The preferential cell-surface localization of 130-kDa T-cad relative to 100-kDa T-cad was also observed in normal mice aorta In conclusion, our study shows that a unique key feature of the T-cad prodomain is its involvement in binding of the T-cad repeats 1 and 2 to adiponectin and also demonstrates that adiponectin positively regulates T-cad abundance.

Authors : Fukuda Shiro, Kita Shunbun, Obata Yoshinari, Fujishima Yuya, Nagao Hirofumi, Masuda Shigeki, Tanaka Yoshimitsu, Nishizawa Hitoshi, Funahashi Tohru, Takagi Junichi, Maeda Norikazu, Shimomura Iichiro,

(6) Nondestructive nanostraw intracellular sampling for longitudinal cell monitoring.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28223521
Publication Date : //
Here, we report a method for time-resolved, longitudinal extraction and quantitative measurement of intracellular proteins and mRNA from a variety of cell types. Cytosolic contents were repeatedly sampled from the same cell or population of cells for more than 5 d through a cell-culture substrate, incorporating hollow 150-nm-diameter nanostraws (NS) within a defined sampling region. Once extracted, the cellular contents were analyzed with conventional methods, including fluorescence, enzymatic assays (ELISA), and quantitative real-time PCR. This process was nondestructive with >95% cell viability after sampling, enabling long-term analysis. It is important to note that the measured quantities from the cell extract were found to constitute a statistically significant representation of the actual contents within the cells. Of 48 mRNA sequences analyzed from a population of cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs), 41 were accurately quantified. The NS platform samples from a select subpopulation of cells within a larger culture, allowing native cell-to-cell contact and communication even during vigorous activity such as cardiomyocyte beating. This platform was applied both to cell lines and to primary cells, including CHO cells, hiPSC-CMs, and human astrocytes derived in 3D cortical spheroids. By tracking the same cell or group of cells over time, this method offers an avenue to understand dynamic cell behavior, including processes such as induced pluripotency and differentiation.

Authors : Cao Yuhong, Hjort Martin, Chen Haodong, Birey Fikri, Leal-Ortiz Sergio A, Han Crystal M, Santiago Juan G, Paşca Sergiu P, Wu Joseph C, Melosh Nicholas A,

(7) Apolipoprotein E-mediated Modulation of ADAM10 in Alzheimer's Disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28164773
Publication Date : //
The APOE4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been associated with an accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain, which is produced through the sequential cleavage of the amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) by β - and γ-secretases. Alternatively, AβPP is also cleaved by α -secretases such as A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase Domain-containing Protein 10 (ADAM10).

Authors : Shackleton Ben, Crawford Fiona, Bachmeier Corbin,

(8) A highly efficient modified human serum albumin signal peptide to secrete proteins in cells derived from different mammalian species.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28089882
Publication Date : //
Signal peptides (SPs) are key elements in the production of recombinant proteins; however, little information is available concerning different SP in mammalian cells other than CHO. In order to study the efficiency of different SPs to direct the traffic along the secretory pathway of the green fluorescence protein (GFP) and a scFv-Fc fusion protein; CHO-K1, HEK293 and NS0 cell lines were transfected in a transient and stable way. SP of human azurocidin (AZ), modified human albumin (mSA), modified Cricetulus griseus Ig kappa chain V III region MOPC 63 like (mIgκ C) and modified human Ig kappa chain V III region VG (mIgκ H) were evaluated. The efficiency of SPs to translocate a propeptide across the ER membrane was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry for the GFP inside the secretory pathway, and by antigen-specific indirect ELISA for the scFv-Fc outside the cell. The mSA SP was successful in directing the secretion of the active proteins in these different types of mammalian cells, regardless of the transgene copy number. The goal of this work was to demonstrate that a modified version of SA SP might be used in different mammalian cells employing the same expression vector.

Authors : Attallah Carolina, Etcheverrigaray Marina, Kratje Ricardo, Oggero Marcos,

(9) Three pentraxins C-reactive protein, serum amyloid p component and pentraxin 3 mediate complement activation using Collectin CL-P1.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27864148
Publication Date : //
Pentraxins (PTXs) are a superfamily of multifunctional conserved proteins involved in acute-phase responses. Recently, we have shown that collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) and C-reactive protein (CRP) mediated complement activation and failed to form terminal complement complex (TCC) in normal serum conditions because of complement factor H inhibition.

Authors : Roy Nitai, Ohtani Katsuki, Hidaka Yoshihiko, Amano Yoshiro, Matsuda Yasuyuki, Mori Kenichiro, Hwang Insu, Inoue Norimitsu, Wakamiya Nobutaka,

(10) Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O displaying a serotype Asia1 antigenic epitope at the surface.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27160994
Publication Date : //
To determine whether the G-H loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O can function as a target structure to harbour and display serotype Asia1 antigenic epitope at the surface.

Authors : Biswal Jitendra K, Ranjan Rajeev, Pattnaik Bramhadev,