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Herpes Type 1 (HSV1), Clone FHV5, Mab anti_Cat; frozen_paraffin, IH_ELISA

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[#YSRTMCA2195] Herpes Type 1 (HSV1), Clone FHV5, Mab anti_Cat; frozen_paraffin, IH_ELISA

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YSRTMCA2195 | Herpes Type 1 (HSV1), Clone FHV5, Mab anti_Cat; frozen_paraffin, IH_ELISA, 0.25 mg.
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(1) Human viral pathogens are pervasive in wastewater treatment center aerosols.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29778173
Publication Date : //
Wastewater treatment center (WTC) workers may be vulnerable to diseases caused by viruses, such as the common cold, influenza and gastro-intestinal infections. Although there is a substantial body of literature characterizing the microbial community found in wastewater, only a few studies have characterized the viral component of WTC aerosols, despite the fact that most diseases affecting WTC workers are of viral origin and that some of these viruses are transmitted through the air. In this study, we evaluated in four WTCs the presence of 11 viral pathogens of particular concern in this milieu and used a metagenomic approach to characterize the total viral community in the air of one of those WTCs. The presence of viruses in aerosols in different locations of individual WTCs was evaluated and the results obtained with four commonly used air samplers were compared. We detected four of the eleven viruses tested, including human adenovirus (hAdV), rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV1). The results of the metagenomic assay uncovered very few viral RNA sequences in WTC aerosols, however sequences from human DNA viruses were in much greater relative abundance.

Authors : Brisebois Evelyne, Veillette Marc, Dion-Dupont Vanessa, Lavoie Jacques, Corbeil Jacques, Culley Alexander, Duchaine Caroline,



(2) Cryo-EM structure of a herpesvirus capsid at 3.1 Å.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29622627
Publication Date : //
Structurally and genetically, human herpesviruses are among the largest and most complex of viruses. Using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with an optimized image reconstruction strategy, we report the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) capsid structure at 3.1 angstroms, which is built up of about 3000 proteins organized into three types of hexons (central, peripentonal, and edge), pentons, and triplexes. Both hexons and pentons contain the major capsid protein, VP5; hexons also contain a small capsid protein, VP26; and triplexes comprise VP23 and VP19C. Acting as core organizers, VP5 proteins form extensive intermolecular networks, involving multiple disulfide bonds (about 1500 in total) and noncovalent interactions, with VP26 proteins and triplexes that underpin capsid stability and assembly. Conformational adaptations of these proteins induced by their microenvironments lead to 46 different conformers that assemble into a massive quasisymmetric shell, exemplifying the structural and functional complexity of HSV.

Authors : Yuan Shuai, Wang Jialing, Zhu Dongjie, Wang Nan, Gao Qiang, Chen Wenyuan, Tang Hao, Wang Junzhi, Zhang Xinzheng, Liu Hongrong, Rao Zihe, Wang Xiangxi,



(3) [The therapeutic effect of HSV1-hGM-CSF combined with doxorubicin on the mouse breast cancer model].[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29575835
Publication Date : //
To evaluate the oncolytic effect of herpes simplex virus type 1 which carried recombined human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (HSV1-hGM-CSF) on the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1 and compare the anticancer effects of HSV1-hGM-CSF, doxorubicin alone or combination on the breast cancer in mice. We investigated the cytotoxic effect on 4T1 cells the cell growth, cell apoptosis and cell cycle of 4T1 cells treated with oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF at different MOIs (0, 0.5, 1 and 2) and doxorubicin at different concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml). The effects of oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF and doxorubicin on the tumor growth, survival time and their side effects on the mouse breast cancer model were observed. Both oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF and doxorubicin significantly inhibited the proliferation of 4T1 cells . Doxorubicin induced the G(2)/M phase arrest of 4T1 cells, while the cytotoxicity of oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF was no cell cycle-dependent.At day 16 after treatment with doxorubicin and HSV1-hGM-CSF, the tumor volume of 4T1 tumor bearing mice were (144.40±27.68)mm(3,) (216.80±57.18)mm(3,) (246.10±21.90)mm(3,) (327.50±44.24)mm(3,) (213.30±32.31)mm(3) and (495.80±75.87)mm(3) in the groups of doxorubicin combined with high dose HSV1-hGM-CSF, doxorubicin combined with low dose HSV1-hGM-CSF, doxorubicin alone, high dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone, low dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone and control, respectively.Compared with the control group, both doxorubicin and HSV1-hGM-CSF treatment exhibited significant reduction of primary tumor volume in vivo (<0.001). The median survival times were 48, 50, 40, 42, 43 and 37 days in the six groups mentioned above, respectively. The median survival period of doxorubicin alone, high dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone and low dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone were significantly longer than that of control (<0.05). Synergistic effect of sequential treatment with doxorubicin and oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF is observed in 4T1 mouse breast cancer.

