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Hepatitis C capsid, NS3 + NS4 , Goat anti_; ELISA

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[#OBT0993] Hepatitis C capsid, NS3 + NS4 , Goat anti_; ELISA


OBT0993 | Hepatitis C capsid, NS3 + NS4 , Goat anti_; ELISA, 1 ml.
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(1) Transmission genetics of drug-resistant hepatitis C virus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29589830
Publication Date : //
Antiviral development is plagued by drug resistance and genetic barriers to resistance are needed. For HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), combination therapy has proved life-saving. The targets of direct-acting antivirals for HCV infection are NS3/4A protease, NS5A phosphoprotein and NS5B polymerase. Differential visualization of drug-resistant and -susceptible RNA genomes within cells revealed that resistant variants of NS3/4A protease and NS5A phosphoprotein are -dominant, ensuring their direct selection from complex environments. Confocal microscopy revealed that RNA replication complexes are genome-specific, rationalizing the non-interaction of wild-type and variant products. No HCV antivirals yet display the dominance of drug susceptibility shown for capsid proteins of other viruses. However, effective inhibitors of HCV polymerase exact such high fitness costs for drug resistance that stable genome selection is not observed. Barriers to drug resistance vary with target biochemistry and detailed analysis of these barriers should lead to the use of fewer drugs.

Authors : van Buuren Nicholas, Tellinghuisen Timothy L, Richardson Christopher D, Kirkegaard Karla,

(2) Proteomics of HCV virions reveals an essential role for the nucleoporin Nup98 in virus morphogenesis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26884193
Publication Date : //
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a unique enveloped virus that assembles as a hybrid lipoviral particle by tightly interacting with host lipoproteins. As a result, HCV virions display a characteristic low buoyant density and a deceiving coat, with host-derived apolipoproteins masking viral epitopes. We previously described methods to produce high-titer preparations of HCV particles with tagged envelope glycoproteins that enabled ultrastructural analysis of affinity-purified virions. Here, we performed proteomics studies of HCV isolated from culture media of infected hepatoma cells to define viral and host-encoded proteins associated with mature virions. Using two different affinity purification protocols, we detected four viral and 46 human cellular proteins specifically copurifying with extracellular HCV virions. We determined the C terminus of the mature capsid protein and reproducibly detected low levels of the viral nonstructural protein, NS3. Functional characterization of virion-associated host factors by RNAi identified cellular proteins with either proviral or antiviral roles. In particular, we discovered a novel interaction between HCV capsid protein and the nucleoporin Nup98 at cytosolic lipid droplets that is important for HCV propagation. These results provide the first comprehensive view to our knowledge of the protein composition of HCV and new insights into the complex virus-host interactions underlying HCV infection.

Authors : Lussignol Marion, Kopp Martina, Molloy Kelly, Vizcay-Barrena Gema, Fleck Roland A, Dorner Marcus, Bell Kierstin L, Chait Brian T, Rice Charles M, Catanese Maria Teresa,

(3) Characterization of the Determinants of NS2-3-Independent Virion Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26355097
Publication Date : //
A peculiarity of the Flaviviridae is the critical function of nonstructural (NS) proteins for virus particle formation. For pestiviruses, like bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), uncleaved NS2-3 represents an essential factor for virion morphogenesis, while NS3 is an essential component of the viral replicase. Accordingly, in natural pestivirus isolates, processing at the NS2-3 cleavage site is not complete, to allow for virion morphogenesis. Virion morphogenesis of the related hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows a major deviation from that of pestiviruses: while RNA replication also requires free NS3, virion formation does not depend on uncleaved NS2-NS3. Recently, we described a BVDV-1 chimera based on strain NCP7 encompassing the NS2-4B*-coding region of strain Osloss (E. Lattwein, O. Klemens, S. Schwindt, P. Becher, and N. Tautz, J Virol 86:427-437, 2012, doi:10.1128/JVI.06133-11). This chimera allowed for the production of infectious virus particles in the absence of uncleaved NS2-3. The Osloss sequence deviates in the NS2-4B* part from NCP7 in 48 amino acids and also has a ubiquitin insertion between NS2 and NS3. The present study demonstrates that in the NCP7 backbone, only two amino acid exchanges in NS2 (E1576V) and NS3 (V1721A) are sufficient and necessary to allow for efficient NS2-3-independent virion morphogenesis. The adaptation of a bicistronic virus encompassing an internal ribosomal entry site element between the NS2 and NS3 coding sequences to efficient virion morphogenesis led to the identification of additional amino acids in E2, NS2, and NS5B that are critically involved in this process. The surprisingly small requirements for approximating the packaging schemes of pestiviruses and HCV with respect to the NS2-3 region is in favor of a common mechanism in an ancestral virus.

