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Fish Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) ELISA Kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E15790Fh] Fish Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) ELISA Kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E15790Fh | Fish Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) ELISA Kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Complex chromosomal aberrations in a fetus originating from oocytes with smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) aggregates.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29718716
Publication Date : //
The presence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregates (SERa) in the ooplasm is considered as the most severe oocyte dysmorphism due to its serious and potentially lethal outcomes in offspring. In the present case report, a couple underwent their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle using a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, followed by fetal ultrasound scanning and amniocentesis. SERa were observed in all oocytes retrieved. A singleton pregnancy was established. The second trimester fetal ultrasound scan revealed a female fetus with overlapping fingers in both hands, and amniocentesis was performed for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. Comprehensive genetic analysis with the combined use of array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluoresence in situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional cytogenetics revealed a complex chromosome rearrangement (CCR) involving three break points on two chromosomes, resulting in a reciprocal translocation with a cryptic 2q31 deletion. A week following amniocentesis, there was rupture of amniotic membranes and a stillborn was delivered. This is the first case in the literature to report a CCR with concomitant 2q31 deletion resulting in a well-defined and clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome with an abnormal phenotype in a fetus arising from a cohort of oocytes affected by SERa. It is suggested that fertilization and transfer of oocytes with SERa should be avoided, until further research establishes whether there is a causal relationship between the presence of SERa and chromosomal abnormalities in the resulting fetus.

Authors : Sfontouris Ioannis A, Lainas George T, Lainas Tryfon G, Faros Efthimios, Banti Maria, Kardara Katerina, Anagnostopoulou Katerina, Kontos Harris, Petsas George K, Kolibianakis Efstratios M,



(2) Evolution of gonadotropin signaling on gonad development: insights from gene knockout studies in zebrafish.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29718109
Publication Date : //
Gonadal development is precisely regulated by the two gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Much progress on understanding the functions of LH and FSH signaling on gonad development has been achieved in the past decades, mostly from studies in mammals especially genetic studies in both mouse and human. The functions of both LH and FSH signaling in non-mammalian species are still largely unknown. In recent years, using zebrafish, a teleost phylogenetically distant from mammals, we and others have genetically analyzed the functions of gonadotropins and their receptors through gene knockout studies. In this review, we will summarize the pertinent findings and discuss how the actions of gonadotropin signaling on gonad development have evolved during evolution from fish to mammals.

Authors : Li Jianzhen, Cheng Christopher H K,



(3) Gonadotropin receptors of Labeo rohita: Cloning and characterization of full-length cDNAs and their expression analysis during annual reproductive cycle.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29660307
Publication Date : //
Follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh), secreted from pituitary, stimulate gonadal function by binding to their cognate receptors FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR). Rohu (Labeo rohita) is a commercially important seasonal breeder freshwater fish species, but till date, the regulation of expression of gonadotropins and their receptors gene during different phases of annual reproductive cycle has not been investigated. We envisaged the critical role of these molecules during seasonal gonadal development in this carp species. We cloned full- length cDNAs of fshra and lhcgrba from rohu testis using RACE (Rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and analyzed their expression along with fsh and lh by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay at various gonadal developmental stages of the annual reproductive cycle. Full-length rohu fshra and lhcgrba cDNA encodes 670 and 716 amino acids respectively, and in adult fish, they were widely expressed in brain, pituitary, gonad, liver, kidney, head kidney, heart, muscle, gill, fin, eye and intestine. In male, both fsh and fshra transcripts showed high level of expression during spermatogenesis, however, in female, expression level was found to be higher in the fully grown oocyte stages. The expression of rohu lh and lhcgrba mRNA increased with increment of gonadosomatic index and showed highest level during spermiation stage in male and fully matured oocyte stage in female. These results together may suggest the involvement of fshra and lhcgrba in regulating function of seasonal gonadal development in rohu.

