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Fish fatty acid synthase (FAS) ELISA kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E17128Fh] Fish fatty acid synthase (FAS) ELISA kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E17128Fh | Fish fatty acid synthase (FAS) ELISA kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) A recent update on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in Alzheimer's disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30084334
Publication Date : //
Dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids belong to omega (ω)-3, -6 or -9 series. Both experimental and clinical studies demonstrated the beneficial effect of ω -3 fatty acids of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) against human ailments including cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. They are metabolized in cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways and also by cytochrome P450 isozymes. Biological importance of DHA in the development of brain and retina are established as well. Recent studies highlighted the beneficial effect of ω-3 fatty acids in Alzheimer's disease (AD) which may be attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and neurotrophic properties. The effect was obtained by the consumption of either individual or combination of ω -3 fatty acids. The anti-inflammatory effect can be ascribed to the decreased cytokines and monocytic chemotactic protein-1 level by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B. Further, they inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 activities. The antiapoptotic activity is due to the lowered Bax/Bcl ratio or caspase 3 levels. They can induce the transcription factor, nuclear erythroid factor-2 mediated expression of superoxide dismutase-2 in order to facilitate the antioxidant effect. Both DHA and EPA can enhance the nerve growth factor level. Overall, they are beneficial to improve the cognitive function in very mild AD and major depressive disorder. Despite the beneficial effects, ω-3 fatty acids are easily prone to peroxidation. This review article discusses the recent update on the roles of ω -3 fatty acids in AD.

Authors : Ajith Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan,



(2) Modulation of lipid metabolism in juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) as affected by feeding frequency and environmental ammonia.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30019291
Publication Date : //
In the intensive culture systems, excessive feeding leads to ammonia accumulation, which results in lipid metabolism disorder. However, little information is available on the modulation of lipid metabolism in fish as affected by feeding frequency and ammonia stress. In this study, weight gain increased as feeding frequency increased from one to four times daily, but feed conversion ratio is opposite. The highest survival was found in ammonia group when fish was fed two times daily. Liver ammonia content increased as feeding frequency increased from one to four times daily, and the highest brain ammonia content was found when fish was fed four times daily. The highest liver 6-phospho-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), fatty acid synthase (FAS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) contents were found in control group when fish was fed four times daily; in comparison, the highest liver 6PGD, FAS, CPT, and LPL contents were found in ammonia group when fish was fed two times daily. Liver 6PGD, FAS, CPT 1, SREBP-1, and PPARα mRNA expression in control group increased significantly as feeding frequency increased from one to four times daily, and the highest expression of 6PGD, G6PD, and FAS was observed in ammonia group when fish was fed two times daily. This study indicated that the optimal feeding frequency is two times daily when yellow catfish exposed to ammonia.

Authors : Zhang Muzi, Hou Chengdong, Li Ming, Qian Yunxia, Xu Wenbin, Meng Fanxing, Wang Rixin,



(3) EPA plays multiple roles in regulating lipid accumulation of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella adipose tissue in vitro and in vivo.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29968318
Publication Date : //
This study was conducted to assess the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) on lipid accumulation in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella adipose tissue both in vitro and in vivo. EPA was observed to inhibit the adipocyte viability in a time and dose-dependent manner. EPA was also found to induce reactive oxygen species accumulation in vitro. The mRNA levels of caspase 3a and caspase 3b, as well as the activity of Caspase 3 increased significantly in vitro and in vivo, whereas the value of B cell leukemia 2-Bcl-2 associated X protein decreased significantly. Besides, the pro-apoptotic effect was relieved by α-tocopherol. Dietary 0.52% EPA had no apparent effect on intraperitoneal fat index. Moreover, EPA promoted the hydrolytic gene expressions in vitro and in vivo, including adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone sensitive lipase-a. Meanwhile, the lipogenic gene expressions of liver X receptor α, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and fatty-acid synthase were down-regulated by EPA in vitro and in vivo. However, EPA also acted to promote the marker gene expressions of adipogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and lipoprotein lipase in vitro and in vivo. Contents of EPA increased significantly in the treatment groups in vitro and in vivo. These results support that EPA affects multiple aspects of lipid metabolism, including hydrolysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis and apoptosis. However, it barely functioned in decreasing the lipid accumulation of Ctenopharyngodon idella under the current culture conditions.