Authors : Zhuang X F, Zhang S R, Liu B L, Wu J L, Li X Q, Gu H G, Shu Y,



(4) HLA typing using genome wide data reveals susceptibility types for infections in a psychiatric disease enriched sample.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29574260
Publication Date : //
The infections Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), cytomegalovirus, and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV1) are common persistent infections that have been associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC, termed HLA in humans) region has been implicated in these infections and these mental illnesses. The interplay of MHC genetics, mental illness, and infection has not been systematically examined in previous research.

Authors : Parks Samuel, Avramopoulos Dimitrios, Mulle Jennifer, McGrath John, Wang Ruihua, Goes Fernando S, Conneely Karen, Ruczinski Ingo, Yolken Robert, Pulver Ann E, Pearce Brad D,



(5) An M2 Rather than a T2 Response Contributes to Better Protection against Latency Reactivation following Ocular Infection of Naive Mice with a Recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Expressing Murine Interleukin-4.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29491152
Publication Date : //
We found previously that altering macrophage polarization toward M2 responses by injection of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) was more effective in reducing both primary and latent infections in mice ocularly infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) than M1 polarization by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) injection. Cytokines can coordinately regulate macrophage and T helper (T) responses, with interleukin-4 (IL-4) inducing type 2 T (T2) as well as M2 responses and IFN-γ inducing T1 as well as M1 responses. We have now differentiated the contributions of these immune compartments to protection against latency reactivation and corneal scarring by comparing the effects of infection with recombinant HSV-1 in which the latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene was replaced with either the (HSV-IL-4) or (HSV-IFN-γ) gene using infection with the parental (LAT-negative) virus as a control. Analysis of peritoneal macrophages established that the replacement of with the or gene did not affect virus infectivity and promoted polarization appropriately. Protection against corneal scarring was significantly higher in mice ocularly infected with HSV-IL-4 than in those infected with HSV-IFN-γ or parental virus. Levels of primary virus replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) were similar in the three groups of mice, but the numbers of gC cells were lower on day 5 postinfection in the eyes of HSV-IL-4-infected mice than in those infected with HSV-IFN-γ or parental virus. Latency and explant reactivation were lower in both HSV-IL-4- and HSV-IFN-γ-infected mice than in those infected with parental virus, with the lowest level of latency being associated with HSV-IL-4 infection. Higher latency correlated with higher levels of CD8, PD-1, and IFN-γ mRNA, while reduced latency and T-cell exhaustion correlated with lower gC expression in the TG. Depletion of macrophages increased the levels of latency in all ocularly infected mice compared with their undepleted counterparts, with macrophage depletion increasing latency in the HSV-IL-4 group greater than 3,000-fold. Our results suggest that shifting the innate macrophage immune responses toward M2, rather than M1, responses in HSV-1 infection would improve protection against establishment of latency, reactivation, and eye disease. Ocular HSV-1 infections are among the most frequent serious viral eye infections in the United States and a major cause of virus-induced blindness. As establishment of a latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia results in recurrent infection and is associated with corneal scarring, prevention of latency reactivation is a major therapeutic goal. It is well established that absence of latency-associated transcripts (LATs) reduces latency reactivation. Here we demonstrate that recombinant HSV-1 expressing IL-4 (an inducer of T2/M2 responses) or IFN-γ (an inducer of T1/M1 responses) in place of LAT further reduced latency, with HSV-IL-4 showing the highest overall protective efficacy. In naive mice, this higher protective efficacy was mediated by innate rather than adaptive immune responses. Although both M1 and M2 macrophage responses were protective, shifting macrophages toward an M2 response through expression of IL-4 was more effective in curtailing ocular HSV-1 latency reactivation.

