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Herpes Type 1 (HSV1), Clone FHV5, Mab anti_Cat; frozen_paraffin, IH_ELISA

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[#YSRTMCA2195] Herpes Type 1 (HSV1), Clone FHV5, Mab anti_Cat; frozen_paraffin, IH_ELISA

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YSRTMCA2195 | Herpes Type 1 (HSV1), Clone FHV5, Mab anti_Cat; frozen_paraffin, IH_ELISA, 0.25 mg.
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(1) HSV1/2 Genital Infection in Mice Cause Reversible Delayed Gastrointestinal Transit: A Model for Enteric Myopathy.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30065927
Publication Date : //
In an interesting investigation by Khoury-Hanold et al. (1), genital infection of mice with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) were reported to cause multiple pelvic organ involvement and obstruction. A small subset of mice succumbed after the first week of HSV1 infection. The authors inferred that the mice died due to toxic megacolon. In a severe form of mechanical and/or functional obstruction involving gross dilation of the colon and profound toxemia, the presentation is called "toxic megacolon." The representative observations by Khoury-Hanold likely do not resemble toxic megacolon. The colon was only slightly dilated and benign appearing. Importantly, HSV1 infection affected the postjunctional mechanisms of smooth muscle relaxation like the sildenafil-response proteins, which may have been responsible for defective nitrergic neurotransmission and the delayed transit. Orally administered polyethylene glycol reversed the gastrointestinal "obstruction," suggesting a mild functional type of slowed luminal transit, resembling constipation, rather than toxic megacolon, which cannot be reversed by an osmotic laxative without perforating the gut. The authors suggest that the mice did not develop HSV1 encephalitis, the commonly known cause of mortality. The premature death of some of the mice could be related to the bladder outlet obstruction, whose backflow effects may alter renal function, electrolyte abnormalities and death. Muscle strip recordings of mechanical relaxation after electrical field stimulation of gastrointestinal, urinary bladder or cavernosal tissues shall help obtain objective quantitative evidence of whether HSV infection indeed cause pelvic multi-organ dysfunction and impairment of autonomic neurotransmission and postjunctional electromechanical relaxation mechanisms of these organs.

Authors : Chaudhury Arun, Dendi Vijaya Sena Reddy, Chaudhury Mousumi, Jain Astha, Kasarla Madhukar Reddy, Panuganti Kiran, Jain Gaurav, Ramanujam Abhijit, Rena Bhavin, Koyagura Sudheer Reddy, Fogla Sumit, Kumar Sunil, Shekhawat Nawal Singh, Maddur Srinivas,



(2) Multiple post-transcriptional strategies to regulate the herpes simplex virus type 1 vhs endoribonuclease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29925667
Publication Date : //
The HSV1 virion host shutoff (vhs) protein is an endoribonuclease that binds to the cellular translation initiation machinery and degrades associated mRNAs, resulting in shut-off of host protein synthesis. Hence its unrestrained activity is considered to be lethal, and it has been proposed that vhs is regulated by two other virus proteins, VP22 and VP16. We have found that during infection, translation of vhs requires VP22 but not the VP22-VP16 complex. Moreover, in the absence of VP22, vhs is not overactive against cellular or viral transcripts. In transfected cells, vhs was also poorly translated, correlating with aberrant localization of its mRNA. Counterintuitively, vhs mRNA was predominantly nuclear in cells where vhs protein was detected. Likewise, transcripts from co-transfected plasmids were also retained in the same nuclei where vhs mRNA was located, while polyA binding protein (PABP) was relocalised to the nucleus in a vhs-dependent manner, implying a general block to mRNA export. Co-expression of VP16 and VP22 rescued cytoplasmic localization of vhs mRNA but failed to rescue vhs translation. We identified a 230-nucleotide sequence in the 5' region of vhs that blocked its translation and, when transferred to a heterologous GFP transcript, reduced translation without altering mRNA levels or localization. We propose that expression of vhs is tightly regulated by a combination of inherent untranslatability and auto-induced nuclear retention of its mRNA that results in a negative feedback loop, with nuclear retention but not translation of vhs mRNA being the target of rescue by the vhs-VP16-VP22 complex. A myriad of gene expression strategies has been discovered through studies carried out on viruses. This report concerns the regulation of the HSV1 vhs endoribonuclease, a virus factor that is important for counteracting host antiviral responses by degrading their mRNAs, but which must be regulated during infection to ensure that it does not act against and inhibit the virus itself. We show that regulation of vhs involves multifaceted post-transcriptional cellular and viral processes, including aberrant mRNA localization and a novel, autoregulated negative feedback loop to target its own and co-expressed mRNAs for nuclear retention, an activity that is relieved by co-expression of two other virus proteins, VP22 and VP16. These studies reveal the interplay of strategies by which multiple virus-encoded factors co-ordinate gene expression at the time they are needed. These findings are broadly relevant to both virus and cellular gene expression.

