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Insulin (canine) _ ELISA Kit (delivery 3_4 weeks, may be longer)

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[#S-1236.0001] Insulin (canine) _ ELISA Kit (delivery 3_4 weeks, may be longer)


S-1236.0001 | Insulin (canine) _ ELISA Kit (delivery 3_4 weeks, may be longer), 1kit
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(1) 26S proteasome and insulin-like growth factor-1 in serum of dogs suffering from malignant tumors.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29755191
Publication Date : //
Studies in humans have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the insulin-like growth factor axis are involved in carcinogenesis, thus, components of these systems might be useful as prognostic markers and constitute potential therapeutic targets. In veterinary medicine, only a few studies exist on this topic. Here, serum concentrations of 26S proteasome (26SP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by canine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 43 dogs suffering from malignant tumors and 21 clinically normal dogs (control group). Relationships with tumor size, survival time, body condition score (BCS), and tumor entity were assessed. The median 26SP concentration in the tumor group was non-significantly higher than in the control group. However, dogs with mammary carcinomas displayed significantly increased 26SP levels compared to the control group and dogs with tumor size less than 5 cm showed significantly increased 26SP concentrations compared to dogs with larger tumors and control dogs. 26SP concentrations were not correlated to survival time or BCS. No significant difference in IGF-1 levels was found between the tumor group and the control group; however, IGF-1 concentrations displayed a larger range of values in the tumor group. Dogs with tumors greater than 5 cm showed significantly higher IGF-1 levels than dogs with smaller tumors. The IGF-1 concentrations were positively correlated to survival time, but no correlation with BCS was found. Consequently, serum 26SP concentrations seem to be increased in some dogs suffering from malignant tumors, especially in dogs with mammary carcinoma and smaller tumors. Increased serum IGF-1 concentrations could be an indication of large tumors and a poor prognosis.

Authors : Gerke Ingrid, Kaup Franz-Josef, Neumann Stephan,

(2) Evaluation of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and 26S proteasome concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic diseases depending on body condition score.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29751280
Publication Date : //
In patients suffering from chronic diseases, the objective assessment of metabolic states could be of interest for disease prognosis and therapeutic options. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and 26S proteasome (26SP) in healthy dogs and dogs suffering from chronic diseases depending on their body condition score (BCS) and to examine their potential for objective assessment of anabolic and catabolic states. Serum concentrations of IGF-1, an anabolic hormone, and 26SP, a multiprotein complex which is part of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, by which the majority of endogenous proteins including the muscle proteins are degraded, were measured in 21 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with chronic diseases by canine ELISA. The concentrations of IGF-1, 26SP and their ratio (IGF-1/26SP) were set in relationship to the BCS of the dogs. When examining healthy and chronically diseased dogs separately, a positive correlation between IGF-1 and the BCS was observed in the healthy group and a negative correlation between 26SP and the BCS was noted in dogs with chronic diseases. Further, dogs suffering from chronic diseases showed higher 26SP concentrations and lower values for IGF-1/26SP than the healthy dogs. Overall, we detected a negative correlation between 26SP and the BCS and a positive correlation between IGF-1/26SP and the BCS. The results of our study indicate usability of IGF-1 for description of anabolic states, while 26SP could be useful for detection and description of catabolic states. Finally, the ratio IGF-1/26SP seems to be promising for assessment of metabolic states.

Authors : Gerke Ingrid, Kaup Franz-Josef, Neumann Stephan,

(3) An assessment of the central disposition of intranasally administered insulin lispro in the cerebrospinal fluid of healthy volunteers and beagle dogs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27553192
Publication Date : //
Intranasally administered regular insulin and insulin aspart have shown cognitive benefit for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To support development of intranasally administered insulin analogs for AD, the central disposition of intranasal insulin lispro in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy volunteers was investigated. Healthy volunteers (N = 8) received two sequential doses of intranasal insulin lispro (48 or 80 IU followed by 160 IU) by Aero Pump in an open-label, single-period study with serial CSF and serum sampling over 5 hours after each dose. CSF insulin lispro was also measured in beagle dogs (N = 6/dose group) that received either 24 IU/kg (equivalent local nasal (IU/cm) dose to the human 160 IU dose) or 192 IU/kg intranasally, using the same device. Insulin lispro was measured in the CSF and serum using a validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by standard noncompartmental methods. Intranasal administration of insulin lispro was well tolerated. Insulin lispro concentrations in the CSF of humans at all dose levels were below the limit of quantification. Serum insulin lispro concentrations were quantifiable only up to 1-2 hours in the majority of subjects. In contrast to insulin lispro in the CSF of humans, insulin lispro was detectable in the CSF at both dose levels in dogs, and serum concentrations of insulin lispro were generally higher in dogs than in healthy volunteers. The absence of insulin lispro in CSF from healthy volunteers and the lack of robust exposure-response analyses will hinder the development of intranasally administered insulin lispro for AD.