Authors : Lee Dhong Hyun, Ghiasi Homayon,



(6) Molecular Basis for the Recognition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection by Human Natural Killer Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29483911
Publication Date : //
Primary infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is subclinical or only mildly symptomatic in normal individuals, yet the reason for the body's effective immune defense against this pathogen in the absence of antigen-specific immunity has not been well understood. It is clear that human natural killer (NK) cells recognize and kill HSV1-infected cells, and those individuals who either lack or have functionally impaired NK cells can suffer severe, recurrent, and sometimes fatal HSV1 infection. In this article, we review what is known about the recognition of HSV1 by NK cells, and describe a novel mechanism of innate immune surveillance against certain viral pathogens by NK cells called Fc-bridged cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

Authors : Dai Hong-Sheng, Caligiuri Michael A,



(7) Inborn Errors of RNA Lariat Metabolism in Humans with Brainstem Viral Infection.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29474921
Publication Date : //
Viruses that are typically benign sometimes invade the brainstem in otherwise healthy children. We report bi-allelic DBR1 mutations in unrelated patients from different ethnicities, each of whom had brainstem infection due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), influenza virus, or norovirus. DBR1 encodes the only known RNA lariat debranching enzyme. We show that DBR1 expression is ubiquitous, but strongest in the spinal cord and brainstem. We also show that all DBR1 mutant alleles are severely hypomorphic, in terms of expression and function. The fibroblasts of DBR1-mutated patients contain higher RNA lariat levels than control cells, this difference becoming even more marked during HSV1 infection. Finally, we show that the patients' fibroblasts are highly susceptible to HSV1. RNA lariat accumulation and viral susceptibility are rescued by wild-type DBR1. Autosomal recessive, partial DBR1 deficiency underlies viral infection of the brainstem in humans through the disruption of tissue-specific and cell-intrinsic immunity to viruses.

Authors : Zhang Shen-Ying, Clark Nathaniel E, Freije Catherine A, Pauwels Elodie, Taggart Allison J, Okada Satoshi, Mandel Hanna, Garcia Paula, Ciancanelli Michael J, Biran Anat, Lafaille Fabien G, Tsumura Miyuki, Cobat Aurélie, Luo Jingchuan, Volpi Stefano, Zimmer Bastian, Sakata Sonoko, Dinis Alexandra, Ohara Osamu, Garcia Reino Eduardo J, Dobbs Kerry, Hasek Mary, Holloway Stephen P, McCammon Karen, Hussong Stacy A, DeRosa Nicholas, Van Skike Candice E, Katolik Adam, Lorenzo Lazaro, Hyodo Maki, Faria Emilia, Halwani Rabih, Fukuhara Rie, Smith Gregory A, Galvan Veronica, Damha Masad J, Al-Muhsen Saleh, Itan Yuval, Boeke Jef D, Notarangelo Luigi D, Studer Lorenz, Kobayashi Masao, Diogo Luisa, Fairbrother William G, Abel Laurent, Rosenberg Brad R, Hart P John, Etzioni Amos, Casanova Jean-Laurent,



(8) Necrotizing retinitis of multifactorial etiology.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29450371
Publication Date : //
We present the case of a 73-year-old woman with osteoporosis, who presented to the emergency room with a sudden vision loss and ocular pain in the right eye, which appeared two days before. The patient mentioned loss of appetite, weight loss for three months and low fever for two weeks. Among the ophthalmological findings, the most important were panuveitis, and large confluent necrotic areas in the peripheral retina. The patient was diagnosed with RE Panuveitis and acute necrotizing retinitis. Blood exams showed leukocytosis and monocytosis, thrombocytosis and anemia. Further investigations showed high levels of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) anti IgG and Herpes Simplex (HS) type 1 virus anti IgM, urinary infection, and secondary hepatic cytolysis. The CT and MRI of the thorax and abdomen showed no sign of neoplastic disease, and no explanation for the CMV infection was found. The patient received general corticotherapy and antiviral therapy, and, after one month, RE BCVA was 20/ 30. Acute necrotizing retinitis in an old patient with CMV and HSV type 1, associated with secondary hepatic cytolysis, without any other immunosuppressive disease and very good outcome.