Authors : Klemens O, Dubrau D, Tautz N,

(4) Characterization of human antiviral adaptive immune responses during hepatotropic virus infection in HLA-transgenic human immune system mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23833235
Publication Date : //
Humanized mice have emerged as a promising model to study human immunity in vivo. Although they are susceptible to many pathogens exhibiting an almost exclusive human tropism, human immune responses to infection remain functionally impaired. It has recently been demonstrated that the expression of HLA molecules improves human immunity to lymphotropic virus infections in humanized mice. However, little is known about the extent of functional human immune responses in nonlymphoid tissues, such as in the liver, and the role of HLA expression in this context. Therefore, we analyzed human antiviral immunity in humanized mice during a hepatotropic adenovirus infection. We compared immune responses of conventional humanized NOD SCID IL-2Rγ-deficient (NSG) mice to those of a novel NOD SCID IL-2Rγ-deficient strain transgenic for both HLA-A*0201 and a chimeric HLA-DR*0101 molecule. Using a firefly luciferase-expressing adenovirus and in vivo bioluminescence imaging, we demonstrate a human T cell-dependent partial clearance of adenovirus-infected cells from the liver of HLA-transgenic humanized mice. This correlated with liver infiltration and activation of T cells, as well as the detection of Ag-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. When infected with a hepatitis C virus NS3-expressing adenovirus, HLA-transgenic humanized mice mounted an HLA-A*0201-restricted hepatitis C virus NS3-specific CD8(+) T cell response. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the generation of partial functional antiviral immune responses against a hepatotropic pathogen in humanized HLA-transgenic mice. The adenovirus reporter system used in our study may serve as simple in vivo method to evaluate future strategies for improving human intrahepatic immune responses in humanized mice.

Authors : Billerbeck Eva, Horwitz Joshua A, Labitt Rachael N, Donovan Bridget M, Vega Kevin, Budell William C, Koo Gloria C, Rice Charles M, Ploss Alexander,

(5) A Gaussia luciferase cell-based system to assess the infection of cell culture- and serum-derived hepatitis C virus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23300900
Publication Date : //
Robust replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in cell culture occurs only with the JFH-1 (genotype 2a) recombinant genome. The aim of this study was to develop a system for HCV infection quantification analysis and apply it for the selection of patient sera that may contain cell culture infectious viruses, particularly of the most clinically important genotype 1. Initially, a hepatoma cell line (designated Huh-7.5/EG(4A/4B)GLuc) was generated that stably expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused in-frame to the secreted Gaussia luciferase via a recognition sequence of the viral NS3/4A protease. Upon HCV infection, NS3/4A cleaved at its signal and the Gaussia was secreted to the culture medium, thus facilitating the infection quantification. The Huh-7.5/EG(4A/4B)GLuc cell line provided a rapid and highly sensitive quantification of HCV infection in cell culture using JFH-1-derived viruses. Furthermore, the Huh-7.5/EG(4A/4B)GLuc cells were also shown to be a suitable host for the discovery of anti-HCV inhibitors by using known compounds that target distinct stages of the HCV life cycle; the Ź-factor of this assay ranged from 0.72 to 0.75. Additionally, eighty-six sera derived from HCV genotype 1b infected liver transplant recipients were screened for their in vitro infection and replication potential. Approximately 12% of the sera contained in vitro replication-competent viruses, as deduced by the Gaussia signal, real time quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence and capsid protein secretion. We conclude that the Huh-7.5/EG(4A/4B)GLuc cell line is an excellent system not only for the screening of in vitro replication-competent serum-derived viruses, but also for the subsequent cloning of recombinant isolates. Additionally, it can be utilized for high-throughput screening of antiviral compounds.

Authors : Koutsoudakis George, Pérez-del-Pulgar Sofía, González Patricia, Crespo Gonzalo, Navasa Miquel, Forns Xavier,

(6) Recombinant retrovirus-derived virus-like particle-based vaccines induce hepatitis C virus-specific cellular and neutralizing immune responses in mice.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22634300
Publication Date : //
While the immunological correlates of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immunity are not well understood, it is now admitted that an effective vaccine against HCV will need to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses and address viral heterogeneity to prevent immune escape. We developed a vaccine platform specifically aimed at inducing such responses against HCV antigens displayed by recombinant retrovirus-based virus-like particles (VLPs) made of Gag of murine leukemia virus. Both ex vivo produced VLPs and plasmid DNA encoding VLPs can be used as vaccines. Here, we report that immunizations with plasmid DNA forming VLPs pseudotyped with HCV E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins (HCV-specific plasmo-retroVLPs) induce strong T-cell-mediated immune responses that can be optimized by using proper DNA delivery methods and/or genetic adjuvants. Additionally, multigenotype or multi-specific T-cell responses were observed after immunization with plasmids that encode VLPs pseudotyped with E1E2 derived from numerous viral genotypes and/or displaying NS3 antigen in capsid proteins. While homologous prime-boost immunizations with HCV-specific plasmo-retroVLPs or ex vivo produced VLPs induce a low level of specific antibody responses, optimal combination of plasmo-retroVLPs and VLPs was identified for inducing HCV-specific T-cell and B-cell responses as well as neutralizing antibodies. Altogether, these results have important meanings for the development of anti-HCV preventive vaccines and exemplify the flexibility and potential of our retrovirus-based platform in inducing broad cellular and humoral immune responses.