Authors : Elliott Gillian, Pheasant Kathleen, Ebert-Keel Katja, Stylianou Julianna, Franklyn Ashley, Jones Juliet,



(3) Immunization by Replication-Competent Controlled Herpesvirus Vectors.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29899091
Publication Date : //
Replication-competent controlled virus vectors were derived from the virulent herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) wild-type strain 17 by placing one or two replication-essential genes under the stringent control of a gene switch that is coactivated by heat and an antiprogestin. Upon activation of the gene switch, the vectors replicate in infected cells with an efficacy that approaches that of the wild-type virus from which they were derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activation. When administered to mice, localized application of a transient heat treatment in the presence of systemic antiprogestin results in efficient but limited virus replication at the site of administration. The immunogenicity of these viral vectors was tested in a mouse footpad lethal challenge model. Unactivated viral vectors-which may be regarded as equivalents of inactivated vaccines-induced detectable protection against lethality caused by wild-type virus challenge. Single activation of the viral vectors at the site of administration (rear footpads) greatly enhanced protective immune responses, and a second immunization resulted in complete protection. Once activated, vectors also induced far better neutralizing antibody and HSV-1-specific cellular immune responses than unactivated vectors. To find out whether the immunogenicity of a heterologous antigen was also enhanced in the context of efficient transient vector replication, a virus vector constitutively expressing an equine influenza virus hemagglutinin was constructed. Immunization of mice with this recombinant induced detectable antibody-mediated neutralization of equine influenza virus, as well as a hemagglutinin-specific cellular immune response. Single activation of viral replication resulted in a severalfold enhancement of these immune responses. We hypothesized that vigorous replication of a pathogen may be critical for eliciting the most potent and balanced immune response against it. Hence, attenuation/inactivation (as in conventional vaccines) should be avoided. Instead, the necessary safety should be provided by placing replication of the pathogen under stringent control and by activating time-limited replication of the pathogen strictly in an administration region in which pathology cannot develop. Immunization will then occur in the context of highly efficient pathogen replication and uncompromised safety. We found that localized activation in mice of efficient but limited replication of a replication-competent controlled herpesvirus vector resulted in a greatly enhanced immune response to the virus or an expressed heterologous antigen. This finding supports the above-mentioned hypothesis and suggests that the vectors may be promising novel agents worth exploring for the prevention/mitigation of infectious diseases for which efficient vaccination is lacking, in particular in immunocompromised patients.