Authors : Pirvulescu Ruxandra Angela, Popa Cherecheanu Alina, Romanitan Mihaela Oana, Obretin Dana, Iancu Raluca, Vasile Danut,



(9) Laser Adjuvant-Assisted Peptide Vaccine Promotes Skin Mobilization of Dendritic Cells and Enhances Protective CD8 T and T Cell Responses against Herpesvirus Infection and Disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29437976
Publication Date : //
There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines against widespread viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), that infect a large proportion of the world human population. In the present study, we investigated the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a laser adjuvant-assisted peptide (LAP) vaccine in the B6 mouse model of genital herpes. This LAP vaccine and its laser-free peptide (LFP) vaccine analog contain the immunodominant HSV-2 glycoprotein B CD8 T cell epitope (HSV-gB) covalently linked with the promiscuous glycoprotein D CD4 T helper cell epitope (HSV-gD). Prior to intradermal delivery of the LAP vaccine, the lower-flank shaved skin of B6 or CD11c/eYFP transgenic mice received a topical skin treatment with 5% imiquimod cream and then was exposed for 60 s to a laser, using the FDA-approved nonablative diode. Compared to the LFP vaccine, the LAP vaccine (i) triggered mobilization of dendritic cells (DCs) in the skin, which formed small spots along the laser-treated areas, (ii) induced phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, (iii) stimulated long-lasting HSV-specific effector memory CD8 T cells (T cells) and tissue-resident CD8 T cells (T cells) locally in the vaginal mucocutaneous tissues (VM), and (iv) induced protective immunity against genital herpes infection and disease. As an alternative to currently used conventional adjuvants, the chemical- and biological-free laser adjuvant offers a well-tolerated, simple-to-produce method to enhance mass vaccination for widespread viral infections. Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect a large proportion of the world population. There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants that would advance mass vaccination against the widespread herpes infections. The present study demonstrates that immunization with a laser-assisted herpes peptide vaccine triggered skin mobilization of dendritic cells (DCs) that stimulated strong and long-lasting HSV-specific effector memory CD8 T cells (T cells) and tissue-resident CD8 T cells (T cells) locally in the vaginal mucocutaneous tissues. The induced local CD8 T cell response was associated with protection against genital herpes infection and disease. These results draw attention to chemical- and biological-free laser adjuvants as alternatives to currently used conventional adjuvants to enhance mass vaccination for widespread viral infections, such as those caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2.

Authors : Lopes Patricia P, Todorov George, Pham Thanh T, Nesburn Anthony B, Bahraoui Elmostafa, BenMohamed Lbachir,



(10) CTCF Binding Sites in the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Genome Display Site-Specific CTCF Occupation, Protein Recruitment, and Insulator Function.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29437965
Publication Date : //
There are seven conserved CTCF binding domains in the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genome. These binding sites individually flank the latency-associated transcript (LAT) and the immediate early (IE) gene regions, suggesting that CTCF insulators differentially control transcriptional domains in HSV-1 latency. In this work, we show that two CTCF binding motifs in HSV-1 display enhancer blocking in a cell-type-specific manner. We found that CTCF binding to the latent HSV-1 genome was LAT dependent and that the quantity of bound CTCF was site specific. Following reactivation, CTCF eviction was dynamic, suggesting that each CTCF site was independently regulated. We explored whether CTCF sites recruit the polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to establish repressive domains through a CTCF-Suz12 interaction and found that Suz12 colocalized to the CTCF insulators flanking the ICP0 and ICP4 regions and, conversely, was removed at early times postreactivation. Collectively, these data support the idea that CTCF sites in HSV-1 are independently regulated and may contribute to lytic-latent HSV-1 control in a site-specific manner. The role of chromatin insulators in DNA viruses is an area of interest. It has been shown in several beta- and gammaherpesviruses that insulators likely control the lytic transcriptional profile through protein recruitment and through the formation of three-dimensional (3D) chromatin loops. The ability of insulators to regulate alphaherpesviruses has been understudied to date. The alphaherpesvirus HSV-1 has seven conserved insulator binding motifs that flank regions of the genome known to contribute to the establishment of latency. Our work presented here contributes to the understanding of how insulators control transcription of HSV-1.

Authors : Washington Shannan D, Musarrat Farhana, Ertel Monica K, Backes Gregory L, Neumann Donna M,