Authors : Lowe Stephen, Sher Emanuele, Wishart Graham, Jackson Kimberley, Yuen Eunice, Brittain Claire, Fong Siew Chinn, Clarke David O, Landschulz William H,

(4) Cytokine and Growth Factor Concentrations in Canine Autologous Conditioned Serum.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27357270
Publication Date : //
To compare cytokine and growth factor concentrations in canine autologous conditioned serum (ACS) to canine plasma.

Authors : Sawyere Dominique M, Lanz Otto I, Dahlgren Linda A, Barry Sabrina L, Nichols Anne C, Werre Stephen R,

(5) Anti-Insulin Immune Responses Are Detectable in Dogs with Spontaneous Diabetes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27031512
Publication Date : //
Diabetes mellitus occurs spontaneously in dogs. Although canine diabetes shares many features with human type-1 diabetes, there are differences that have cast doubt on the immunologic origin of the canine disease. In this study, we examined whether peripheral immune responses directed against islet antigens were present in dogs with diabetes. Routine diagnostics were used to confirm diabetic status, and serum samples from dogs with (N = 15) and without (N = 15) diabetes were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against islet antigens (insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulinoma-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase, and islet beta-cell zinc cation efflux transporter) using standard radioassays. Interferon-γ production from peripheral blood T cells stimulated by porcine insulin and by human insulin was tested using Elispot assays. Anti-insulin antibodies were detectable in a subset of diabetic dogs receiving insulin therapy. Pre-activated T cells and incipient insulin-reactive T cells in response to porcine or human insulin were identified in non-diabetic dogs and in dogs with diabetes. The data show that humoral and cellular anti-insulin immune responses are detectable in dogs with diabetes. This in turn provides support for the potential to ethically use dogs with diabetes to study the therapeutic potential of antigen-specific tolerance.

Authors : Kim Jong-Hyuk, Furrow Eva, Ritt Michelle G, Utz Paul J, Robinson William H, Yu Liping, Eckert Andrea, Stuebner Kathleen, O'Brien Timothy D, Steinman Lawrence, Modiano Jaime F,

(6) Serum concentration and skin tissue expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 in canine generalized demodicosis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26489526
Publication Date : //
There is increasing evidence that insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) levels are altered in skin injury; there are no data evaluating the serum concentration and skin tissue expression of IGF-2 in canine generalized demodicosis.

Authors : Yarim Gul F, Yagci Bugrahan B, Yarim Murat, Sozmen Mahmut, Pekmezci Didem, Cenesiz Sena, Pekmezci Gokmen Z, Karaca Efe,

(7) The effect of acute exercise on GLUT4 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of sled dogs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26339686
Publication Date : //
Using sled dogs as exercise model, our objectives of this study were to 1) assess the effects of one acute bout of high-intensity exercise on surface GLUT4 concentrations on easily accessible peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and 2) compare our findings with published research on exercise induced GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. During the exercise bout, dogs ran 5 miles at approximately 90% of VO max. PMBC were collected before exercise (baseline), immediately after exercise and after 24h recovery.GLUT4 was measured via ELISA. Acute exercise resulted in a significant increase on surface GLUT4 content on PBMC. GLUT4 was increased significantly immediately after exercise (~ 50%; p<0.05) and reduced slightly by 24h post-exercise as compared to baseline (~ 22%; p>0.05). An effect of acute exercise on GLUT4 levels translocated to the cell membrane was observed, with GLUT4 levels not yet returned to baseline after 24h post-exercise. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that acute high-intensity exercise increased GLUT4 content at the surface of PBMC of sled dogs as it has been reported in skeletal muscle in other species. Our findings underline the potential use of peripheral blood mononuclear cell GLUT4 protein content as minimally invasive proxy to investigate relationships between insulin sensitivity, insulin resistance, GLUT4 expression and glucose metabolism.