Authors : Lei C X, Tian J J, Ji H, Li Y,



(4) Effect of phytase enzyme on growth performance, serum biochemical alteration, immune response and gene expression in Nile tilapia.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29860070
Publication Date : //
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of low phosphorus diet with or without different levels of phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance, body composition, nutrient retention efficiency, gene expression, and health status of A. hydrophila challenged fish. A total of 240 monosex males of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average body weight of 23.19 ± 0.15 g/fish were used. Fish were randomly chosen and divided into 4 equal groups (60 fish per group), with 3 subgroups containing 20 fish as a replicate. Group 1, was fed on a diet containing 100% P, group 2, was fed on a diet containing 50% P, group 3 and 4, were fed on low P with 500 or 1000 units of phytase/Kg respectively. It was observed that the 50% phosphorus diet significantly reduced body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) compared to Nile tilapia fish fed on the diet containing 100% phosphorus. In contrast, fish fed on the diet containing 50% phosphorus supplemented by 500 or 1000 phytase units/kg significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased final body weight (FBW), total body gain (TBG), average daily gain (ADG), and weight gain compared to Nile tilapia fed on the same diet or fed on the diet containing normal phosphorus without phytase supplementation. Different phosphorus and phytase supplementation levels had no significant effect on serum total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations, meanwhile, phytase supplementation increased serum calcium and phosphorus levels. Nile tilapia fed on phytase supplementation had an increase in body protein, lipid content, and nutrient utilization efficiency compared to Nile tilapia fed on the diet containing 100% phosphorus. Nile tilapia fed on low dietary phosphorus showed an increase in mortality after infection and a decrease in phagocytosis and neutrophil compared to fish fed on normal phosphorus. Phytase supplementation, made immune response parameters return to its normal values and the pathological lesions of liver, spleen, stomach, and intestine were reduced. Moreover, normal phosphorus significantly up-regulated lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA expression and down-regulated fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA in Nile tilapia's liver while low phosphorus with or without phytase supplementation reduced LPL expression and relatively up-regulated FAS.

Authors : Abo Norag Mostafa A, El-Shenawy Abeer M, Fadl Sabreen E, Abdo Walied S, Gad Doaa M, Rashed Mohamed A, Prince Abdelbary Mohammed,



(5) Intestinal microbiota and lipid metabolism responses in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) following copper exposure.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29852428
Publication Date : //
The present study was conducted to determine the effects of waterborne copper exposure on the lipid metabolism and intestinal microbiota of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Common carp were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (0 (control), 0.07 (low), 0.14 (medium), and 0.28 (high) mg Cu/L) for 8 weeks. Exposure to a high concentration of Cu had a negative effect on growth indices (weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR)). The biochemical indices measured in serum (low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TGs)) were significantly affected by exposure to medium concentration levels of Cu. The mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS)) and sterol-regulator element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) in liver tissue and tight binding protein genes (ZO-1 and occludin) in intestinal epithelial tissue were significantly downregulated in the 0.14 and 0.28 mg/L Cu treatment groups, accompanied by upregulated mRNA levels of lipolysis enzymes (lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1)) in the liver. The data also showed that the composition of intestinal microbiota was changed following Cu exposure and could alter the α-diversity and β-diversity. The abundances of few putative short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, including Allobaculum, Blautia, Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus, decreased significantly. More specifically, Roseburia sequences were positively associated with lipogenic enzymes, total protein (TP), and TGs and negatively associated with lipolysis enzymes. Other sequences related to probiotics (Lactobacillus, Bacillus and Akkermansia) were also found to decrease, accompanied by an increase in sequences related to pathogens (Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter). To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first evidence that waterborne, chronic Cu exposure can disturb the composition of intestinal microbiota related to lipid metabolism and immunity in freshwater fish, thereby increasing the risk of pathogen invasion.