Authors : Huret Christophe, Desjardins Delphine, Miyalou Mathilde, Levacher Béatrice, Amadoudji Zin Martin, Bonduelle Olivia, Combadière Béhazine, Dalba Charlotte, Klatzmann David, Bellier Bertrand,

(7) Direct binding of a hepatitis C virus inhibitor to the viral capsid protein.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22389688
Publication Date : //
Over 130 million people are infected chronically with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which, together with HBV, is the leading cause of liver disease. Novel small molecule inhibitors of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are needed to complement or replace current treatments based on pegylated interferon and ribavirin, which are only partially successful and plagued with side-effects. Assembly of the virion is initiated by the oligomerization of core, the capsid protein, followed by the interaction with NS5A and other HCV proteins. By screening for inhibitors of core dimerization, we previously discovered peptides and drug-like compounds that disrupt interactions between core and other HCV proteins, NS3 and NS5A, and block HCV production. Here we report that a biotinylated derivative of SL209, a prototype small molecule inhibitor of core dimerization (IC(50) of 2.80 µM) that inhibits HCV production with an EC(50) of 3.20 µM, is capable of penetrating HCV-infected cells and tracking with core. Interaction between the inhibitors, core and other viral proteins was demonstrated by SL209-mediated affinity-isolation of HCV proteins from lysates of infected cells, or of the corresponding recombinant HCV proteins. SL209-like inhibitors of HCV core may form the basis of novel treatments of Hepatitis C in combination with other target-specific HCV drugs such as inhibitors of the NS3 protease, the NS5B polymerase, or the NS5A regulatory protein. More generally, our work supports the hypothesis that inhibitors of viral capsid formation might constitute a new class of potent antiviral agents, as was recently also shown for HIV capsid inhibitors.

Authors : Kota Smitha, Takahashi Virginia, Ni Feng, Snyder John K, Strosberg A Donny,

(8) Dimerization-driven interaction of hepatitis C virus core protein with NS3 helicase.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :20881089
Publication Date : //
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 130 million people causing a worldwide epidemic of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular-carcinoma. Because current HCV treatments are only partially effective, molecular mechanisms involved in HCV propagation are actively being pursued as possible drug targets. Here, we report on a new macromolecular interaction between the HCV capsid core protein and the helicase portion of HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3h), confirmed by four different biochemical methods. The protease portion of NS3 is not required. Interaction between the two proteins could be disrupted by two types of specific inhibitors of core dimerization, the small molecule SL201 and core106, a C-terminally truncated core protein. Cross-linking experiments suggest that the physical interaction with NS3h is probably driven by core oligomerization. Moreover, SL201 blocks the production of infectious virus, but not the production of a subgenomic HCV replicon by hepatoma cells. Time-of-addition experiments confirm that SL201 has no effect on entry of the virus. These data underline the essential role of core as a key organizer of HCV particle assembly, confirm the importance of oligomerization, reveal the interaction with viral helicase and support a new molecular understanding of the formation of the viral particle at the level of the lipid droplets, before its migration to the site of release and budding.

Authors : Mousseau G, Kota S, Takahashi V, Frick D N, Strosberg A D,

(9) Core as a novel viral target for hepatitis C drugs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :21994704
Publication Date : //
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 130 million people worldwide and is a major cause of liver disease. No vaccine is available. Novel specific drugs for HCV are urgently required, since the standard-of-care treatment of pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin is poorly tolerated and cures less than half of the treated patients. Promising, effective direct-acting drugs currently in the clinic have been described for three of the ten potential HCV target proteins: NS3/NS4A protease, NS5B polymerase and NS5A, a regulatory phosphoprotein. We here present core, the viral capsid protein, as another attractive, non-enzymatic target, against which a new class of anti-HCV drugs can be raised. Core plays a major role in the virion's formation, and interacts with several cellular proteins, some of which are involved in host defense mechanisms against the virus. This most conserved of all HCV proteins requires oligomerization to function as the organizer of viral particle assembly. Using core dimerization as the basis of transfer-of-energy screening assays, peptides and small molecules were identified which not only inhibit core-core interaction, but also block viral production in cell culture. Initial chemical optimization resulted in compounds active in single digit micromolar concentrations. Core inhibitors could be used in combination with other HCV drugs in order to provide novel treatments of Hepatitis C.

Authors : Strosberg Arthur Donny, Kota Smitha, Takahashi Virginia, Snyder John K, Mousseau Guillaume,

(10) Induction of IgA and sustained deficiency of cell proliferative response in chronic hepatitis C.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :19058312
Publication Date : //
In the present study, antibody and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferative responses against hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens were evaluated in HCV chronically infected patients.

Authors : Amador-Cañizares Yalena, Alvarez-Lajonchere Liz, Guerra Ivis, Rodríguez-Alonso Ingrid, Martínez-Donato Gillian, Triana Julián, González-Horta Eddy E, Pérez Angel, Dueñas-Carrera Santiago,