Authors : Pradhan Avinash, Nayak Madhusmita, Samanta Mrinal, Panda Rudra Prasanna, Rath Suresh Chandra, Giri Shiba Shankar, Saha Ashis,



(4) Effects of recombinant vertebrate ancient long opsin on reproduction in goldfish, Carassius auratus: profiling green-wavelength light.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29542047
Publication Date : //
This study was conducted to identify the possible effect of recombinant vertebrate ancient long (VAL) opsin as a non-visual "photoreceptor" in the deep brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus. In addition, we investigated the effects of green-wavelength light on the predictable reproductive function of VAL-opsin as a green-sensitive pigment in the deep brain. To determine this, we quantified changes in gonadotropin hormone (GTH) [GTHα, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and estrogen receptor (ER; ERα and ERβ) mRNA expression levels associated with goldfish reproduction as well as changes in plasma FSH, LH, and 17β-estradiol (E) activities after injection of recombinant VAL-opsin protein in two concentrations (0.1 or 0.5 μg/g body mass) for 4 weeks (injection once weekly) and examined the possible impact of green-wavelength light (500, 520, and 540 nm) on the function of VAL-opsin. As a result, all parameters associated with reproduction significantly increased with time and light-emitting diode (LED) exposure. Based on these results, we suggested that VAL-opsin in the deep brain is involved in goldfish maturation, and it is possible that green-wavelength light improves the ability of VAL-opsin to promote maturation by increasing VAL-opsin expression.

Authors : Choi Ji Yong, Choi Cheol Young,



(5) Characterization of carp gonadotropins: Structure, annual profile, and carp and zebrafish pituitary topographic organization.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29183794
Publication Date : //
Two gonadotropins, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are important players in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of vertebrates. In the present work, we describe the construction of recombinant (r) common carp (Cyprinus carpio; c) FSH (rcFSH) and LH (rcLH) using the Pichia pastoris system, the generation of specific antibodies against their respective β subunits, and their use in the development and validation of specific ELISAs. We produced carp rLH and rFSH as single-chain polypeptides, wherein the GTH subunit α was joined with either cLHβ or cFSHβ mature protein-coding sequences to form a fusion gene that encodes a yoked polypeptide, in which the GTH β-subunit forms the N-terminal part and the α-subunit forms the C-terminal part. Competitive ELISAs were developed, using primary antibodies against rcLHβ or rcFSHβ, respectively, and rcLHβα or rcFSHβα for the standard curves. The standard curves for cLH paralleled those of pituitary extracts of the homologous fish and also those of other cyprinids species like the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), goldfish (Carassius auratus), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We used the specific antibodies raised against cFSH and cLH to study the specific localization of the different GTH cells in the pituitary of carp and its taxonomic relative species - the zebrafish. Both FSH and LH cells are localized in the center of the proximal pars distalis enveloping both sides of the neurohypophysis. LH cells form a continuous population throughout the PPD, while FSH cells are more loosely distributed throughout the same area and form small aggregations. Marked annual changes were encountered in gonadosomatic index (GSI), follicle diameter, mRNA levels and protein levels of FSH and LH. From September to November, all fish had low GSI, and the ovary contained previtellogenic follicles. From December, the GSI level increased and remained high until March, the follicular diameter reached its maximum in January, where the ovary contained large fully grown follicles. Thereafter, spawning occurred through March and April and ended in May, and GSI level and follicle diameter increased again; and the ovary contained mid-vitellogenic follicles. LH pituitary content and mRNA levels were low at pre- and early vitellogenesis, increasing gradually during this process to reach a peak of LH mRNA levels in mid vitellogenic ovary and a peak of LH content in fully grown ovarian follicles. However, no significant change occurred in FSH pituitary content and mRNA levels in vitellogenic fish and in fish during final maturation stages. A dramatic difference was found in the total content of each gonadotropin in the pituitary, with higher LH than FSH. Moreover, follicle diameter was positively and significantly correlated with LH pituitary content and its transcript levels - but not with the pituitary content or mRNA levels of FSH. Taken together, these results indicate that in carp, LH alone is sufficient to regulate both vitellogenesis and final oocyte maturation while FSH may have another, yet undefined role.