Authors : Meng Xiao-Lin, Li Shuai, Qin Chao-Bin, Zhu Zhen-Xiang, Hu Wen-Pan, Yang Li-Ping, Lu Rong-Hua, Li Wen-Jun, Nie Guo-Xing,



(6) Amelioration of UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in fat-1 transgenic mouse skin.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29775616
Publication Date : //
ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in fish oils, are known to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and potentiate host immune defence. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, this study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic capacity of fat-1 transgenic mice capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and fat-1 mice were maintained on the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil rich in ω-6 PUFAs for 5 weeks. The ω-3/ω-6 PUFA ratio was significantly higher in the dorsal skin of fat-1 mice than that in the WT mice. Upon single exposure to UVB (5.0 kJ/m) radiation, fat-1 mice showed inflammatory as well as oxidative tissue damage and the expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes, cyclooxygenases-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the skin to a much lesser extent than the WT mice. The protection of fat-1 mice from UVB-induced skin inflammation was associated with decreased phosphorylation of STAT3. Moreover, UVB-induced apoptosis was attenuated in fat-1 mouse skin. In comparison to WT animals, higher levels of Nrf2 and its target proteins, such as heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and thioredoxin-1, were found in the skin of fat-1 mice.

Authors : Yum Hye-Won, Kim Seong Hoon, Kang Jing X, Surh Young-Joon,



(7) Molecular characterization of elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (elovl6) genes in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and their potential roles in adaptation to cold temperature.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29733968
Publication Date : //
Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined. We also functionally characterized the three elovl6 isoforms using heterologous expression in baker's yeast. Results obtained here showed the three elovl6 proteins in loach can elongate C16:0 and C16:1 to C18:0 and C18:1, respectively. At last, to confirm the role of three loach elovl6 isoforms for elongation of fatty acids in adaption to cold stress, differences in skin histological structures, body fatty acid compositions, expressions of four hepatic lipogenesis or lipolysis related genes, and expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms and their related gene uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1) in different tissues were investigated in the loach reared in two different water temperatures (28 °C and 4 °C) for ten days. Cold stress increased ratios of C18/C16 and C20:5n-3/C18:3n-3 in loach body, and induced expressions of hepatic acyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase 1 (scd1), sterol-regulator element-binding protein 1 (srebp1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) and fatty acid synthase (fas). Meanwhile, significant differences were found in expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms in different tissues between 28 °C and 4 °C groups. Overall, this study suggests that the three elovl6 isoforms in loach have ability to elongate C16 to C18, and elovl6 proteins in loach may play a role in adaptation to cold stress.

Authors : Chen Jingwen, Cui Yun, Yan Jie, Jiang Jimin, Cao Xiaojuan, Gao Jian,



(8) Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated Cd-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in zebrafish Danio rerio.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29604498
Publication Date : //
The present study was performed to determine the effect of waterborne CdCl exposure influencing lipid deposition and metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and explore the underlying molecular mechanism of cadmium (Cd)-induced disorder of hepatic lipid metabolism in fish. To this end, adult zebrafish were exposed to three waterborne CdCl concentrations (0(control), 5 and 25 μg Cd/l, respectively) for 30 days. Lipid accumulation, the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, as well as the expression level of genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitophagy were determined in the liver of zebrafish. Waterborne CdCl exposure increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) and Cd accumulation, the activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME), and the mRNA level of fatty acid synthase (fas), acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (acaca), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) and malic enzyme (me), but reduced the mRNA level of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (cpt1), hormone-sensitive lipase alpha (hsla), and adipose triacylglyceride lipase (atgl). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathoinine peroxidase (GPx) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and the ATP level were significantly reduced after CdCl exposure. CdCl exposure significantly increased the mRNA level of genes (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 alpha (lc3a), PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (pink1), NIP3-like protein X (nix) and PARKIN (parkin)) related to mitophagy. To elucidate the mechanism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) were used to verify the role of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction in Cd-induced disorder of lipid metabolism. NAC pretreatment reversed the Cd-induced up-regulation of TG accumulation and activities of lipogenic enzymes, and the Cd-induced down-regulation of mRNA levels of lipolytic genes. Meanwhile, NAC pretreatment also blocked the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and decreased the ATP level, suggesting that ROS played a crucial role in regulating the Cd-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, our findings, for the first time, highlight the importance of the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in Cd-induced disorder of hepatic lipid metabolism, which proposed a novel mechanism for elucidating metal element exposure inducing the disorder of lipid metabolism in vertebrates.

