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Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone IL2_2B, Mab anti_Cat; WB_ELISA

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[#YSRTMCA1888] Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone IL2_2B, Mab anti_Cat; WB_ELISA

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YSRTMCA1888 | Interleukin 2 (IL_2), Clone IL2_2B, Mab anti_Cat; WB_ELISA, 0.25 mg.
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(1) The doubling potential of T lymphocytes allows clinical-grade production of a bank of genetically modified monoclonal T-cell populations.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29396255
Publication Date : //
To produce an anti-leukemic effect after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation we have long considered the theoretical possibility of using banks of HLA-DP specific T-cell clones transduced with a suicide gene. For that application as for any others, a clonal strategy is constrained by the population doubling (PD) potential of T cells, which has been rarely explored or exploited.

Authors : Vivien Régine, Saïagh Soraya, Lemarre Philippe, Chabaud Valérie, Jesson Béline, Godon Catherine, Jarry Ulrich, Guillaume Thierry, Chevallier Patrice, Vié Henri, Clémenceau Béatrice,



(2) DSP30 and interleukin-2 as a mitotic stimulant in B-cell disorders including those with a low disease burden.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29349871
Publication Date : //
Chromosome abnormalities detected during cytogenetic investigations for B-cell malignancy offer prognostic information that can have wide ranging clinical impacts on patients. These impacts may include monitoring frequency, treatment type, and disease staging level. The use of the synthetic oligonucleotide DSP30 combined with interleukin 2 (IL2) has been described as an effective mitotic stimulant in B-cell disorders, not only in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but also in a range of other B-cell malignancies. Here, we describe the comparison of two B-cell mitogens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and DSP30 combined with IL2 as mitogens in a range of common B-cell disorders excluding CLL. The results showed that DSP30/IL2 was an effective mitogen in mature B-cell disorders, revealing abnormal cytogenetic results in a range of B-cell malignancies. The abnormality rate increased when compared to the use of LPS to 64% (DSP30/IL2) from 14% (LPS). In a number of cases the disease burden was proportionally very low, less than 10% of white cells. In 37% of these cases, the DSP30 culture revealed abnormal results. Importantly, we also obtained abnormal conventional cytogenetics results in 3 bone marrow cases in which immunophenotyping showed an absence of an abnormal B-cell clone. In these cases, the cytogenetics results correlated with the provisional diagnosis and altered their staging level. The use of DSP30 and IL2 is recommended for use in many B-cell malignancies as an effective mitogen and their use has been shown to enable successful culture of the malignant clone, even at very low levels of disease.

Authors : Dun Karen A, Riley Louise A, Diano Giuseppe, Adams Leanne B, Chiu Eleanor, Sharma Archna,



(3) A monoclonal antibody for detection of intracellular and secreted interleukin-2 in horses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28895863
Publication Date : //
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a T cell growth factor and major modulator of T helper (Th) cell differentiation. Here, we have developed and characterized a monoclonal antibody to equine IL-2 (anti-IL-2 mAb, clone 158-1). The IL-2 mAb detected rIL-2 by ELISA, intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting. The IL-2 mAb was also paired with a polyclonal IL-2 detection antibody in both ELISA and a fluorescent bead-based assay. When these two assays were compared using identical reagents there was an improved analytical sensitivity (46pg/ml) and wider linear quantification range (46-100,000pg/ml) of IL-2 quantification using the fluorescent bead assay. Equine rIL-2 standards were expressed in both yeast and mammalian cells but the mammalian cell-expressed rIL-2 standard was found to be most accurate for native IL-2 quantification. Using this system we found that stimulation of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin induced IL-2 secretion most potently. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM) consistently resulted in low amounts of IL-2 from PBMC, while concanavalin A (ConA), phytohemagglutinin-L (PHA-L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either marginally stimulated or failed to stimulate IL-2 secretion from equine PBMC. After stimulation of equine PBMC with PMA and ionomycin, IL-2 production was detected in 13.0% (range 7.5-16.8%) of the lymphocytes by flow cytometric analysis. IL-2 expression was mainly stimulated in CD4 cells, in a sub-population of CD8 cells, and also in CD4-/CD8- cell population. In addition, both IFN-γ/IL-2 and IL-4/IL-2 producing cells were observed. Testing of serum and colostrum samples from 15 healthy horses showed that IL-2 was not detectable in these samples (<46pg/ml). In summary, the equine IL-2 mAb provides a new tool for the characterization of IL-2 producing equine cells and the quantification of secreted equine IL-2 in sensitive assays.

