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Fish fatty acid synthase (FAS) ELISA kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E17128Fh] Fish fatty acid synthase (FAS) ELISA kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma

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CSB-E17128Fh | Fish fatty acid synthase (FAS) ELISA kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Dietary administration of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens R8 reduces hepatic oxidative stress and enhances nutrient metabolism and immunity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae in zebrafish (Danio rerio).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30471337
Publication Date : //
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an excellent model for assessing the beneficial effects of probiotics before applying them in aquaculture. This study evaluated the effects on zebrafish of dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens R8, which heterologously expresses xylanase from rumen fungi. Nutrient metabolism, hepatic oxidative stress, and innate immunity against pathogen infections were investigated. Treated zebrafish received feed supplemented with B. amyloliquefaciens R8 for 30 days and then were compared to zebrafish that were fed a control diet. The treated fish showed significant increases in xylanase activity in the intestines. The livers of the treated fish showed increased mRNA expressions of glycolysis-related genes of hexokinase, glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and pyruvate kinase; and higher enzyme activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase which are associated with fatty acid β-oxidation and mitochondrial integrity. The livers of treated fish also showed decreased mRNA expressions of oxidative stress-related genes (SOD, Gpx, NOS2, and Hsp70) and an apoptotic gene (tp53), as well as increased expression of an anti-apoptotic gene (bcl-2). The probiotics-treated fish had increased expression of innate immune-related genes (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-21, TNF-α, and TLR-1, -3, and -4). Following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae, treated fish showed increased a higher survival rate than control fish. Overall, results showed that the administration of xylanase-expressing B. amyloliquefaciens R8 can potentially improve nutrient metabolism and hepatic stress tolerance, and enhance immunity and disease resistance against A. hydrophila and S. agalactiae in zebrafish.

Authors : Lin Yu-Sheng, Saputra Febriyansyah, Chen Yo-Chia, Hu Shao-Yang,



(2) Targeting Hepatic Protein Carbonylation and Oxidative Stress Occurring on Diet-Induced Metabolic Diseases through the Supplementation with Fish Oils.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30261666
Publication Date : //
The present study addressed the ability of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA), i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), to ameliorate liver protein damage derived from oxidative stress and induced by consumption of high-caloric diets, typical of Westernized countries. The experimental design included an animal model of Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet supplemented with ω-3 EPA and DHA for a complete hepatic proteome analysis to map carbonylated proteins involved in specific metabolic pathways. Results showed that the intake of marine ω-3 PUFA through diet significantly decreased liver protein carbonylation caused by long-term HFHS consumption and increased antioxidant system. Fish oil modulated the carbonylation level of more than twenty liver proteins involved in critical metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism (e.g., albumin), carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., pyruvate carboxylase), detoxification process (e.g., aldehyde dehydrogenase 2), urea cycle (e.g., carbamoyl-phosphate synthase), cytoskeleton dynamics (e.g., actin), or response to oxidative stress (e.g., catalase) among others, which might be under the control of diet marine ω-3 PUFA. In parallel, fish oil significantly changed the liver fatty acid profile given by the HFHS diet, resulting in a more anti-inflammatory phenotype. In conclusion, the present study highlights the significance of marine ω-3 PUFA intake for the health of rats fed a Westernized diet by describing several key metabolic pathways which are protected in liver.

Authors : Muñoz Silvia, Méndez Lucía, Dasilva Gabriel, Torres Josep Lluís, Ramos-Romero Sara, Romeu Marta, Nogués María Rosa, Medina Isabel,



