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Fish Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) ELISA Kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E15790Fh] Fish Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) ELISA Kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma


CSB-E15790Fh | Fish Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) ELISA Kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Chitosan-eurycomanone nanoformulation acts on steroidogenesis pathway genes to increase the reproduction rate in fish.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30253226
Publication Date : //
The study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanism of eurycomanone, a major compound of Eurycoma longifolia plant in increasing the reproductive processes in the male fish model. Chitosan-nanoconjugated eurycomanone nanoparticles with a significant particle size [130 nm (CED1); 144.1 nm (CED2)] and stable zeta potentials (+49.1 mV and +30 mV) were synthesized and evaluated against naked eurycomanone (ED1 and ED2). In present study, short-term and long-term experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of nano-formulation on expression of endocrine-related genes, circulating hormone concentrations (Follicle stimulating hormone, FSH; luteinizing hormone, LH; progesterone, testosterone and 17-β estradiol) and reproductive capacity of male Clarias magur. In short-term experiment, the sampling of tissues was done on hourly basis after injection of eurycomanone either alone or with chitosan and long-term experiment was carried for 21 days and in this the injection was repeated after 7 days and 14 days. Treatments CED1 and CED2 showed controlled and sustained surge of the transcript level of selected genes (except aromatase) and serum hormones (except 17β-estradiol) compared to ED1 and ED2 groups. The transcript levels of aromatase and serum 17β-estradiol hormone showed the declining trend in the chitosan conjugated groups. The gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive capacity, intracellular calcium and selenium and cellular structure of testes were improved in CED1 and CED2 groups compared to other treatments. Furthermore, the effect of chitosan conjugated eurycomanone was evaluated in primary testicular cells and an increase in the mRNA expression level of endocrine-related genes was detected. This is the first report of the use of chitosan conjugated eurycomanone and present study elucidates the molecular mechanism of eurycomanone in increasing the reproductive output in animals.

Authors : Bhat Irfan Ahmad, Ahmad Irshad, Mir Ishfaq Nazir, Bhat Raja Aadil Hussain, P Gireesh-Babu, Goswami Mukunda, J K Sundaray, Sharma Rupam,

(2) Photoperiodic regulation of plasma gonadotropin levels in previtellogenic greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30236970
Publication Date : //
In Seriola species, exposure to a long photoperiod regime is known to induce ovarian development. This study examined photoperiodic effects on pituitary gene expression and plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) in previtellogenic greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). The fish were exposed to short (8L:16D) or long (18L:6D) photoperiod. The water temperature was maintained at 22 °C. Compared with the short-photoperiod group, plasma Fsh levels were higher on days 10 and 30 in the long-photoperiod group, but plasma Lh levels did not significantly differ. On day 30, pituitary Fsh- and Lh-β subunit gene expressions were also higher in the long-photoperiod group than the short-photoperiod group, whereas α-subunit gene expressions were higher on days 20 and 30. Throughout the experiment, average gonadosomatic index and plasma E2 levels did not significantly differ between the two groups. This study clearly demonstrated that a long photoperiod induced Fsh release in the previtellogenic fish followed by upregulation of pituitary Fsh and Lh subunit gene expressions. An increase in plasma Fsh levels may be a key factor that mediates the photoperiodic effect on the initiation of ovarian development.

Authors : Nyuji Mitsuo, Hamada Kazuhisa, Kazeto Yukinori, Mekuchi Miyuki, Gen Koichiro, Soyano Kiyoshi, Okuzawa Koichi,

(3) Inhibin anti-peptide antibody macromolecule: An approach to improve fecundity in Clarias batrachus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30130611
Publication Date : //
Inhibins are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily known to regulate ovarian functions through stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In the present study, we aimed to design a species-specific inhibin-α chimeric peptide (ICP) and evaluate the effect of immunoneutralization using anti-ICP antisera to enhance the reproductive performance in female Clarias batrachus. Injection of anti-ICP antisera caused a significant increase in the number of oocytes at a medium dose (200 μl) in comparison to high dose (400 μl) and control (normal rabbit serum). Histological observations confirmed the dose-dependent advancement in oocyte maturation. Furthermore, anti-ICP antisera treated groups exhibited a significant increase in the serum concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and 17β-estradiol (E2) hormones. The anti-ICP antisera decreased the mRNA expression levels of inhibin-α while stimulated the transcript levels of inhibin-βA, FSHβ, CYP 19a1, 3β-HSD and StAR respectively in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these findings indicate that anti-ICP antibody macromolecules modulate the endogenous reproductive hormonal secretion and enhance oocyte quality and quantity in female C. batrachus. This is the first report wherein antibodies against inhibins were used to promote reproductive performances and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms in fishes.

