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Hirudin, N_terminal, intact & truncated forms, Clone 010_05, Mab anti_; ELISA_No WB

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[#HYB010-05] Hirudin, N_terminal, intact & truncated forms, Clone 010_05, Mab anti_; ELISA_No WB

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HYB010-05 | Hirudin, N_terminal, intact & truncated forms, Clone 010_05, Mab anti_; ELISA_No WB , 200 µg.
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(1) The complete N-terminal extension of heparin cofactor II is required for maximal effectiveness as a thrombin exosite 1 ligand.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23496873
Publication Date : //
Heparin cofactor II (HCII) is a circulating protease inhibitor, one which contains an N-terminal acidic extension (HCII 1-75) unique within the serpin superfamily. Deletion of HCII 1-75 greatly reduces the ability of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to accelerate the inhibition of thrombin, and abrogates HCII binding to thrombin exosite 1. While a minor portion of HCII 1-75 can be visualized in a crystallized HCII-thrombin S195A complex, the role of the rest of the extension is not well understood and the affinity of the HCII 1-75 interaction has not been quantitatively characterized. To address these issues, we expressed HCII 1-75 as a small, N-terminally hexahistidine-tagged polypeptide in E. coli.

Authors : Boyle Amanda J, Roddick Leigh Ann, Bhakta Varsha, Lambourne Melissa D, Junop Murray S, Liaw Patricia C, Weitz Jeffrey I, Sheffield William P,



(2) Proteolysis of human prolactin: resistance to cathepsin D and formation of a nonangiostatic, C-terminal 16K fragment by thrombin.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :10465285
Publication Date : //
The N-terminal 16K fragments of rat and human PRLs possess angiostatic activity. 16K PRL has also been detected in vivo in both humans and rats. Based on an in vitro study, cathepsin D, an acid protease, has been implicated in the generation of rat 16K PRL. However, the proteolytic cleavage of human PRL has not been demonstrated. Our objective was to identify an enzyme that is capable of forming an angiostatic human 16K PRL. To confirm the angiostatic action of rat 16K PRL, the fragment was generated by incubating 23K PRL with rat mammary microsomal fraction at pH 3.2. Upon incubation with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), rat 16K PRL, but not 23K PRL, inhibited basal- and basic fibroblast growth factor-stimulated cell proliferation. Intact rat and human PRLs were then incubated with cathepsin D or acidified microsomal pellets of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Analysis by SDS-PAGE showed cleavage of rat, but not human, PRL. Next, hormones were incubated with thrombin at pH 7.4. As shown by SDS-PAGE, digestion of both human and rat PRL by thrombin resulted in the formation of 16K fragments. PRL contained within human amniotic fluid was also cleaved by thrombin. Enzyme specificity was supported by prevention of cleavage by the thrombin inhibitor hirudin. When tested with HUVEC, the human 16K PRL was devoid of angiostatic activity. The activity of this fragment in the Nb2 lymphoma bioassay was 10- to 15-fold lower than that of 23K PRL. Mass spectrometry revealed that the fragment has a mass of 16,878.30+/-15.8 Daltons. Subsequent N-terminal sequencing showed that the thrombin cleavage occurred between amino acid residues 53 (Lys) and 54 (Ala), resulting in the formation of a C-terminal, not an N-terminal, 16K fragment. We conclude that, unlike rat PRL, human PRL is resistant to cleavage by cathepsin D. Thrombin at a physiological pH can generate a C-terminal 16K fragment of human PRL that is not angiostatic and retains little mitogenic activity. We suggest that the precise nature of endogenous 16K PRL fragments that are present in human tissues and body fluids should be carefully examined.