(3) Resveratrol Improves the Energy Sensing and Glycolipid Metabolism of Blunt Snout Bream Fed High-Carbohydrate Diets by Activating the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α Network.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30254587
Publication Date : //
This study investigated the effects of resveratrol on the growth performance, energy sensing, glycolipid metabolism and glucose and insulin load of blunt snout bream fed high-carbohydrate diets. Fish (39.44 ± 0.06 g) were randomly fed three diets: a control diet (30% carbohydrate), a high-carbohydrate diet (HC, 41% carbohydrate), and the HC diet supplemented with 0.04% resveratrol (HCR) for 12 weeks. Fish fed the HC diet had significantly high values of nitrogen and energy retention efficiency, hepatosomatic index, intraperitoneal fat ratio, whole-body lipid content and intraperitoneal fat glycogen and lipid contents compared to the control group, but showed little difference with the HCR treatment. Liver and muscle lipid contents and plasma levels of glucose, glycated serum protein, advanced glycation end products and total cholesterol of fish fed the HC diet were significantly higher than those of the control group, whereas the opposite was found with resveratrol supplementation. Fish fed the HC diet obtained significantly low values of plasma insulin levels and hepatic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) contents and NAD/NADH ratio compared to HCR treatment, but showed little difference with the control group. The opposite was found for hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents and the ATP/AMP ratio. In addition, fish fed the HC diet showed significantly high transcriptions of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase, fatty acid synthetase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and PPARα compared to the control group, whereas the opposite was found for protein levels of AMP-activated protein kinase α (t-AMPKα), phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase α (p-AMPKα), sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), and p-AMPKα/t-AMPKα ratio as well as the transcriptions of AMPKα1, AMPKα2, SIRT1, PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), glucose-6-phosphatase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) and acyl-CoA oxidase. Resveratrol supplementation significantly up-regulated the protein levels of t-AMPK, p-AMPK, and SIRT1, p-AMPK/t-AMPK ratio as well as the transcriptions of AMPKα1, AMPKα2, SIRT1, PGC-1α, GLUT2, FBPase, and CPT I compared to HC group, while the opposite was found for sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, FAS and ACCα. Furthermore, resveratrol improved glucose and insulin tolerance of fish fed the HC diet after glucose and insulin load.

Authors : Shi Hua-Juan, Xu Chao, Liu Ming-Yang, Wang Bing-Ke, Liu Wen-Bin, Chen Dan-Hong, Zhang Li, Xu Chen-Yuan, Li Xiang-Fei,



(4) Mackerel-Derived Fermented Fish Oil Promotes Hair Growth by Anagen-Stimulating Pathways.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30223485
Publication Date : //
Hair growth is regulated by the interaction between dermal papilla cells (DPC) and other cells inside the hair follicle. Here, we show the effect and action mechanism of mackerel-derived fermented fish oil (FFO) extract and its component docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the control of hair growth. The hair growth effect of FFO extract was evaluated by the culture method of vibrissa follicles and in vivo dotmatrix planimetry method. FFO extract increased the length of hair-fibers and enabled stimulated initiation into the anagen phase of the hair cycle. As expected, FFO extract significantly increased DPC proliferation. FFO extract induced the progression of the cell cycle and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and Akt. FFO extract induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, a stimulator of anagen phase, through an increase of phospho-glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β) level. Since various prostaglandins are known to promote hair growth in humans and mice, we examined the effect of DHA, a main omega-3 fatty acid of FFO, on DPC proliferation. DHA not only increased DPC proliferation but also upregulated levels of cell cycle-associated proteins such as cyclin D1 and cdc2 p34. These results show that FFO extract and DHA promote hair growth through the anagen-activating pathways in DPC.

Authors : Kang Jung-Il, Yoon Hoon-Seok, Kim Sung Min, Park Jeong Eon, Hyun Yu Jae, Ko Ara, Ahn Yong-Seok, Koh Young Sang, Hyun Jin Won, Yoo Eun-Sook, Kang Hee-Kyoung,



(5) Investigation of the Lipid-Lowering Effect of Vitamin C Through GSK-3β/β-Catenin Signaling in Zebrafish.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30154726
Publication Date : //
Vitamin C (VC) is an essential nutrient for most fish species because of the absence of L-gulonolactone oxidase in the bodies of fish. VC plays a significant role in maintaining the physiological functions and in improving the growth performance, immunity, and survival of fish. In this study, zebrafish () were treated with 8.2, 509.6, and 1007.5 mg/kg VC diets for 2 weeks, and the muscle samples were collected for gene expression analysis and biochemical index analysis. The results indicated that 509.6 and 1007.5 mg/kg VC diets inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) expression and induced the expression of β-catenin in the muscle of zebrafish. The mRNA expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), FAS activity, and the content of glycerol and triglyceride (TG) were decreased in the muscle by 509.6 and 1007.5 mg/kg VC diets. In addition, GSK-3β RNA interference was observed in zebrafish fed with 8.2 and 1007.5 mg/kg VC diets. It was found that GSK-3β RNA interference induced the mRNA expression of β-catenin but decreased the mRNA expression of C/EBPα and FAS, FAS activity, as well as the content of glycerol and TG in the muscle of zebrafish. In ZF4 cells, the mRNA expression of GSK-3β, C/EBPα, and FAS was decreased, but β-catenin expression was increased by 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/L VC treatments . The glycerol and TG content, and FAS activity in ZF4 cells were decreased by 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/L VC treatments. Moreover, the result of western blot indicated that the protein expression level of GSK-3β was significantly decreased and that of β-catenin was significantly increased in ZF4 cells treated with 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/L VC. The results from and studies corroborated that VC exerted the lipid-lowering effect through GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish.