Authors : Ahmad Irshad, Jagtap Dhanashree D, Balasinor Nafisa H, Rani Babitha, Bhat Irfan Ahmad, Chadha N K, Rawat Kiran Dube, Saharan Neelam,

(4) Seasonal ovarian development in relation to the gonadotropins, steroids, aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) in the banded gourami, Trichogaster fasciata.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30055147
Publication Date : //
The endocrine regulation of gonadal development and annual variation of key sex steroids is the basic knowledge to understand the reproductive cycle of teleost fish. Present study was aimed to investigate the levels of gonadotropins in relation to the follicular development and plasma steroids during the reproductive cycle of female Trichogaster fasciata. Female fish were sampled and ovarian development is described histologically throughout the year in relation to the seasonal variations of gonadosomatic index (GSI); follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH); three key steroids for folliculogenesis and maturation i.e. testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E) and 17α20βdihydroxy4pregnen3one (17,20β-P). Relatively higher level of FSH was observed till the ovary reaches in late vitellogenic stage confirms that FSH regulates the early folliculogenesis of the ovary, whereas LH peak was observed in the postvitellogenic stage, which indicates that maturation and ovulation were controlled by LH. Seasonal steroid profiles show that both T and E reach its maximum level prior to the 17,20β-P which attain its peak value in the month of August. Thus, single peak values of LH and 17,20β-P coinciding with GSI peak, clearly indicates that T. fasciata breeds only once in a year. Furthermore, to elucidate the molecular basis of the reproductive cycle, this study analyzes the other key factors of ovarian function such as cyp19a1a gene expression, aromatase activity and SF-1 localization throughout the year. cyp19a1a gene expression and the aromatase activity were highest in vitellogenic stages indicate that relatively higher E production in this stage is regulated by FSH. Immunohistochemical localizations of aromatase and SF-1 in the cellular layer of oocytes demonstrated that aromatase is FSH-dependent and SF-1 could be regulated by both FSH and LH as relatively higher amount of aromatase was localized in the vitellogenic stage oocytes than the postvitellogenic and post germinal vesicle breakdown (post-GVBD) stages; whereas, high amount of SF-1 was observed in vitellogenic, postvitellogenic and post-GVBD stages. These data regarding the reproductive endocrinology of T. fasciata may be useful to understand the interaction between gonadotropins, steroids, aromatase and SF-1 in teleost fishes and may contribute to restoration of the ecologically important fish through artificial reproduction.

Authors : Guchhait Rajkumar, Chatterjee Ankit, Mukherjee Dilip, Pramanick Kousik,

(5) In silico analysis, temporal expression and gonadotropic regulation of receptors for follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in testis of spotted snakehead Channa punctata.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29931764
Publication Date : //
This study in spotted snakehead Channa punctata was aimed to develop a comprehensive understanding of testicular gonadotropin receptors, from their sequence characterization, temporal expression to gonadotropic regulation, in seasonally breeding teleosts. A single form of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (cpfshra) and luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (cplhcgr), was identified from testicular transcriptome data of C. punctata. Although deduced full-length protein sequence for cpFshra (694 amino acids) and cpLhcgr (691 amino acids) showed homology with their counterparts of other vertebrates, multiple insertion-deletion-substitution of residues suggest marked alterations in their structure and ligand specificity. The absolute quantification of testicular cpfshra and cplhcgr was estimated along the reproductive cycle following real-time PCR. The temporal expression profile showed highest testicular expression of both the gonadotropin receptors during resting phase. Their expression progressively decreased during preparatory and spawning phases concomitant with spermatogonial proliferation and differentiation and spermiogenesis. However, levels of cpfshra and cplhcgr sharply increased during post-spawning when seminiferous lobules were largely devoid of germ cells. To explore gonadotropic regulation of testicular cpfshra and cplhcgr, one group of fish of resting phase was administered with single dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 5,000 IU/kg body mass) on day 0 and sacrificed on day 3 and day 5, while another group receiving two injections of hCG (day 0 and day 7) was sacrificed on day 14. The expression pattern of testicular gonadotropin receptors in hCG-treated fish sacrificed after 3, 5 and 14 days was similar to that of preparatory, spawning and postspawning phases, respectively. Likewise, testicular histology of hCG-treated fish sacrificed on day 3, day 5 and day 14 was comparable with that of preparatory, early spawning and late spawning phases, respectively. In light of the fact that gonadotropin receptors are largely expressed on somatic cells, an apparent decrease in testicular cpfshra and cplhcgr levels during preparatory and spawning phases or after 3 and 5 days from first hCG injection might not be due to downregulation of their expression. Rather, this could be due to dilution of somatic cell mRNA by large amount of germ cell mRNA. To verify this assumption, effect of hCG on plasma level of androgens was investigated employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A marked increase in plasma level of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone was observed after hCG treatment in C. punctata. This would have been possible only when hCG upregulated the expression of testicular gonadotropin receptors.