Authors : Hollander-Cohen Lian, Golan Matan, Aizen Joseph, Shpilman Michal, Levavi-Sivan Berta,



(6) Landmark discoveries in elucidating the origins of the hypothalamic-pituitary system from the perspective of a basal vertebrate, sea lamprey.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29111305
Publication Date : //
The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) system, which is specific to vertebrates, is considered to be an evolutionary innovation that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral jawless vertebrates (agnathans) leading to the neuroendocrine control of many complex functions. Along with hagfish, lampreys represent the oldest lineage of vertebrates, agnathans (jawless fish). This review will highlight our discoveries of the major components of the lamprey HP axis. Generally, gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) have one or two hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) while lampreys have three hypothalamic GnRHs. GnRH(s) regulate reproduction in all vertebrates via the pituitary. In gnathostomes, there are three classical pituitary glycoprotein hormones (luteinizing hormone, LH; follicle stimulating hormone, FSH; and thyrotropin, TSH) interacting specifically with three receptors, LH-R, FSH-R, and TSH-R, respectively. In general, FSH and LH regulate gonadal activity and TSH regulates thyroidal activity. In contrast to gnathostomes, we propose that lampreys only have two heterodimeric pituitary glycoprotein hormones, lamprey glycoprotein hormone (lGpH) and thyrostimulin, and two lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptors (lGpH-R I and -R II). Our existing data also suggest the existence of a primitive, overlapping yet functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and HP-thyroidal (HPT) endocrine systems in lampreys. The study of basal vertebrates provides promising models for understanding the evolution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal and gonadal axes in vertebrates. We hypothesize that the glycoprotein hormone/glycoprotein hormone receptor systems emerged as a link between the neuroendocrine and peripheral control levels during the early stages of gnathostome divergence. Our discovery of a functional HPG axis in lamprey has provided important clues for understanding the forces that ensured a common organization of the hypothalamus and pituitary as essential regulatory systems in all vertebrates. This paper will provide a brief snapshot of my discoveries, collaborations and latest findings including phylogenomic analyses on the origins, co-evolution and divergence of ligand and receptor protein families from the perspective of the lamprey hypothalamic-pituitary system.

Authors : Sower Stacia A,



(7) Enhanced bio-concentration of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate in the presence of nano-TiO can lead to adverse reproductive outcomes in zebrafish.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29107901
Publication Date : //
Interactions between organic toxicants and nano-particles in the aquatic environment may modify toxicant bioavailability and consequently the toxicant's fate and toxicity. To evaluate the potential impact of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO) on the bio-concentration and reproductive endocrine disruption of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in fish, a comparative bioaccumulation study was conducted on zebrafish (Danio rerio, AB strain) treated with 0, 5.74, 23.6, or 90.7 μg L TDCIPP alone or co-exposed to TDCIPP and 0.09 mg L nano-TiO for 21 days. Nano-TiO can absorb TDCIPP and nano-TiO is taken up into zebrafish. Chemical measurements showed that TDCIPP was bio-concentrated in zebrafish, and the highest level was detected in the liver, followed by the brain and gonads. Compared with TDCIPP treatment, increased tissue burdens of both TDCIPP were observed in the liver, brain, and gonads suggesting that nano-TiO adsorbed TDCIPP and acted as a carrier facilitating the uptake and translocation of TDCIPP in tissues. Higher bio-concentration in the presence of nano-TiO resulted in a significant decrease in the hepatic-somatic index, gonad-somatic index and brain-somatic index in F0 females but not F0 males. Moreover, a further gender-dependent reduction in testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in adults were observed following co-exposure. Co-exposure also inhibited egg production and caused significant developmental toxicity in F1 larvae. The results obtained using this multi-marker approach suggested that nano-TiO is a carrier of TDCIPP and accelerated its bio-concentration in adult zebrafish, resulting in adverse reproduction outcomes.

Authors : Ren Xin, Zhao Xuesong, Duan Xiaoyue, Fang Ziwei,



(8) Molecular cloning and characterization of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone β-subunit cDNAs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28846736
Publication Date : //
The common gonadotrophic hormone α-subunit (GTHα) has been previously isolated by our research group from A. gigas pituitaries; in the present work the cDNA sequences encoding FSHβ and LHβ subunits have also been isolated from the same species of fish. The FSH β-subunit consists of 126 amino acids with a putative 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 108 amino acid mature peptide, while the LH β-subunit consists of 141 amino acids with a putative 24 amino acid amino acid signal peptide and a 117 amino acid mature peptide. The highest identity, based on the amino acid sequences, was found with the order of Anguilliformes (61%) for FSHβ and of Cypriniformes (76%) for LHβ, followed by Siluriformes, 53% for FSHβ and 75% for LHβ. Interestingly, the identity with the corresponding human amino acid sequences was still remarkable: 45.1% for FSHβ and 51.4% for LHβ. Three dimensional models of ag-FSH and ag-LH, generated by using the crystal structures of h-FSH and h-LH as the respective templates and carried out via comparative modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggested the presence of the so-called "seat-belt", favored by a disulfide bond formed between the 3rd and 12th cysteine in both β-subunits. The sequences found will be used for the biotechnological synthesis of A. gigas gonadotrophic hormones (ag-FSH and ag-LH). In a first approach, to ascertain that the cloned transcripts allow the expression of the heterodimeric hormones, ag-FSH has been synthesized in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, preliminarily purified and characterized.