Authors : Pan Ya-Xiong, Luo Zhi, Zhuo Mei-Qing, Wei Chuan-Chuan, Chen Guang-Hui, Song Yu-Feng,



(9) Effects of fish and krill oil on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and circulating markers of inflammation: a randomised controlled trial.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29599972
Publication Date : //
Marine -3 (omega-3) fatty acids alter gene expression by regulating the activity of transcription factors. Krill oil is a source of marine -3 fatty acids that has been shown to modulate gene expression in animal studies; however, the effect in humans is not known. Hence, we aimed to compare the effect of intake of krill oil, lean and fatty fish with a similar content of -3 fatty acids, and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with added astaxanthin on the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as circulating inflammatory markers. In an 8-week trial, healthy men and women aged 18-70 years with fasting TAG of 1·3-4·0 mmol/l were randomised to receive krill oil capsules ( 12), HOSO capsules ( 12) or lean and fatty fish ( 12). The weekly intakes of marine -3 fatty acids from the interventions were 4654, 0 and 4103 mg, respectively. The mRNA expression of four genes, PPAR γ coactivator 1A (), steaoryl-CoA desaturase (), ATP binding cassette A1 () and cluster of differentiation 40 (), were differently altered by the interventions. Furthermore, within-group analyses revealed that krill oil down-regulated the mRNA expression of thirteen genes, including genes involved in glucose and cholesterol metabolism and β-oxidation. Fish altered the mRNA expression of four genes and HOSO down-regulated sixteen genes, including several inflammation-related genes. There were no differences between the groups in circulating inflammatory markers after the intervention. In conclusion, the intake of krill oil and HOSO with added astaxanthin alter the PBMC mRNA expression of more genes than the intake of fish.

Authors : Rundblad Amanda, Holven Kirsten B, Bruheim Inge, Myhrstad Mari C, Ulven Stine M,



(10) miR-205-5p negatively regulates hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase β mRNA in lipid metabolism of Oreochromis niloticus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29574186
Publication Date : //
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional gene regulators and that play vital roles controlling lipid metabolism. miR-205 is an important miRNA related to adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the potential role of miR-205-5p in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus). In this study, we used miRanda software to search for potential miR-205-5p target genes and found a lipid-metabolism-related gene called acetyl-CoA carboxylase β (ACACβ). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data indicated that there may be a negative regulation relationship between miR-205-5p and ACACβ gene expression under HFD rearing. Using luciferase reporter assays, we verified the binding site of miR-205-5p in the 3'-untranslated region of the ACACβ mRNA. Furthermore, an in vivo functional analysis of miR-205-5p was performed by injecting GIFT juveniles with a miR-205-5p antagomir. Reduced levels of miR-205-5p in GIFT liver increased ACACβ mRNA expression 12 h post-injection. miR-205-5p suppression also increased fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α mRNA levels 48 h and 120 h post-injection, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-205-5p negative regulates hepatic ACACβ mRNA expression, and may serve as an important regulator in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism in GIFT.

Authors : Tao Yi-Fan, Qiang Jun, Bao Jing-Wen, Li Hong-Xia, Yin Guo-Jun, Xu Pao, Chen De-Ju,