Authors : Basak Reetuparna, Roy Alivia, Rai Umesh,

(6) Ctrp9 and adiponectin receptors in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and effects on reproductive genes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29864417
Publication Date : //
As the close paralog of adiponectin, C1q/TNF-Related Protein 9 (CTRP9) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of glucose and fat metabolism, immunization and endothelial cell functions. However, information regarding the actions of Ctrp9 on reproduction is extremely limited in fish. As a first step, Ctrp9, adiponectin receptor 1 (Adipor1) and Adipor2 were identified from Nile tilapia. The open reading frame (ORF) of ctrp9 was 1020 bp which encoded a 339 amino acids. Moreover, the ORFs of adipor1 and adipor2 were 1131 bp and 1134 bp encoding 376 and 377 amino acids, respectively. Tissue distribution showed that ctrp9 mRNA levels were highest in the kidney in both sexes. And, the expression of adipor1 and adipor2 were widely distributed in all tissues examined, exhibiting high levels in the brain, gonad, gut and stomach. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of gCtrp9 (globular Ctrp9) suppressed the hypothalamic expression of gnrh2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2) and gnrh3, as well as gthα (gonadotropic hormone α), fshβ (follicle-stimulating hormone β), lhβ (luteinizing hormone β), lhr (LH receptor) and fshr (FSH receptor) mRNA levels in the pituitary. The mRNA levels of adipor1, but not adipor2, in the gonads were also inhibited after injection. Moreover, the levels of serum E2 (estrogen) in female and T (testosterone) in male were significantly decreased after injection of gCtrp9. Overall, our data provides novel data indicating, for the first time, a regulatory effect of CTRP9 on teleost reproduction.

Authors : Yang Guokun, Song Qinqin, Sun Caiyun, Qin Jingkai, Jia Jirong, Yuan Xi, Zhang Yazhou, Li Wensheng,

(7) Complex chromosomal aberrations in a fetus originating from oocytes with smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) aggregates.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29718716
Publication Date : //
The presence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates (SERa) in the ooplasm is considered as the most severe oocyte dysmorphism due to its serious and potentially lethal outcomes in offspring. In the present case report, a couple underwent their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle using a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, followed by fetal ultrasound scanning and amniocentesis. SERa were observed in all oocytes retrieved. A singleton pregnancy was established. The second trimester fetal ultrasound scan revealed a female fetus with overlapping fingers in both hands, and amniocentesis was performed for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. Comprehensive genetic analysis with the combined use of array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluoresence in situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional cytogenetics revealed a complex chromosome rearrangement (CCR) involving three break points on two chromosomes, resulting in a reciprocal translocation with a cryptic 2q31 deletion. A week following amniocentesis, there was rupture of amniotic membranes and a stillborn was delivered. This is the first case in the literature to report a CCR with concomitant 2q31 deletion resulting in a well-defined and clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome with an abnormal phenotype in a fetus arising from a cohort of oocytes affected by SERa. It is suggested that fertilization and transfer of oocytes with SERa should be avoided, until further research establishes whether there is a causal relationship between the presence of SERa and chromosomal abnormalities in the resulting fetus.