Authors : Liu Dongwu, Yu Hairui, Pang Qiuxiang, Zhang Xiuzhen,



(6) A recent update on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in Alzheimer's disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30084334
Publication Date : //
Dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids belong to omega (ω)-3, -6 or -9 series. Both experimental and clinical studies demonstrated the beneficial effect of ω -3 fatty acids of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) against human ailments including cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. They are metabolized in cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways and also by cytochrome P450 isozymes. Biological importance of DHA in the development of brain and retina are established as well. Recent studies highlighted the beneficial effect of ω-3 fatty acids in Alzheimer's disease (AD) which may be attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and neurotrophic properties. The effect was obtained by the consumption of either individual or combination of ω -3 fatty acids. The anti-inflammatory effect can be ascribed to the decreased cytokines and monocytic chemotactic protein-1 level by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B. Further, they inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 activities. The antiapoptotic activity is due to the lowered Bax/Bcl ratio or caspase 3 levels. They can induce the transcription factor, nuclear erythroid factor-2 mediated expression of superoxide dismutase-2 in order to facilitate the antioxidant effect. Both DHA and EPA can enhance the nerve growth factor level. Overall, they are beneficial to improve the cognitive function in very mild AD and major depressive disorder. Despite the beneficial effects, ω-3 fatty acids are easily prone to peroxidation. This review article discusses the recent update on the roles of ω -3 fatty acids in AD.

Authors : Ajith Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan,



(7) Modulation of lipid metabolism in juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) as affected by feeding frequency and environmental ammonia.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30019291
Publication Date : //
In the intensive culture systems, excessive feeding leads to ammonia accumulation, which results in lipid metabolism disorder. However, little information is available on the modulation of lipid metabolism in fish as affected by feeding frequency and ammonia stress. In this study, weight gain increased as feeding frequency increased from one to four times daily, but feed conversion ratio is opposite. The highest survival was found in ammonia group when fish was fed two times daily. Liver ammonia content increased as feeding frequency increased from one to four times daily, and the highest brain ammonia content was found when fish was fed four times daily. The highest liver 6-phospho-gluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), fatty acid synthase (FAS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) contents were found in control group when fish was fed four times daily; in comparison, the highest liver 6PGD, FAS, CPT, and LPL contents were found in ammonia group when fish was fed two times daily. Liver 6PGD, FAS, CPT 1, SREBP-1, and PPARα mRNA expression in control group increased significantly as feeding frequency increased from one to four times daily, and the highest expression of 6PGD, G6PD, and FAS was observed in ammonia group when fish was fed two times daily. This study indicated that the optimal feeding frequency is two times daily when yellow catfish exposed to ammonia.

Authors : Zhang Muzi, Hou Chengdong, Li Ming, Qian Yunxia, Xu Wenbin, Meng Fanxing, Wang Rixin,



(8) EPA plays multiple roles in regulating lipid accumulation of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella adipose tissue in vitro and in vivo.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29968318
Publication Date : //
This study was conducted to assess the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) on lipid accumulation in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella adipose tissue both in vitro and in vivo. EPA was observed to inhibit the adipocyte viability in a time and dose-dependent manner. EPA was also found to induce reactive oxygen species accumulation in vitro. The mRNA levels of caspase 3a and caspase 3b, as well as the activity of Caspase 3 increased significantly in vitro and in vivo, whereas the value of B cell leukemia 2-Bcl-2 associated X protein decreased significantly. Besides, the pro-apoptotic effect was relieved by α-tocopherol. Dietary 0.52% EPA had no apparent effect on intraperitoneal fat index. Moreover, EPA promoted the hydrolytic gene expressions in vitro and in vivo, including adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone sensitive lipase-a. Meanwhile, the lipogenic gene expressions of liver X receptor α, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and fatty-acid synthase were down-regulated by EPA in vitro and in vivo. However, EPA also acted to promote the marker gene expressions of adipogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and lipoprotein lipase in vitro and in vivo. Contents of EPA increased significantly in the treatment groups in vitro and in vivo. These results support that EPA affects multiple aspects of lipid metabolism, including hydrolysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis and apoptosis. However, it barely functioned in decreasing the lipid accumulation of Ctenopharyngodon idella under the current culture conditions.

