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MHC Class II, Mab anti_Cat; Clone PF6J_6D, ELISA,flow,WB

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[#YSRTMCA2723] MHC Class II, Mab anti_Cat; Clone PF6J_6D, ELISA,flow,WB

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YSRTMCA2723 | MHC Class II, Mab anti_Cat; Clone PF6J_6D, ELISA,flow,WB, 0.25 mg.
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(1) Aire is not essential for regulating neuroinflammatory disease in mice transgenic for human autoimmune-diseases associated MHC class II genes HLA-DR2b and HLA-DR4.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29789121
Publication Date : //
The human autoimmune disease-associated HLA alleles HLA-DR2b (DRB1*1501) and HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0401) are strongly linked to increased susceptibility for multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), respectively. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, but these MHC alleles may shape the repertoire of pathogenic T cells via central tolerance. The transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE) promotes central T cell tolerance via ectopic expression of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs). Aire deficiency in humans causes autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1), and Aire knockout mice (Aire) develop spontaneous autoimmune pathology characterized by multi-organ lymphocytic infiltrates. Here, we asked whether impaired TSAs gene expression in the absence of Aire promoted spontaneous MS- or RA-like autoimmune pathology in the context of human HLA alleles in HLA-DR2b or HLA-DR4 transgenic (tg) mice. The results show that reduced TSAs gene expression in the thymus of Aire-deficient HLA-DR2b or HLA-DR4 tg mice corresponded to mild spontaneous inflammatory infiltrates in salivary glands, liver, and pancreas. Moreover, Aire-deficiency modestly enhanced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in HLA-DR tg mice, but the animals did not show signs of spontaneous neuroinflammation or arthritis. No significant changes were observed in CD4 T cell numbers, T cell receptor (TCR) distribution, regulatory T cells (Treg), or antigen-induced cytokine production. Abrogating Treg function by treatment with anti-CTLA-4 or anti-CD25 mAb in Aire-deficient HLA-DR tg mice did not trigger EAE or other autoimmune pathology. Our results suggest a redundant role for Aire in maintaining immune tolerance in the context of autoimmune disease-associated human HLA alleles.

Authors : Nalawade Saisha A, Ji Niannian, Raphael Itay, Pratt Andrew, Kraig Ellen, Forsthuber Thomas G,



(2) High macrophage PD-L1 expression not responsible for T cell suppression.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29305065
Publication Date : //
Tumors are often comprised of microenvironments (TMEs) with a high proportion of cells and molecules that regulate immunity. Peritoneal cavity (PerC) cell culture reproduces key features of TMEs as lymphocyte proliferation is suppressed by PerC macrophages (Mϕs). We monitored the expression of T cell stimulatory (Class II MHC, B7) and inhibitory (PD-L1) molecules by PerC APCs before and after culture and report here that IFNγ-driven PD-L1 expression increased markedly on PerC Mϕs after TCR ligation, even more so than seen with direct APC activation by LPS. Considering the high APC composition of and pronounced PD-L1 expression by PerC cells, it was surprising that blocking PD-1/PD-L1 interaction by mAb neutralization or genetic ablation did not relieve suppression. This result parallels TME challenges observed in the clinic and validates the need for further study of this culture model to inform strategies to promote anti-tumor immunity.

Authors : Goldman Naomi, Lomakova Yelizavet D, Londregan Jennifer, Bucknum Amanda, DePierri Kelley, Somerville John, Riggs James E,



(3) Surface LAMP-2 Is an Endocytic Receptor That Diverts Antigen Internalized by Human Dendritic Cells into Highly Immunogenic Exosomes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28607115
Publication Date : //
The lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) family includes the dendritic cell endocytic receptors DC-LAMP and CD68, as well as LAMP-1 and LAMP-2. In this study we identify LAMP-1 (CD107a) and LAMP-2 (CD107b) on the surface of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) and show only LAMP-2 is internalized after ligation by specific Abs, including H4B4, and traffics rapidly but transiently to the MHC class II loading compartment, as does Ag conjugated to H4B4. However, pulsing MoDC with conjugates of primary (keyhole limpet hemocyanin; KLH) and recall (Bet v 1) Ags (H4B4*KLH and H4B4*Bet v 1) induced significantly less CD4 cell proliferation than pulsing with native Ag or Ag conjugated to control mAb (ISO*KLH and ISO*Bet v 1). In H4B4*KLH-pulsed MoDC, the duration of KLH residence in MHC class II loading compartments was significantly reduced, as were surface HLA-DR and DR-bound KLH-derived peptides. Paradoxically, MoDC pulsed with H4B4*KLH, but not the other KLH preparations, induced robust proliferation of CD4 cells separated from them by a transwell membrane, indicating factors in the supernatant were responsible. Furthermore, extracellular vesicles from supernatants of H4B4*KLH-pulsed MoDC contained significantly more HLA-DR and KLH than those purified from control MoDC, and KLH was concentrated specifically in exosomes that were a uniquely effective source of Ag in standard T cell proliferation assays. In summary, we identify LAMP-2 as an endocytic receptor on human MoDC that routes cargo into unusual Ag processing pathways, which reduces surface expression of Ag-derived peptides while selectively enriching Ag within immunogenic exosomes. This novel pathway has implications for the initiation of immune responses both locally and at distant sites.