Authors : Sfontouris Ioannis A, Lainas George T, Lainas Tryfon G, Faros Efthimios, Banti Maria, Kardara Katerina, Anagnostopoulou Katerina, Kontos Harris, Petsas George K, Kolibianakis Efstratios M,

(8) Evolution of gonadotropin signaling on gonad development: insights from gene knockout studies in zebrafish.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29718109
Publication Date : //
Gonadal development is precisely regulated by the two gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Much progress on understanding the functions of LH and FSH signaling on gonad development has been achieved in the past decades, mostly from studies in mammals, especially genetic studies in both mouse and human. The functions of both LH and FSH signaling in nonmammalian species are still largely unknown. In recent years, using zebrafish, a teleost phylogenetically distant from mammals, we and others have genetically analyzed the functions of gonadotropins and their receptors through gene knockout studies. In this review, we will summarize the pertinent findings and discuss how the actions of gonadotropin signaling on gonad development have evolved during evolution from fish to mammals.

Authors : Li Jianzhen, Cheng Christopher H K,

(9) Cloning and characterization of a second lamprey pituitary glycoprotein hormone, thyrostimulin (GpA2/GpB5).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29678725
Publication Date : //
A novel heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone (GpH) comprised of alpha (GpA2) and beta (GpB5) subunits was discovered in 2002 and called thyrostimulin for its ability to activate the TSH receptor in mammals, but its central function in vertebrates has not been firmly established. We report here the cloning and expression of lamprey (l)GpB5, and its ability to heterodimerize with lGpA2 to form a functional l-thyrostimulin. The full-length cDNA of lGpB5 encodes 174 amino acids with ten conserved cysteine residues and one glycosylation site that is conserved with other vertebrate GpB5 sequences. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses support that lGpB5 belongs to the vertebrate GpB5 clade. Heterodimerization of lGpB5 and lGpA2 was shown by nickel pull-down of histidine-tagged recombinant subunits. RNA transcripts of lGpB5 were detected in the pituitary of lampreys during both parasitic and adult life stages. Intraperitoneal injection with lGnRH-III (100 μg/kg) increased pituitary lGpA2, lGpB5, and lGpHβ mRNA expression in sexually mature, adult female lampreys. A recombinant l-thyrostimulin produced by expression of a fusion gene in Pichia pastoris activated lamprey GpH receptors I and II as measured by cAMP enzymeimmunoassay. In contrast to jawed vertebrates that have pituitary LH, FSH, and TSH, our data support that lampreys only have two functional pituitary GpHs, lGpH and l-thyrostimulin, which consist of lGpA2 and unique beta subunits. It is hypothesized that lGpH and l-thyrostimulin differentially regulate reproductive and thyroid activities in some unknown way(s) in lampreys.

Authors : Hausken Krist N, Tizon Belen, Shpilman Michal, Barton Shannon, Decatur Wayne, Plachetzki David, Kavanaugh Scott, Ul-Hasan Sabah, Levavi-Sivan Berta, Sower Stacia A,

(10) Gonadotropin receptors of Labeo rohita: Cloning and characterization of full-length cDNAs and their expression analysis during annual reproductive cycle.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29660307
Publication Date : //
Follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh), secreted from pituitary, stimulate gonadal function by binding to their cognate receptors FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR). Rohu (Labeo rohita) is a commercially important seasonal breeder freshwater fish species, but till date, the regulation of expression of gonadotropins and their receptors gene during different phases of annual reproductive cycle has not been investigated. We envisaged the critical role of these molecules during seasonal gonadal development in this carp species. We cloned full- length cDNAs of fshra and lhcgrba from rohu testis using RACE (Rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and analyzed their expression along with fsh and lh by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay at various gonadal developmental stages of the annual reproductive cycle. Full-length rohu fshra and lhcgrba cDNA encodes 670 and 716 amino acids respectively, and in adult fish, they were widely expressed in brain, pituitary, gonad, liver, kidney, head kidney, heart, muscle, gill, fin, eye and intestine. In male, both fsh and fshra transcripts showed high level of expression during spermatogenesis, however, in female, expression level was found to be higher in the fully grown oocyte stages. The expression of rohu lh and lhcgrba mRNA increased with increment of gonadosomatic index and showed highest level during spermiation stage in male and fully matured oocyte stage in female. These results together may suggest the involvement of fshra and lhcgrba in regulating function of seasonal gonadal development in rohu.

Authors : Pradhan Avinash, Nayak Madhusmita, Samanta Mrinal, Panda Rudra Prasanna, Rath Suresh Chandra, Giri Shiba Shankar, Saha Ashis,