Authors : Lei Cai X, Tian Jing J, Ji Hong, Li Yang,



(9) High levels of circulating prostaglandin F associated with ovulation stimulate female sexual receptivity and spawning behavior in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29940184
Publication Date : //
This study tested the hypothesis that blood-borne prostaglandin F (PGF) produced at the time of ovulation by female goldfish, a typical scramble-spawning, egg-laying cyprinid fish, functions as a hormone which stimulates female sexual receptivity, behavior, and pheromone release, thereby synchronizing female mating behavior with egg availability. We conducted 5 experiments. First, we tested whether PGF is found in the blood of female fish and if it increases at the time of ovulation. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that circulating PGF was approximately 1 ng/ml prior to ovulation, increased over 50-fold within 3 h of ovulation and returned to preovulatory values after spawning and egg release. Ovulated fish also released over 2 ng/h of PGF and 800 ng/h of 15-keto-PGF, a metabolite of PGF - both compounds with known pheromonal function. Second, we tested how closely levels of circulating PGF tracked the timing of ovulation by sampling fish at the time of ovulation and discovered that PGF increased within 15 min of ovulation, peaked after 9 h, and fell to basal levels as fish spawned and released their eggs. Third, we tested whether an interaction between eggs and the reproductive tract serves as a source of circulating PGF and its relationship with female sexual receptivity by injecting ovulated eggs (or an egg-substitute) into the reproductive tract of females stripped of ovulated eggs. We found both of these treatments elicited measurable increases in plasma PGF as well as female sexual behavior. A fourth experiment showed that indothemacin, a PG synthase inhibitor, blocked both PGF increase and female sexual behavior in egg-substitute-injected fish. Finally, we tested the relationship between the expression of female behavior and PGF in PGF-injected fish and found that circulating PGF levels closely paralleled behavior, rising within 15 min and peaking at 45 min. Together, these experiments establish that PGF functions as a behavioral blood-borne hormone in the goldfish, suggesting it likely has similar activity in other related, externally-fertilizing fishes.

Authors : Sorensen Peter W, Appelt Christopher, Stacey Norman E, Goetz Fredrick Wm, Brash Alan R,



(10) Effect of phytase enzyme on growth performance, serum biochemical alteration, immune response and gene expression in Nile tilapia.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29860070
Publication Date : //
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of low phosphorus diet with or without different levels of phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance, body composition, nutrient retention efficiency, gene expression, and health status of A. hydrophila challenged fish. A total of 240 monosex males of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average body weight of 23.19 ± 0.15 g/fish were used. Fish were randomly chosen and divided into 4 equal groups (60 fish per group), with 3 subgroups containing 20 fish as a replicate. Group 1, was fed on a diet containing 100% P, group 2, was fed on a diet containing 50% P, group 3 and 4, were fed on low P with 500 or 1000 units of phytase/Kg respectively. It was observed that the 50% phosphorus diet significantly reduced body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) compared to Nile tilapia fish fed on the diet containing 100% phosphorus. In contrast, fish fed on the diet containing 50% phosphorus supplemented by 500 or 1000 phytase units/kg significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased final body weight (FBW), total body gain (TBG), average daily gain (ADG), and weight gain compared to Nile tilapia fed on the same diet or fed on the diet containing normal phosphorus without phytase supplementation. Different phosphorus and phytase supplementation levels had no significant effect on serum total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations, meanwhile, phytase supplementation increased serum calcium and phosphorus levels. Nile tilapia fed on phytase supplementation had an increase in body protein, lipid content, and nutrient utilization efficiency compared to Nile tilapia fed on the diet containing 100% phosphorus. Nile tilapia fed on low dietary phosphorus showed an increase in mortality after infection and a decrease in phagocytosis and neutrophil compared to fish fed on normal phosphorus. Phytase supplementation, made immune response parameters return to its normal values and the pathological lesions of liver, spleen, stomach, and intestine were reduced. Moreover, normal phosphorus significantly up-regulated lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA expression and down-regulated fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA in Nile tilapia's liver while low phosphorus with or without phytase supplementation reduced LPL expression and relatively up-regulated FAS.

Authors : Abo Norag Mostafa A, El-Shenawy Abeer M, Fadl Sabreen E, Abdo Walied S, Gad Doaa M, Rashed Mohamed A, Prince Abdelbary Mohammed,