Authors : Bloom David C, Tran Robert K, Feller Joyce, Voellmy Richard,



(4) Human Asymptomatic Epitope Peptide/CXCL10-Based Prime/Pull Vaccine Induces Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific Gamma Interferon-Positive CD107 CD8 T Cells That Infiltrate the Corneas and Trigeminal Ganglia of Humanized HLA Transgenic Rabbits and Protect against Ocular Herpes Challenge.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29899087
Publication Date : //
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects the cornea, causing potentially blinding herpetic disease. A clinical herpes vaccine is still lacking. In the present study, a novel prime/pull vaccine was tested in a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic rabbit model of ocular herpes (HLA Tg rabbits). Three peptide epitopes were selected, from the HSV-1 membrane glycoprotein C (UL44), the DNA replication binding helicase (UL9), and the tegument protein (UL25), all preferentially recognized by CD8 T cells from "naturally protected" HSV-1-seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who never had recurrent corneal herpetic disease). HLA Tg rabbits were immunized with a mixture of these three ASYMP CD8 T cell peptide epitopes (UL44, UL9, and UL25), which were delivered subcutaneously with CpG adjuvant (prime). Fifteen days later, half of the rabbits received a topical ocular treatment with a recombinant neurotropic adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8) vector expressing the T cell-attracting CXCL10 chemokine (pull). The frequency and function of HSV-specific CD8 T cells induced by the prime/pull vaccine were assessed in the peripheral blood, cornea, and trigeminal ganglion (TG). Compared to the cells generated in response to peptide immunization alone, the peptide/CXCL10 prime/pull vaccine generated frequent polyfunctional gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ) CD107 CD8 T cells that infiltrated both the cornea and TG. CD8 T cell mobilization into the cornea and TG of prime/pull-vaccinated rabbits was associated with a significant reduction in corneal herpesvirus infection and disease following an ocular HSV-1 (strain McKrae) challenge. These findings draw attention to the novel prime/pull vaccine strategy for mobilizing antiviral CD8 T cells into tissues to protect against herpesvirus infection and disease. There is an urgent need for a vaccine against widespread herpes simplex virus infections. The present study demonstrates that immunization of HLA transgenic rabbits with a peptide/CXCL10 prime/pull vaccine triggered mobilization of HSV-specific CD8 T cells locally into the cornea and TG, the sites of acute and latent herpesvirus infections, respectively. Mobilization of antiviral CD8 T cells into the cornea and TG of rabbits that received the prime/pull vaccine was associated with protection against ocular herpesvirus infection and disease following an ocular HSV-1 challenge. These results highlight the importance of the prime/pull vaccine strategy to bolster the number and function of protective CD8 T cells within infected tissues.

Authors : Khan Arif A, Srivastava Ruchi, Vahed Hawa, Roy Soumyabrata, Walia Sager S, Kim Grace J, Fouladi Mona A, Yamada Taikun, Ly Vincent T, Lam Cynthia, Lou Anthony, Nguyen Vivianna, Boldbaatar Undariya, Geertsema Roger, Fraser Nigel W, BenMohamed Lbachir,



(5) Herpes Viruses and Senile Dementia: First Population Evidence for a Causal Link.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29889070
Publication Date : //
Three articles have very recently appeared that are of especial relevance to the causes of dementia and its potential treatment. The first two (Tsai et al., published in PLoS One in November 2017; Chen et al., published in the January/February 2018 issue of Journal of Clinical Psychiatry) demonstrate an increased risk of subsequent senile dementia (SD) development in patients with acute varicella zoster (herpes zoster) infection. These articles present data highly relevant to the third, and most important, paper-by Tzeng et al., published online in the journal Neurotherapeutics at the end of February 2018. These authors report that infection with a different herpes virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), leads to a similarly increased risk of later developing SD. Further, when the authors looked at patients treated aggressively with antiherpetic medications at the time, the relative risk of SD was reduced by a factor of 10. It should be stressed that no investigations were made on subjects already suffering from SD, and that those treated were the few rare cases severely affected by HSV. Nonetheless, antiherpetic medication prevented later SD development in 90% of their study group. These articles provide the first population evidence for a causal link between herpes virus infection and senile dementia.