Authors : Khurana S, Liby K, Buckley A R, Ben-Jonathan N,



(3) Mocarhagin, a novel cobra venom metalloproteinase, cleaves the platelet von Willebrand factor receptor glycoprotein Ibalpha. Identification of the sulfated tyrosine/anionic sequence Tyr-276-Glu-282 of glycoprotein Ibalpha as a binding site for von Willebrand factor and alpha-thrombin.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :8664285
Publication Date : //
Platelet adhesion to the subendothelium is the initiating event in hemostasis and thrombosis and involves the binding of von Willebrand factor (vWF) by the platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex. The alpha-chain of GP Ib contains binding sites for both vWF and alpha-thrombin within a 45-kDa N-terminal tryptic fragment. In the present study, we have further delineated these sites using smaller proteolytic fragments and functional antibodies. Mocarhagin, a cobra venom metallaproteinase, generates the fragment His-1-Glu-282, while cathepsin G, a neutrophil granule serine protease, generates a slightly smaller fragment, His-1-Leu-275. His-1-Glu-282 was as effective as intact soluble GP Ibalpha (glycocalicin) in inhibiting botrocetin-dependent binding of vWF to washed platelets (IC50 approximately 0.3 microM) whereas His-1-Leu-275 was an order of magnitude less effective (IC50 approximately 3 microM). Residues Tyr-276-Glu-282 (YDYYPEE) are part of an anionic region homologous to thrombin-binding molecules such as hirudin. In ligand blot analysis, thrombin blotted the His-1-Glu-282 fragment, but not His-1-Leu-275. The three tyrosine residues within Tyr-276-Glu-282 meet the consensus criteria for O-sulfation. A method was developed to distinguish O-sulfated from nonsulfated tyrosine residues based on differences in the UV absorbance spectra. Residues Tyr-276-Glu-282 were isolated from glycocalicin by proteolysis with mocarhagin and cathepsin G. Ion spray mass spectrometry confirmed that Tyr-278 and Tyr-279 was only approximately 50% O-sulfated. Four anti-GP Ibalpha monoclonal antibodies (SZ2, ES85, C34 and VM16d) were found to be modulator-specific, strongly inhibiting botrocetin-dependent binding of vWF, but having less or no effect on ristocetin-dependent vWF binding. These antibodies also inhibited the binding of thrombin to fixed platelets. Immunoprecipitation with GP ibalpha fragments defined the epitopes for these antibodies as SZ2 (Tyr-276-Glu-282), ES85 (Asp-283-Arg-293), C34 (His-1-Glu-282), and VM16d (His-1-Leu-275). An antibody which inhibited ristocetin-dependent, as well as botrocetin-dependent, vWF binding but had no effect on thrombin binding (Ak2) had an epitope within His-1-Leu-275. These findings indicate that the sulfated tyrosine/anionic GP Ibalpha residues Tyr-276-Glu-282 are important for the binding of thrombin and botrocetin-dependent binding of thrombin and the botrocetin-dependent binding of vWF, but that vWF also interacts with residues within His-1-Leu-275.

Authors : Ward C M, Andrews R K, Smith A I, Berndt M C,



(4) Probing the structure of hirudin from Hirudinaria manillensis by limited proteolysis. Isolation, characterization and thrombin-inhibitory properties of N-terminal fragments.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :8001550
Publication Date : //
Hirudin is the most potent and specific inhibitor of the blood-clotting enzyme thrombin so far known. Several hirudin variants were isolated mostly from Hirudo medicinalis and shown to be polypeptide chains of approximately 7 kDa with three internal disulfide bridges. In this study, limited proteolysis has been used to probe aspects of the structure and dynamics of a hirudin variant HM2 isolated from Hirudinaria manillensis. Proteolysis of the polypeptide chain of 64-amino-acid residues of hirudin HM2 by protease from Staphylococcus aureus V8, trypsin, thermolysin and subtilisin occurs at region 41-49 of the chain. The N-terminal fragments 1-41 and 1-47 were isolated to homogeneity and shown to maintain inhibitory action on thrombin, though much lower than the intact protein. The results were interpreted on the basis of a proposed three-dimensional structure of hirudin HM2 deduced by protein modelling the known structure of hirudin variant HV1 from Hirudo medicinalis (75% sequence similarity between HM2 and HV1). Both proteolysis experiments and protein modelling provide evidence for the existence in hirudin HM2 of a N-terminal well-structured domain (core) and a C-terminal flexible polypeptide segment. Determination of the accessible surface area of the three-dimensional model of hirudin HM2 showed that the sites of preferential cleavages are at the surface of the polypeptide molecule.

Authors : Vindigni A, De Filippis V, Zanotti G, Visco C, Orsini G, Fontana A,



(5) Transient hydrogen bonds identified on the surface of the NMR solution structure of Hirudin.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :8049231
Publication Date : //
Recombinant desulfatohirudin retains largely the thrombin-inhibitory activity of natural hirudin from Hirudo medicinalis and causes at most minimal immune response in humans. With regard to potential pharmaceutical applications it is of interest to further investigate the structural basis of hirudin functions. In this paper transient hydrogen bonds between backbone amide protons and side-chain carboxylates on the protein surface of desulfatohirudin (variant 1) have been identified using two-dimensional 1H NMR experiments and site-directed mutagenesis. The analysis of pH titration curves measured with NMR enabled the determination of the pK values of all 13 carboxylates, and downfield shifts larger than 0.2 ppm arising from weak bonding interactions with carboxylates were observed for the amide protons of Gly 25, Ser 32, Glu 35, and Cys 39. For these backbone amide protons virtually identical titration parameters were observed in intact desulfatohirudin and the mutant, truncated hirudin(1-51), demonstrating that the hydrogen bond acceptors are located in the N-terminal polypeptide segment 1-51. The hydrogen bonds Gly 25 NH-Glu 43 delta COO-, Ser 32 NH-Glu 35 delta COO-, Glu 35 NH-Asp 33 gamma COO-, Glu 35 NH-Glu 35 delta COO-, and Cys 39 NH-Glu 17 delta COO- were identified by considering spatial proximity in the NMR solution structure of hirudin(1-51), and comparing the pK values for the amide protons and the carboxylates in desulfatohirudin and the mutants hirudin(E43Q), hirudin(E35Q), hirudin(D33N) and hirudin(E17A).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Authors : Szyperski T, Antuch W, Schick M, Betz A, Stone S R, Wüthrich K,



