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Fish fatty acid synthase (FAS) ELISA kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma

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[#CSB-E17128Fh] Fish fatty acid synthase (FAS) ELISA kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma


CSB-E17128Fh | Fish fatty acid synthase (FAS) ELISA kit, Species Fish, Sample Type serum, plasma, 96T
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(1) Amelioration of UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in fat-1 transgenic mouse skin.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29775616
Publication Date : //
ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in some fish oils, are known to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and increase host immunoresponsiveness. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, this study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic capacity of fat-1 transgenic mice capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and fat-1 mice were maintained on the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil rich in ω-6 PUFAs for 5 weeks. The ω-3/ω-6 PUFA ratio was significantly higher in the dorsal skin of fat-1 mice than that in the WT mice. Upon single exposure to UVB (5.0 kJ/m) radiation, fat-1 mice showed inflammatory as well as oxidative tissue damage and the expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes, cyclooxygenases-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the skin to a much lesser extent than the WT mice. The protection of fat-1 mice from UVB-induced skin inflammation was associated with decreased phosphorylation of STAT3. Moreover, UVB-induced apoptosis was attenuated in fat-1 mouse skin. In comparison to WT animals, higher levels of Nrf2 and its target proteins, such as heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and thioredoxin-1, were found in the skin of fat-1 mice.

Authors : Yum Hye-Won, Kim Seong Hoon, Kang Jing X, Surh Young-Joon,

(2) Molecular characterization of elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (elovl6) genes in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and their potential roles in adaptation to cold temperature.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29733968
Publication Date : //
Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined. We also functionally characterized the three elovl6 isoforms using heterologous expression in baker's yeast. Results obtained here showed the three elovl6 proteins in loach can elongate C16:0 and C16:1 to C18:0 and C18:1, respectively. At last, to confirm the role of three loach elovl6 isoforms for elongation of fatty acids in adaption to cold stress, differences in skin histological structures, body fatty acid compositions, expressions of four hepatic lipogenesis or lipolysis related genes, and expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms and their related gene uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1) in different tissues were investigated in the loach reared in two different water temperatures (28 °C and 4 °C) for ten days. Cold stress increased ratios of C18/C16 and C20:5n-3/C18:3n-3 in loach body, and induced expressions of hepatic acyl-CoA delta-9 desaturase 1 (scd1), sterol-regulator element-binding protein 1 (srebp1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) and fatty acid synthase (fas). Meanwhile, significant differences were found in expressions of the three elovl6 isoforms in different tissues between 28 °C and 4 °C groups. Overall, this study suggests that the three elovl6 isoforms in loach have ability to elongate C16 to C18, and elovl6 proteins in loach may play a role in adaptation to cold stress.

Authors : Chen Jingwen, Cui Yun, Yan Jie, Jiang Jimin, Cao Xiaojuan, Gao Jian,

(3) Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated Cd-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in zebrafish Danio rerio.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29604498
Publication Date : //
The present study was performed to determine the effect of waterborne CdCl exposure influencing lipid deposition and metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and explore the underlying molecular mechanism of cadmium (Cd)-induced disorder of hepatic lipid metabolism in fish. To this end, adult zebrafish were exposed to three waterborne CdCl concentrations (0(control), 5 and 25 μg Cd/l, respectively) for 30 days. Lipid accumulation, the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, as well as the expression level of genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitophagy were determined in the liver of zebrafish. Waterborne CdCl exposure increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) and Cd accumulation, the activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME), and the mRNA level of fatty acid synthase (fas), acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (acaca), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) and malic enzyme (me), but reduced the mRNA level of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (cpt1), hormone-sensitive lipase alpha (hsla), and adipose triacylglyceride lipase (atgl). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathoinine peroxidase (GPx) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and the ATP level were significantly reduced after CdCl exposure. CdCl exposure significantly increased the mRNA level of genes (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 alpha (lc3a), PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (pink1), NIP3-like protein X (nix) and PARKIN (parkin)) related to mitophagy. To elucidate the mechanism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) were used to verify the role of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction in Cd-induced disorder of lipid metabolism. NAC pretreatment reversed the Cd-induced up-regulation of TG accumulation and activities of lipogenic enzymes, and the Cd-induced down-regulation of mRNA levels of lipolytic genes. Meanwhile, NAC pretreatment also blocked the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and decreased the ATP level, suggesting that ROS played a crucial role in regulating the Cd-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, our findings, for the first time, highlight the importance of the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in Cd-induced disorder of hepatic lipid metabolism, which proposed a novel mechanism for elucidating metal element exposure inducing the disorder of lipid metabolism in vertebrates.