Authors : Freer Heather, Hillegas Julia M, Wimer Christine, Baldwin Cynthia, LaBresh Joanna, Wagner Bettina,



(4) Apoptosis Induced Gamma Delta T Cell Antigen Receptor "Blocking" Antibodies: A Cautionary Tale.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28713391
Publication Date : //
Mechanistic studies contribute greatly to our understanding of γδ T cell (γδTc) biology, aiding development of these cells as immunotherapeutic agents. The antibody blocking assay is an accepted method to determine the receptors involved in γδTc killing of tumor targets. Effectors and/or targets are preincubated with microgram quantities of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), often described by commercial sources to be useful for blocking assays. We and others have used such assays extensively in the past, correlating decreases in cytotoxicity against specific targets with involvement of the blocked receptor(s). However, we wondered whether other mechanisms might be at play beyond cytotoxicity inhibition. Indeed, administration of certain "blocking" mAb to the γδ T cell antigen receptor (γδTCR) induced γδTc death. Upon further investigation, we discovered that γδTc underwent apoptosis triggered by incubation with mAb to the γδTCR. This effect was specific, as no apoptosis was observed when αβ T cells (αβTc) were incubated with these mAb. Apoptosis was further potentiated by the presence of interleukin (IL)-2, often included in cytotoxicity assays; however, exogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2) did not contribute significantly to γδTc cytotoxicity against breast cancer cell lines. Here, we have investigated the usefulness of four mAb for use in blocking assays by assessing blocking properties in conjunction with their propensity to induce apoptosis in cultured primary human γδTc. We found that the 5A6.E9 clone was usually a better alternative to the commonly used B1 (or B1.1) and 11F2 clones; however, some variability in susceptibility to apoptosis induction was observed among donor cultures. Thus, viability assessment of primary effector cells treated with mAb alone should be undertaken in parallel with cytotoxicity assays employing blocking antibodies, to account for cytotoxicity reduction caused by effector cell death. Previous findings should be reassessed in this light.

Authors : Dutta Indrani, Postovit Lynne-Marie, Siegers Gabrielle M,



(5) Dose-Dependent Responses of I3C and DIM on T-Cell Activation in the Human T Lymphocyte Jurkat Cell Line.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28671563
Publication Date : //
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimer diindolylmethane (DIM) are bioactive metabolites of a glucosinolate, glucobrassicin, found in cruciferous vegetables. Both I3C and DIM have been reported to possess pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-carcinogenic properties via modulation of immune pathways. However, results from these studies remain inconclusive since they lack thorough evaluation of these bioactives' physiological versus pharmacological effects. In the present study, we investigated I3C and DIM's dose-dependent effects on cytokines production in human T lymphocytes Jurkat cell line (Clone E6-1). The results showed that I3C and DIM pretreatment, at higher concentrations of 50 and 10 μM, respectively, significantly increased PMA/ionomycin-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, measured by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As a plausible mechanism underlying such pronounced cytokine release, we found robust increase in downstream nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 (NFAT1) signaling with I3C pretreatment, whereas DIM pretreatment only significantly induced NF-κB activation, but not NFAT1. We hypothesize that I3C/DIM pretreatment primes the T cells to become hyperresponsive upon PMA/ionomycin stimulation which in turn differentially induces two major downstream Ca-dependent inflammatory pathways, NF-κB and NFAT1. Our data show novel insights into the mechanisms underlying induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine release by pharmacological concentrations of I3C and DIM, an effect negligible under physiological conditions.

Authors : Liu Man, Yasmeen Rumana, Fukagawa Naomi K, Yu Liangli, Kim Young S, Wang Thomas T Y,



(6) HLA Class Ia and Ib Polyreactive Anti-HLA-E IgG2a Monoclonal Antibodies (TFL-006 and TFL-007) Suppress Anti-HLA IgG Production by CD19+ B Cells and Proliferation of CD4+ T Cells While Upregulating Tregs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28634589
Publication Date : //
The anti-HLA-E IgG2a mAbs, TFL-006 and TFL-007, reacted with all HLA-I antigens, similar to the therapeutic preparations of IVIg. Indeed, IVIg lost its HLA reactivity, when its HLA-E reactivity was adsorbed out. US-FDA approved IVIg to reduce antibodies in autoimmune diseases. But the mechanism underlying IVIg-mediated antibody reduction could not be ascertained due to the presence of other polyclonal antibodies. In spite of it, the cost prohibitive high or low IVIg is administered to patients waiting for donor organ and for allograft recipients for lowering antiallograft antibodies. A mAb that could mimic IVIg in lowering Abs, with defined mechanism of action, would be highly beneficial for patients. Demonstrably, the anti-HLA-E mAbs mimicked several functions of IVIg relevant to suppressing the antiallograft Abs. The mAbs suppressed activated T cells and anti-HLA antibody production by activated B cells, which were dose-wise superior to IVIg. The anti-HLA-E mAb expanded CD4+, CD25+, and Foxp+ Tregs, which are known to suppress T and B cells involved in antibody production. These defined functions of the anti-HLA-E IgG2a mAbs at a level superior to IVIg encourage developing their humanized version to lower antibodies in allograft recipients, to promote graft survival, and to control autoimmune diseases.

Authors : Ravindranath Mepur H,



(7) Immunological characterization of a rigid α-Tn mimetic on murine iNKT and human NK cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28573337
Publication Date : //
The ability of a rigid α-Tn mimetic (compound 1) to activate murine invariant natural killer T (iNKT) and human natural killer (NK) cells, two subsets of lymphocytes involved in cancer immunesurveillance, was investigated. For this purpose, the mimetic 1 was properly conjugated to a stearic acid containing glycerol-based phospholipid (compound 5) to be presented, in the context of the conserved non polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecules (CD1d), to iNKT cells. On the contrary, the mimetic 1 was conjugated to a multivalent peptide-based scaffold (compound 6) to induce NK cell activation.