Authors : Leone Dario Armando, Peschel Andrea, Brown Markus, Schachner Helga, Ball Miriam J, Gyuraszova Marianna, Salzer-Muhar Ulrike, Fukuda Minoru, Vizzardelli Caterina, Bohle Barbara, Rees Andrew J, Kain Renate,



(4) Comparison of 6B11 mAb and α-GalCer-loaded CD1d dextramers for detection of iNKT cells by flow cytometry.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28365328
Publication Date : //
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a small population of thymus-derived T cells that are restricted by non-classical MHC class I molecule CD1d and express an evolutionary conserved TCR with an invariant α-chain. The frequency of iNKT cells in peripheral blood is very low, thus, accurate methods to identify and enumerate iNKT cells are needed. The aim of the study was to compare 6B11 mAb or α-GalCer-loaded CD1d dextramers usage in iNKT cell detection. The frequency of CD3CD56 lymphocytes is much higher, with statistical significance (p<0,001), than real iNKT cells detected by 6B11 mAb or α-GalCer-loaded CD1d dextramers. The frequency of iNKT cells, recognized by 6B11 mAb or α-GalCer-loaded CD1d dextramers, was in a similar range. Nonetheless, when we compared whether 6B11 and α-GalCer-loaded CD1d dextramers are the same populations, it turned out that by this approach we were able to identify three distinct subsets of iNKT cells: i) 6B11/α-GalCer-loaded dextramer cells, ii) 6B11/α-GalCer-loaded dextramer cells, and iii) 6B11/α-GalCer-loaded dextramer. Thus, although 6B11 mAb and α-GalCer-loaded dextramers may identify not exactly the same cells, application of these methods seems to give similar results of iNKT cell frequency in peripheral blood. It seems that both approaches for iNKT detection can be used for precise identification of these cells. Moreover, our results indicate that CD3CD56 lymphocytes are a heterogeneous population of T cells, expressing activation markers of both NK and T lymphocytes, yet with not well characterized properties.

Authors : Lenart Marzena, Gruca Anna, Mueck Anna, Rutkowska-Zapała Magdalena, Surman Marta, Szaflarska Anna, Kobylarz Krzysztof, Baran Jarosław, Siedlar Maciej,



(5) Intratumoral administration of cGAMP transiently accumulates potent macrophages for anti-tumor immunity at a mouse tumor site.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28243692
Publication Date : //
Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) spontaneously contributes to anti-tumor immunity by inducing type I interferons (IFNs) following sensing of tumor-derived genomic DNAs in the tumor-bearing host. Although direct injection of STING ligands such as cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and cyclic [G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] (cGAMP) into the tumor microenvironment exerts anti-tumor effects through strong induction of type I IFNs and activation of innate and adaptive immunity, the precise events caused by STING in the tumor microenvironment remain to be elucidated. We describe here our finding that a CD45 CD11b Ly6C cell subset transiently accumulated in mouse tumor microenvironment of 4T1 breast cancer, squamous cell carcinomas, CT26 colon cancer, or B16F10 melanoma tissue after intratumoral injection of cGAMP. The accumulated cells displayed a macrophage (M ) phenotype since the cells were positive for F4/80 and MHC class II and negative for Ly6G. Intratumoral cGAMP treatment did not induce Mφ accumulation in STING-deficient mice. Depletion of CD8 T cell using anti-CD8 mAb impaired the anti-tumor effects of cGAMP treatment. Depletion of the Mφ using clodronate liposomes impaired the anti-tumor effects of cGAMP treatment. Functional analysis indicated that the STING-triggered tumor-migrating Mφ exhibited phagocytic activity, production of tumor necrosis factor alpha TNFα), and high expression levels of T cell-recruiting chemokines, Cxcl10 and Cxcl11, IFN-induced molecules, MX dynamin-like GTPase 1 (Mx1) and 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (Oasl1), nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2), and interferon beta 1 (Ifnb1). These results indicate that the STING-triggered tumor-migrating Mφ participate in the anti-tumor effects of STING-activating compounds.