Authors : Pan Ya-Xiong, Luo Zhi, Zhuo Mei-Qing, Wei Chuan-Chuan, Chen Guang-Hui, Song Yu-Feng,

(4) Effects of fish and krill oil on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and circulating markers of inflammation: a randomised controlled trial.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29599972
Publication Date : //
Marine -3 (omega-3) fatty acids alter gene expression by regulating the activity of transcription factors. Krill oil is a source of marine -3 fatty acids that has been shown to modulate gene expression in animal studies; however, the effect in humans is not known. Hence, we aimed to compare the effect of intake of krill oil, lean and fatty fish with a similar content of -3 fatty acids, and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with added astaxanthin on the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as circulating inflammatory markers. In an 8-week trial, healthy men and women aged 18-70 years with fasting TAG of 1·3-4·0 mmol/l were randomised to receive krill oil capsules ( 12), HOSO capsules ( 12) or lean and fatty fish ( 12). The weekly intakes of marine -3 fatty acids from the interventions were 4654, 0 and 4103 mg, respectively. The mRNA expression of four genes, PPAR γ coactivator 1A (), steaoryl-CoA desaturase (), ATP binding cassette A1 () and cluster of differentiation 40 (), were differently altered by the interventions. Furthermore, within-group analyses revealed that krill oil down-regulated the mRNA expression of thirteen genes, including genes involved in glucose and cholesterol metabolism and β-oxidation. Fish altered the mRNA expression of four genes and HOSO down-regulated sixteen genes, including several inflammation-related genes. There were no differences between the groups in circulating inflammatory markers after the intervention. In conclusion, the intake of krill oil and HOSO with added astaxanthin alter the PBMC mRNA expression of more genes than the intake of fish.

Authors : Rundblad Amanda, Holven Kirsten B, Bruheim Inge, Myhrstad Mari C, Ulven Stine M,

(5) miR-205-5p negatively regulates hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase β mRNA in lipid metabolism of Oreochromis niloticus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29574186
Publication Date : //
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional gene regulators and that play vital roles controlling lipid metabolism. miR-205 is an important miRNA related to adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the potential role of miR-205-5p in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus). In this study, we used miRanda software to search for potential miR-205-5p target genes and found a lipid-metabolism-related gene called acetyl-CoA carboxylase β (ACACβ). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data indicated that there may be a negative regulation relationship between miR-205-5p and ACACβ gene expression under HFD rearing. Using luciferase reporter assays, we verified the binding site of miR-205-5p in the 3'-untranslated region of the ACACβ mRNA. Furthermore, an in vivo functional analysis of miR-205-5p was performed by injecting GIFT juveniles with a miR-205-5p antagomir. Reduced levels of miR-205-5p in GIFT liver increased ACACβ mRNA expression 12 h post-injection. miR-205-5p suppression also increased fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α mRNA levels 48 h and 120 h post-injection, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-205-5p negative regulates hepatic ACACβ mRNA expression, and may serve as an important regulator in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism in GIFT.

Authors : Tao Yi-Fan, Qiang Jun, Bao Jing-Wen, Li Hong-Xia, Yin Guo-Jun, Xu Pao, Chen De-Ju,

(6) Effects of the complete replacement of fish oil with linseed oil on growth, fatty acid composition, and protein expression in the Chinese mitten crab ().[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29568239
Publication Date : //
The finite marine resources make it difficult for us to obtain enough fish oil (FO) used in aquatic feeds. Another sustainable ingredients should be found to substitute FO. The effects of replacing FO with vegetable oil have been studied in a variety of crustaceans, but most studies have focused on the phenotypic effects. Little is known about the mechanisms of the effects.

Authors : Wei Banghong, Yang Zhigang, Cheng Yongxu, Wang Jianyi, Zhou Junyu,

(7) Adipogenesis in fish.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29514876
Publication Date : //
White adipose tissue (AT) is the main lipid storage depot in vertebrates. Initially considered to be a simple lipid store, AT has recently been recognized as playing a role as an endocrine organ that is implicated in processes such as energy homeostasis and as a rich source of stem cells. Interest in adipogenesis has increased not only because of the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in humans, but also in aquaculture because of the excessive fat deposition experienced in some cultured fish species, which may compromise both their welfare and their final product quality. Adipocyte development is well conserved among vertebrates, and this conservation has facilitated the rapid characterization of several adipogenesis models in fish. This Review presents the main findings of adipogenesis research based in primary cultures of the preadipocytes of farmed fish species. Zebrafish has emerged as an excellent model for studying the early stages of adipocyte fish development Nevertheless, larger fish species are more suitable for the isolation of preadipocytes from visceral AT and for studies in which preadipocytes are differentiated to form mature adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes contain lipid droplets and express adipocyte marker genes such as those encoding the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (), lipoprotein lipase (), fatty acid synthase (), fatty acid binding protein 11 (), fatty acid transporter protein1 (), adiponectin and leptin. Differentiated adipocytes also have elevated glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. To better understand fish adipocyte development and regulation, different adipokines, fatty acids, growth factors and PPAR agonists have been studied, providing relevant insights into which factors affect these processes and counterbalance AT dysregulation.