Authors : Itzhaki Ruth F, Lathe Richard,



(6) Defining the Role of Stress Granules in Innate Immune Suppression by the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Endoribonuclease VHS.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29793959
Publication Date : //
In response to virus-induced shutoff host protein synthesis, dynamic aggregates containing mRNA, RNA-binding proteins and translation factors termed stress granules (SGs) often accumulate within the cytoplasm. SGs typically form following phosphorylation and inactivation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a substrate of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated kinase protein kinase R (PKR). The detection of innate immune sensors and effectors like PKR at SGs suggests a role in pathogen nucleic acid sensing. However, the functional importance of SGs in host innate responses is unclear and has primarily been examined in response to infection with select RNA viruses. During infection with the DNA virus herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), the virus-encoded virion host shutoff (VHS) endoribonuclease is required to restrict interferon production, PKR activation, and SG formation, although the relationship between these activities remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that in cells infected with a VHS-deficient HSV-1 (ΔVHS) dsRNA accumulated and localized to SGs. Surprisingly, formation of dsRNA and its concentration at SGs was not required for beta interferon mRNA induction, indicating that suppression of type I interferon induction by VHS does not stem from its control of dsRNA accumulation. Instead, STING signaling downstream of cGMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-dependent DNA sensing is required for beta interferon induction. In contrast, significantly less PKR activation is observed when SG assembly is disrupted by ISRIB, an inhibitor of phosphorylated eIF2α-mediated translation repression, or depleting SG scaffolding proteins G3BP1 or TIA1. This demonstrates that PKR activation is intimately linked to SG formation and that SGs form important hubs to potentiate PKR activation during infection. Formation of cytoplasmic stress granules that are enriched for innate immune sensors and effectors is suppressed during many viral infections. It is unclear, however, to what extent this is a side effect of viral efforts to maintain protein synthesis or intentional disruption of a hub for innate immune sensing. In this study, we utilize a herpes simplex virus 1 mutant lacking the RNA nuclease VHS which upon infection induces SGs, PKR activation, and beta interferon to address this question. We show that dsRNA is localized to SGs and that SGs can function to promote PKR activation in the context of a DNA virus infection, but we find no evidence to support their importance for interferon induction during HSV-1 infection.

Authors : Burgess Hannah M, Mohr Ian,



(7) Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Tegument Protein VP22 Abrogates cGAS/STING-Mediated Antiviral Innate Immunity.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29793952
Publication Date : //
Cytosolic DNA arising from intracellular pathogens is sensed by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and triggers a powerful innate immune response. However, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a double-stranded DNA virus, has developed multiple mechanisms to attenuate host antiviral machinery and facilitate viral infection and replication. In the present study, we found that HSV-1 tegument protein VP22 acts as an inhibitor of cGAS/stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS/STING)-mediated production of interferon (IFN) and its downstream antiviral genes. Our results showed that ectopic expression of VP22 decreased cGAS/STING-mediated IFN-β promoter activation and IFN-β production. Infection with wild-type (WT) HSV-1, but not VP22-deficient virus (ΔVP22), inhibited immunostimulatory DNA (ISD)-induced activation of the IFN signaling pathway. Further study showed that VP22 interacted with cGAS and inhibited the enzymatic activity of cGAS. In addition, stable knockdown of cGAS facilitated the replication of ΔVP22 virus but not the WT. In summary, our findings indicate that HSV-1 VP22 acts as an antagonist of IFN signaling to persistently evade host innate antiviral responses. cGAS is very important for host defense against viral infection, and many viruses have evolved ways to target cGAS and successfully evade the attack by the immune system of their susceptible host. This study demonstrated that HSV-1 tegument protein VP22 counteracts the cGAS/STING-mediated DNA-sensing antiviral innate immunity signaling pathway by inhibiting the enzymatic activity of cGAS. The findings in this study will expand our understanding of the interaction between HSV-1 replication and the host DNA-sensing signaling pathway.

Authors : Huang Jian, You Hongjuan, Su Chenhe, Li Yangxin, Chen Shunhua, Zheng Chunfu,



(8) Vaccine-induced antibodies to herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread correlate with protection against genital disease in guinea pigs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29791513
Publication Date : //
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) subunit antigen is included in many preclinical candidate vaccines. The rationale for including gD2 is to produce antibodies that block crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. HSV-2 gD2 was the only antigen in the Herpevac Trial for Women that protected against HSV-1 genital infection but not HSV-2. In that trial, a correlation was detected between gD2 ELISA titers and protection against HSV-1, supporting the importance of antibodies. A possible explanation for the lack of protection against HSV-2 was that HSV-2 neutralization titers were low, four-fold lower than to HSV-1. Here, we evaluated neutralization titers and epitope-specific antibody responses to crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread as correlates of immune protection against genital lesions in immunized guinea pigs. We detected a strong correlation between neutralizing antibodies and protection against genital disease. We used a high throughput biosensor competition assay to measure epitope-specific responses to seven crucial gD2 linear and conformational epitopes involved in virus entry and spread. Some animals produced antibodies to most crucial epitopes while others produced antibodies to few. The number of epitopes recognized by guinea pig immune serum correlated with protection against genital lesions. We confirmed the importance of antibodies to each crucial epitope using monoclonal antibody passive transfer that improved survival and reduced genital disease in mice after HSV-2 genital challenge. We re-evaluated our prior study of epitope-specific antibody responses in women in the Herpevac Trial. Humans produced antibodies that blocked significantly fewer crucial gD2 epitopes than guinea pigs, and antibody responses in humans to some linear epitopes were virtually absent. Neutralizing antibody titers and epitope-specific antibody responses are important immune parameters to evaluate in future Phase I/II prophylactic human vaccine trials that contain gD2 antigen.