Authors : Ohkuri Takayuki, Kosaka Akemi, Ishibashi Kei, Kumai Takumi, Hirata Yui, Ohara Kenzo, Nagato Toshihiro, Oikawa Kensuke, Aoki Naoko, Harabuchi Yasuaki, Celis Esteban, Kobayashi Hiroya,



(6) Characterization of a Broadly Reactive Anti-CD40 Agonistic Monoclonal Antibody for Potential Use as an Adjuvant.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28107431
Publication Date : //
Lack of safe and effective adjuvants is a major hindrance to the development of efficacious vaccines. Signaling via CD40 pathway leads to enhanced antigen processing and presentation, nitric oxide expression, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by antigen presenting cells, and stimulation of B-cells to undergo somatic hypermutation, immunoglobulin class switching, and proliferation. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies have shown promising adjuvant qualities in human and mouse vaccine studies. An anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated 2E4E4, was identified and shown to have strong agonistic effects on primary cells from multiple livestock species. The mAb recognize swine, bovine, caprine, and ovine CD40, and evoked 25-fold or greater proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from these species relative to cells incubated with an isotype control (p<0.001). In addition, the mAb induced significant nitric oxide (p<0.0001) release by bovine macrophages. Furthermore, the mAb upregulated the expression of MHC-II by PBMCs, and stimulated significant (p<0.0001) IL-1α, IL6, IL-8, and TNF-α expression by PBMCs. These results suggest that the mAb 2E4E4 can target and stimulate cells from multiple livestock species and thus, it is a potential candidate for adjuvant development. This is the first study to report an anti-swine CD40 agonistic mAb that is also broadly reactive against multiple species.

Authors : Martin Cameron, Waghela Suryakant D, Lokhandwala Shehnaz, Ambrus Andy, Bray Jocelyn, Vuong Christina, Vinodkumar Vanitha, Dominowski Paul J, Rai Sharath, Mwangi Duncan, Foss Dennis L, Mwangi Waithaka,



(7) TCR Signaling and CD28/CTLA-4 Signaling Cooperatively Modulate T Regulatory Cell Homeostasis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28053234
Publication Date : //
Foxp3 T regulatory cells (Tregs), conventional CD4Foxp3 T cells, and CD8 T cells represent heterogeneous populations composed of naive phenotype (NP, CD44) and memory phenotype (MP, CD44) subpopulations. NP and MP subsets differ in their activation state, contribution to immune function, and capacity to proliferate in vivo. To further understand the factors that contribute to the differential homeostasis of NP/MP subsets, we examined the differential effects of CD28 and CTLA-4 interaction with CD80/CD86, as well as MHC class II-TCR interaction within mouse Treg pools and CD4 and CD8 T cell pools. Blockade of CD80/CD86 with CTLA-4-Ig markedly reduced the cycling and absolute numbers of MP Tregs and MP CD4 T cells, with minimal effect on the NP T cell subpopulations. Blockade of MHC class II-TCR interaction led to selective expansion of MP Tregs and MP CD4 and CD8 T cells that was reversed upon cotreatment with CTLA-4-Ig. Treatment with anti-CTLA-4 mAb altered MP Treg and MP CD4 and CD8 T cell homeostasis in a manner similar to that observed with anti-MHC class II. We postulate a complex pathway in which CD28 is the primary driver of Treg proliferation and CTLA-4 functions as the main brake but is likely dependent on TCR signals and CD80/CD86. These findings have important implications for the use of biologic agents targeting such pathways to modulate autoimmune and neoplastic disease.