Authors : Salmerón Cristina,

(8) Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich fish oil on the endometrial prostaglandin production in the doe (Capra hircus).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29428619
Publication Date : //
Recently, we showed that dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) decreased the metabolites of serum prostaglandin (PG) F and E during the window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. In this study, we investigated its effect on the changes on endometrial PG production in vitro. Cycling does (n = 12) of Rohilkhand region were divided into two equal groups and fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either FO containing 26% n-3 PUFA (TRT; n = 6) or palm oil (CON; n = 6) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 57 days. Estrus was synchronized by two injections of PGF analogue viz, on day 25 and 36 of supplementation and laparo-hysterotomy was performed to obtain endometrial tissue on day 16 of the synchronized estrus. Endometrial explant culture was done using a defined medium.The basal PG production was assayed at 6 and 12 h. Endometrial explant was stimulated with oxytocin (OXT) and/or recombinant ovine interferon tau (roIFN-τ) and PGs were assayed at 3 and 12 h post-treatment. The relative expression of genes related to PG metabolism in the endometrium was done by Quantitative Real Time PCR technique (qRT-PCR). There was a significant (P < 0.05) decline in the basal production of PGF and PGE in the TRT as compared to the CON group. The cultured endometrial tissue produced PGF in a time- dependent fashion in both the groups (P < 0.05). Neither OXT nor roIFN-τ had a significant (P > 0.05) effect on the PGF and PGE production in the TRT group. Similarly, the PG production in the OXT and roIFN-τ was comparable with the control in TRT. Expression of mRNA for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytosolic phospholipase A (cPLA) and PGF synthase (PGFS) was lower (P < 0.05) whereas, PGE synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors such as PPAR-γ and δ was increased (P < 0.05) in n-3 PUFA fed doe. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of FO decreased the endometrial production of PGF and PGE by downregulating the COX-2, cPLA and PGFS transcripts in the doe. The findings suggest that n-3 PUFA influence embryo survival by modulating the endometrial PG.

Authors : Chaudhari Ravjibhai K, Mahla Ajit Singh, Singh Amit Kumar, Singh Sanjay Kumar, Pawde Abhijit M, Gandham Ravi Kumar, Singh Gyanendra, Sarkar Mihir, Kumar Harendra, Krishnaswamy Narayanan,

(9) Characterisation of the vasodilation effects of DHA and EPA, n-3 PUFAs (fish oils), in rat aorta and mesenteric resistance arteries.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29394279
Publication Date : //
Increasing evidence suggests that the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are beneficial to cardiovascular health, promoting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasodilation. Numerous studies have attempted to study these responses, but to date there has not been a systematic characterisation of both DHA and EPA mediated vasodilation in conduit and resistance arteries. Therefore, we aimed to fully characterise the n-3 PUFA-induced vasodilation pathways in rat aorta and mesenteric artery.

Authors : Limbu Roshan, Cottrell Graeme S, McNeish Alister J,

(10) Nutrigenomic studies on hilsa to evaluate flesh quality attributes and genes associated with fatty acid metabolism from the rivers Hooghly and Padma.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29389608
Publication Date : //
The Indian shad hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), a commercially important food fish rich in oils, enjoys high consumer preference in the South Asian countries owing to its unique flavour and culinary properties. The present study was undertaken with the primary objective of determining the flesh quality attributes of hilsa in terms of nutritive value (gross chemical composition, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral composition), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and expression of genes associated with fatty acid metabolism and flesh quality. Additionally, comparative studies on the flesh quality attributes in hilsa from two distributaries of river Ganga i.e. Hooghly and Padma were also carried out. A high WHC (>80%) suggested juicy and tender nature of hilsa meat. The protein content was 18-21% in hilsa from both the rivers and essential amino acid lysine, valine and functional amino acids leucine and arginine were significantly higher in Hooghly hilsa (P<0.05). The predominance of umami taste amino acids, glutamic acid and aspartic acid and sweet taste amino acids, serine, glycine and alanine in hilsa from both the rivers could be the contributing factors to its unique flavour. The fat content in hilsa from river Hooghly and Padma were found to be 9.94 and 7.84%, respectively. The concentration of flavouring fatty acids like saturated fatty acids (SFA) (myristic acid) and omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) were significantly higher in Hooghly hilsa (P<0.05). Among the genes associated with fatty acid metabolism studied, expression of cluster of differentiation (CD36), acetyl CoA oxidase (ACO), fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor beta (PPARβ), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and desaturase were significantly higher in Padma hilsa (P<0.05), and the change was <2 fold. Comparative gene expression profiling of flesh quality genes (actin, GAPDH, LDH, TPI) showed similar levels of expression in hilsa from both the rivers (P<0.05). The nutrigenomic information generated on various flesh quality attributes of hilsa has enriched the knowledgebase. Further, from comparative nutrient analysis on hilsa from river Hooghly and Padma, it was observed that Hooghly hilsa is superior in terms of oil content, ω-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA and essential amino acids; however, the expression profile of genes associated with flesh quality were found to be similar. Thus, within the scope of the present study, Hooghly hilsa (medium size category, 500-700g size) was found to be nutritionally superior.

Authors : Ganguly Satabdi, Mahanty Arabinda, Mitra Tandrima, Mohanty Sasmita, Das Basanta Kumar, Mohanty Bimal Prasanna,