Authors : Sevilhano Thais, Carvalho Roberto Feitosa de, Oliveira Nélio Alessandro de Jesus, Oliveira João Ezequiel, Maltarollo Vinicius Gonçalves, Trossini Gustavo, Garcez Riviane, Bartolini Paolo,



(9) Effects of different dietary DHA:EPA ratios on gonadal steroidogenesis in the marine teleost, tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28831954
Publication Date : //
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary DHA and EPA on gonadal steroidogenesis in mature females and males, with a feeding trial on tongue sole, a typical marine teleost with sexual dimorphism. Three experimental diets differing basically in DHA:EPA ratio, that is, 0·68 (diet D:E-0·68), 1·09 (D:E-1·09) and 2·05 (D:E-2·05), were randomly assigned to nine tanks of 3-year-old tongue sole (ten females and fifteen males in each tank). The feeding trail lasted for 90 d before and during the spawning season. Fish were reared in a flowing seawater system and fed to apparent satiation twice daily. Compared with diet D:E-0·68, diet D:E-1·09 significantly enhanced the oestradiol production in females, whereas diet D:E-2·05 significantly enhanced the testosterone production in males. In ovaries, diet D:E-1·09 induced highest mRNA expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 17α-hydroxylase (P450c17) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). In testes, diet 2·05 resulted in highest mRNA expression of FSHR, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450c17 and 3β-HSD. Fatty acid profiles in fish tissues reflected closely those of diets. Female fish had more gonadal EPA content but less DHA content than male fish, whereas there was a reverse observation in liver. In conclusion, the dietary DHA:EPA ratio, possibly combined with the dietary EPA:arachidonic acid ratio, differentially regulated sex steroid hormone synthesis in mature female and male tongue soles. Females seemed to require more EPA but less DHA for the gonadal steroidogenesis than males. The results are beneficial to sex-specific nutritive strategies in domestic teleost.

Authors : Xu Houguo, Cao Lin, Wei Yuliang, Zhang Yuanqin, Liang Mengqing,



(10) Hormonal changes over the spawning cycle in the female three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28779857
Publication Date : //
Female three-spined sticklebacks are batch spawners laying eggs in a nest built by the male. We sampled female sticklebacks at different time points, when they were ready to spawn and 6, 24, 48 and 72h post-spawning (hps) with a male. Following spawning, almost all females (15 out of 19) had ovulated eggs again at Day 3 post-spawning (72hps). At sampling, plasma, brain and pituitaries were collected, and the ovary and liver were weighed. Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moreover, the mRNA levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh-β) and luteinizing hormone (lh-β) in the pituitary, and of the gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs: gnrh2, gnrh3) and kisspeptin (kiss2) and its G protein-coupled receptor (gpr54) in the brain were measured by real-time qPCR. Ovarian weights peaked in "ready to spawn" females, dropped after spawning, before again progressively increasing from 6 to 72hps. Plasma T levels showed peaks at 24 and 48hps and decreased at 72hps, while E2 levels increased already at 6hps and remained at high levels up to 48hps. There was a strong positive correlation between T and E2 levels over the spawning cycle. Pituitary lh-β mRNA levels showed a peak at 48hps, while fsh-β did not change. The neuropeptides and gpr54 did not show any changes. The changes in T and E2 over the stickleback spawning cycle were largely consistent with those found in other multiple-spawning fishes whereas the marked correlation between T and E2 does not support T having other major roles over the cycle than being a precursor for E2.

Authors : Roufidou Chrysoula, Schmitz Monika, Mayer Ian, Sebire Marion, Katsiadaki Ioanna, Shao Yi Ta, Borg Bertil,