Authors : Holt Michael P, Punkosdy George A, Glass Deborah D, Shevach Ethan M,



(8) Production of a Locus- and Allele-Specific Monoclonal Antibody for the Characterization of SLA-1*0401 mRNA and Protein Expression Levels in MHC-Defined Microminipigs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27760184
Publication Date : //
The class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents self-developed peptides to specific T cells to induce cytotoxity against infection. The MHC proteins are encoded by multiple loci that express numerous alleles to preserve the variability of the antigen-presenting ability in each species. The mechanism regulating MHC mRNA and protein expression at each locus is difficult to analyze because of the structural and sequence similarities between alleles. In this study, we examined the correlation between the mRNA and surface protein expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-1*0401 after the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by Staphylococcus aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). We prepared a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a domain composed of Y102, L103 and L109 in the α2 domain. The Hp-16.0 haplotype swine possess only SLA-1*0401, which has the mAb epitope, while other haplotypes possess 0 to 3 SLA classical class I loci with the mAb epitopes. When PBMCs from SLA-1*0401 homozygous pigs were stimulated, the SLA-1*0401 mRNA expression level increased until 24 hrs and decreased at 48 hrs. The kinetics of the interferon regulatory transcription factor-1 (IRF-1) mRNA level were similar to those of the SLA-1*0401 mRNA. However, the surface protein expression level continued to increase until 72 hrs. Similar results were observed in the Hp-10.0 pigs with three mAb epitopes. These results suggest that TSST-1 stimulation induced both mRNA and surface protein expression of class I SLA in the swine PBMCs differentially and that the surface protein level was sustained independently of mRNA regulation.

Authors : Kametani Yoshie, Ohshima Shino, Miyamoto Asuka, Shigenari Atsuko, Takasu Masaki, Imaeda Noriaki, Matsubara Tatsuya, Tanaka Masafumi, Shiina Takashi, Kamiguchi Hiroshi, Suzuki Ryuji, Kitagawa Hitoshi, Kulski Jerzy K, Hirayama Noriaki, Inoko Hidetoshi, Ando Asako,



(9) Antitumor Effect of Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) Blockade in Humanized the NOG-MHC Double Knockout Mouse.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27458246
Publication Date : //
Humanized mouse models using NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rγ (NOG) and NOD/LtSz-scid IL2rγ (NSG) mouse are associated with several limitations, such as long incubation time for stem cell engraftment and the development of xenograft versus host disease in mice injected with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To solve problems, we used humanized major histocompatibility class I- and class II-deficient NOG mice (referred to as NOG-dKO) to evaluate the antitumor effect of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibody.

Authors : Ashizawa Tadashi, Iizuka Akira, Nonomura Chizu, Kondou Ryota, Maeda Chie, Miyata Haruo, Sugino Takashi, Mitsuya Koichi, Hayashi Nakamasa, Nakasu Yoko, Maruyama Kouji, Yamaguchi Ken, Katano Ikumi, Ito Mamoru, Akiyama Yasuto,



(10) Establishment of a Therapeutic Anti-Pan HLA-Class II Monoclonal Antibody That Directly Induces Lymphoma Cell Death via Large Pore Formation.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27028595
Publication Date : //
To develop a new therapeutic monoclonal Antibody (mAb) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), we immunized a BALB/c mouse with live HL cell lines, alternating between two HL cell lines. After hybridization, we screened the hybridoma clones by assessing direct cytotoxicity against a HL cell line not used for immunization. We developed this strategy for establishing mAb to reduce the risk of obtaining clonotypic mAb specific for single HL cell line. A newly established mouse anti-human mAb (4713) triggered cytoskeleton-dependent, but complement- and caspase-independent, cell death in HL cell lines, Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, and advanced adult T-cell leukemia cell lines. Intravenous injection of mAb 4713 in tumor-bearing SCID mice improved survival significantly. mAb 4713 was revealed to be a mouse anti-human pan-HLA class II mAb. Treatment with this mAb induced the formation of large pores on the surface of target lymphoma cells within 30 min. This finding suggests that the cell death process induced by this anti-pan HLA-class II mAb may involve the same death signals stimulated by a cytolytic anti-pan MHC class I mAb that also induces large pore formation. This multifaceted study supports the therapeutic potential of mAb 4713 for various forms of lymphoma.

Authors : Matsuoka Shuji, Ishii Yasuyuki, Nakao Atsuhito, Abe Masaaki, Ohtsuji Naomi, Momose Shuji, Jin Hui, Arase Hisashi, Sugimoto Koichi, Nakauchi Yusuke, Masutani Hiroshi, Maeda Michiyuki, Yagita Hideo, Komatsu Norio, Hino Okio,