Authors : Hook Lauren M, Cairns Tina M, Awasthi Sita, Brooks Benjamin D, Ditto Noah T, Eisenberg Roselyn J, Cohen Gary H, Friedman Harvey M,



(9) Human viral pathogens are pervasive in wastewater treatment center aerosols.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29778173
Publication Date : //
Wastewater treatment center (WTC) workers may be vulnerable to diseases caused by viruses, such as the common cold, influenza and gastro-intestinal infections. Although there is a substantial body of literature characterizing the microbial community found in wastewater, only a few studies have characterized the viral component of WTC aerosols, despite the fact that most diseases affecting WTC workers are of viral origin and that some of these viruses are transmitted through the air. In this study, we evaluated in four WTCs the presence of 11 viral pathogens of particular concern in this milieu and used a metagenomic approach to characterize the total viral community in the air of one of those WTCs. The presence of viruses in aerosols in different locations of individual WTCs was evaluated and the results obtained with four commonly used air samplers were compared. We detected four of the eleven viruses tested, including human adenovirus (hAdV), rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV1). The results of the metagenomic assay uncovered very few viral RNA sequences in WTC aerosols, however sequences from human DNA viruses were in much greater relative abundance.

Authors : Brisebois Evelyne, Veillette Marc, Dion-Dupont Vanessa, Lavoie Jacques, Corbeil Jacques, Culley Alexander, Duchaine Caroline,



(10) The HSV-1 mechanisms of cell-to-cell spread and fusion are critically dependent on host PTP1B.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29742155
Publication Date : //
All herpesviruses have mechanisms for passing through cell junctions, which exclude neutralizing antibodies and offer a clear path to neighboring, uninfected cells. In the case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), direct cell-to-cell transmission takes place between epithelial cells and sensory neurons, where latency is established. The spreading mechanism is poorly understood, but mutations in four different HSV-1 genes can dysregulate it, causing neighboring cells to fuse to produce syncytia. Because the host proteins involved are largely unknown (other than the virus entry receptor), we were intrigued by an earlier discovery that cells infected with wild-type HSV-1 will form syncytia when treated with salubrinal. A biotinylated derivative of this drug was used to pull down cellular complexes, which were analyzed by mass spectrometry. One candidate was a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B), and although it ultimately proved not to be the target of salubrinal, it was found to be critical for the mechanism of cell-to-cell spread. In particular, a highly specific inhibitor of PTP1B (CAS 765317-72-4) blocked salubrinal-induced fusion, and by itself resulted in a dramatic reduction in the ability of HSV-1 to spread in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The importance of this phosphatase was confirmed in the absence of drugs by using PTP1B-/- cells. Importantly, replication assays showed that virus titers were unaffected when PTP1B was inhibited or absent. Only cell-to-cell spread was altered. We also examined the effects of salubrinal and the PTP1B inhibitor on the four Syn mutants of HSV-1, and strikingly different responses were found. That is, both drugs individually enhanced fusion for some mutants and reduced fusion for others. PTP1B is the first host factor identified to be specifically required for cell-to-cell spread, and it may be a therapeutic target for preventing HSV-1 reactivation disease.

Authors : Carmichael Jillian C, Yokota Hiroki, Craven Rebecca C, Schmitt Anthony, Wills John W,