Authors : Fallarini Silvia, Brittoli Alvaro, Fiore Michele, Lombardi Grazia, Renaudet Olivier, Richichi Barbara, Nativi Cristina,



(8) Expression of CD25 on leukemic stem cells in BCR-ABL1 CML: Potential diagnostic value and functional implications.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28457753
Publication Date : //
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a stem cell-derived leukemia in which neoplastic cells exhibit the Philadelphia chromosome and the related oncoprotein BCR-ABL1. The disease is characterized by an accumulation of myeloid precursor cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM). A small fraction of neoplastic cells in the CML clone supposedly exhibits self-renewal and thus long-term disease-propagating ability. However, so far, little is known about the phenotype, function, and target expression profiles of these leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Recent data suggest that CML LSCs aberrantly express the interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain CD25. Whereas normal CD34/CD38 BM stem cells display only low amounts of CD25 or lack CD25 altogether, CD34/CD38 LSCs express CD25 strongly in more than 90% of all patients with untreated CML. As a result, CD25 can be used to identify and quantify CML LSCs. In addition, it has been shown that CD25 serves as a negative growth regulator of CML LSCs. Here, we review the value of CD25 as a novel marker and potential drug target in CML LSCs.

Authors : Sadovnik Irina, Herrmann Harald, Eisenwort Gregor, Blatt Katharina, Hoermann Gregor, Mueller Niklas, Sperr Wolfgang R, Valent Peter,



(9) Identification and Characterization of Strains with an Incomplete Hemolytic Phenotype.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27917374
Publication Date : //
is a common pathogen causing both hospital and community-acquired infections. Hemolysin is one of the important virulence factors for and causes the typical β-hemolytic phenotype which is called complete hemolytic phenotype as well. Recently, with an incomplete hemolytic phenotype (SIHP) was isolated from clinical samples. To study the microbiologic characteristics of SIHP, the special hemolytic phenotype of SIHP was verified on the sheep blood agar plates supplied by different manufacturers. Expression of hemolysin genes , and of SIHP was detected by qRT-PCR and it was showed that expression of in SIHP was obviously increased compared to the control strains with complete hemolytic phenotype (SCHP), while the expression of , and in SIHP was significantly decreased. In addition, the α-hemolysin encoded by gene was decreased obviously in SIHP compared to SCHP by western blot. All 60 SIHP strains were identified to be the methicillin resistant (MRSA), and moreover these SIHP strains all contains gene. The virulence gene were all present in SIHP, and the intracellular survival ability of SIHP was much greater than that of the gene negative . We also found that IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17A secreted in the supernatant of SIHP infected macrophages increased significantly compared to negative control strains infected ones. MLST analysis showed that all of SIHP strains were classified into ST5 clone. To our knowledge, this study firstly showed that SIHP strains are a kind of methicillin resistant strains which express β-hemolysin highly and possess a potential high virulence, and it was suggested that SIHP should be paid more attention in hospital.

Authors : Zhang Haifang, Zheng Yi, Gao Huasheng, Xu Ping, Wang Min, Li Aiqing, Miao Minhui, Xie Xiaofang, Deng Yimai, Zhou Huiqin, Du Hong,



(10) A rapid alternative method to evaluate T-cell hybridoma activation using an improved cytokine (IL-2) secretion assay.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27592266
Publication Date : //
T-cell hybridoma assays have been widely used for the in vitro study of antigen processing and presentation because they represent an unlimited source of cells and they bypass the difficulty of maintaining T-cell clones in culture. One of the most widely used methods to assess hybridoma activation is measurement of CTLL-2 cell proliferation, which is dependent on IL-2. However, continuous culture of this cell line results in a loss of sensitivity, and significant interassay variability can occur. Therefore, our goal was to develop a method to assess T-cell hybridoma activation that was fast and sensitive with low variability based on the IL-2 secretion assay. The assay used flow cytometry detection and employed the hen egg lysozyme (HEL)-specific 3A9 hybridoma as a model. The original murine IL-2 secretion assay protocol from Miltenyi Biotec® was tested and modified; the conjugated capture antibody (anti-CD45-anti-IL-2) was added together with the stimulus at the beginning of the antigen presentation assay instead of after antigenic stimulation. With this modification, the percentage of detectable CD4IL-2 cells following HEL stimulation rose from 4.5% with the original protocol (0.8% without stimulus) to 94.1% (0.8% without stimulus) with the newly proposed method under the conditions evaluated in this study. This modification allowed us to evaluate the activation of hybridomas directly and more rapidly (~18h) than the reference method that assayed CTLL-2 cell proliferation using the MTT reduction assay (~48h). In conclusion, the proposed method offered a rapid alternative for screening T-cell hybridomas and evaluating their antigen-specific activation.

Authors : Gastelum-Aviña Paola, Lares-Villa Fernando, Espitia Clara, Valenzuela Olivia, Robles-Zepeda Ramon, Velazquez Carlos, Garibay-Escobar Adriana,