(6) Anti-hirudin monoclonal antibodies directed toward discontinuous epitopes of the hirudin amino-terminal and epitopes involving the carboxy-terminal hirudin amino acids.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :7504411
Publication Date : //
A panel of eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was obtained against recombinant hirudin variant 2 (rHV2). Specificities of the eight MAbs indicate that four of them recognize C-terminal amino acid residues (Group A) and four are directed against discontinuous epitopes and recognize a determinant (or determinants) within the 43 N-terminal residues (Group B). Using these antibodies recombinant hirudins missing one or more C-terminal amino acids can be distinguished from molecules with an intact C-terminus either in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or by immunoaffinity chromatography. A sandwich EIA using the combination of two antibodies, one from each group, can quantitate both recombinant hirudin variant 1 (rHV1) and rHV2 with a detection range from 1 to 10 ng/ml in either buffer or plasma. Using only one MAb a competitive antibody capture EIA can quantitate recombinant or natural hirudin variants 1, 2, and 3 with a detection range from 5 to 100 ng/ml for rHV2 with a lysine in position 47 (rHV2K47). None of the antibodies recognizes hirudin after it is complexed to alpha-thrombin. The ability of any one of these anti-rHV2 antibodies to interfere with hirudin binding to alpha-thrombin as measured by inhibition of thrombin's amidolytic activity correlates with the range of MAb affinity constants (KD = 3.5 x 10(-9) to 1 x 10(-6) M). Incubating hirudin with one antibody from Group A (KD = 3.5 x 10(-8) M) and one from Group B (KD = 6.0 x 10(-9) M) completely blocks the ability of hirudin to bind alpha-thrombin. This MAb panel is thus useful for probing the recombinant C-terminal integrity of hirudin, for sensitive free hirudin quantitations, and the combined use of two MAbs has potential applications as an antidote for hirudin in vivo.

Authors : Koch C, Whitechurch O, Cordier P, Roitsch C,



(7) Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of hirudin(1-51) and comparison with corresponding three-dimensional structures determined using the complete 65-residue hirudin polypeptide chain.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :1335515
Publication Date : //
The three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal 51-residue domain of recombinant hirudin in aqueous solution was determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and the resulting high-quality solution structure was compared with corresponding structures obtained from studies with the intact, 65-residue polypeptide chain of hirudin. On the basis of 580 distance constraints derived from nuclear Overhauser effects and 109 dihedral angle constraints, a group of 20 conformers representing the solution structure of hirudin(1-51) was computed with the program DIANA and energy-minimized with a modified version of the program AMBER. Residues 3 to 30 and 37 to 48 form a well-defined molecular core with two antiparallel beta-sheets composed of residues 14 to 16 and 20 to 22, and 27 to 31 and 36 to 40, and three reverse turns at residues 8 to 11 (type II), 17 to 20 (type II') and 23 to 26 (type II). The average root-mean-square deviation of the individual NMR conformers relative to their mean co-ordinates is 0.38 A for the backbone atoms and 0.77 A for all heavy atoms of these residues. Increased structural disorder was found for the N-terminal dipeptide segment, the loop at residues 31 to 36, and the C-terminal tripeptide segment. The solution structure of hirudin(1-51) has the same molecular architecture as the corresponding polypeptide segment in natural hirudin and recombinant desulfatohirudin. It is also closely similar to the crystal structure of the N-terminal 51-residue segment of hirudin in a hirudin-thrombin complex, with root-mean-square deviations of the crystal structure relative to the mean solution structure of 0.61 A for the backbone atoms and 0.91 A for all heavy atoms of residues 3 to 30 and 37 to 48. Further coincidence is found for the loop formed by residues 31 to 36, which shows increased structural disorder in all available solution structures of hirudin, and of which residues 32 to 35 are not observable in the electron density map of the thrombin complex. Significant local structural differences between hirudin(1-51) in solution and hirudin in the crystalline thrombin complex were identified mainly for the N-terminal tripeptide segment and residues 17 to 21. These are further analyzed in an accompanying paper.

Authors : Szyperski T, Güntert P, Stone S R, Wüthrich K,