Authors : Schnurr Theresia M, Reynolds Arleigh J, Komac Alyssa M, Duffy Lawrence K, Dunlap Kriya L,

(8) Breed differences in development of anti-insulin antibodies in diabetic dogs and investigation of the role of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :26272177
Publication Date : //
Administration of insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs can stimulate an immune response, with a proportion of animals developing anti-insulin antibodies (AIA). For an IgG antibody response to occur, this would require B cell presentation of insulin peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, encoded by dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes, in order to receive T-cell help for class switching. DLA genes are highly polymorphic in the dog population and vary from breed to breed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate AIA reactivity in diabetic dogs of different breeds and to investigate whether DLA genes influence AIA status. Indirect ELISA was used to determine serological reactivity to insulin in diabetic dogs, treated with either a porcine or bovine insulin preparation. DLA haplotypes for diabetic dogs were determined by sequence-based typing of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. Significantly greater insulin reactivity was seen in treated diabetic dogs (n=942) compared with non-diabetic dogs (n=100). Relatively few newly diagnosed diabetic dogs (3/109) were found to be AIA positive, although this provides evidence that insulin autoantibodies might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease in some cases. Of the diabetic dogs treated with a bovine insulin preparation, 52.3% (182/348) were AIA positive, compared with 12.6% (75/594) of dogs treated with a porcine insulin preparation, suggesting that bovine insulin is more immunogenic. Breeds such as dachshund, Cairn terrier, miniature schnauzer and Tibetan terrier were more likely to develop AIA, whereas cocker spaniels were less likely to develop AIA, compared with crossbreed dogs. In diabetic dogs, DLA haplotype DRB1*0015--DQA1*006--DQB1*023 was associated with being AIA positive, whereas the haplotype DLA-DRB1*006--DQA1*005--DQB1*007 showed an association with being AIA negative. These research findings suggest that DLA genes influence AIA responses in treated diabetic dogs.

Authors : Holder Angela L, Kennedy Lorna J, Ollier William E R, Catchpole Brian,

(9) Glucose transporter-4 in white blood cells of young and old sled dogs: a model for human biomarker development.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28713178
Publication Date : //
The insulin responsive glucose transporter, GLUT4 is found predominantly in muscle and adipose cells. Maratou and others (2007) reported that there is GLUT4 in white blood cells (WBC) collected from human subjects in response to insulin activation. This study was designed to validate the presence of GLUT4 in white blood cells of sled dogs and furthermore to investigate whether changes in levels of the GLUT4 protein might be associated with aging. Additionally, we examined the blood insulin concentration of two populations of dogs, young and old, before and after a meal to observe their insulin response. It is documented in skeletal muscle that GLUT4 expression is increased as a result of conditioning, making sled dogs an excellent model in the circumpolar north for studying the effects of exercise, nutrition and diabetes (Felsburg 2002; Kararli 2006). Blood was withdrawn from 11 healthy sled dogs: 6 young (1-5 years) and physically fit, conditioned for racing and 5 old (7-13 years), retired from racing. The insulin response was determined using blood plasma and ELISA. The buffy coat (containing WBC) was collected with a glass pipette after centrifugation and washed and suspended in 1x phosphate buffer. GLUT4 was measured using ELISA kits (USCN Life Sciences). The results validate that GLUT4 is present in white blood cells in sled dogs. Age had no significant effect in the concentration of GLUT4 between the populations of old and young dogs. A significant difference in insulin levels pre and post meal in young (0.13 ± 0.03 ng/mL (pre), 0.22 ± 0.04 ng/mL (post), p < 0.05) and old (0.13 ± 0.02 ng/mL (pre), 0.22 ± 0.03 ng/mL (post), p < 0.05) dogs was observed, displaying the typical postprandial insulin spike. No significant difference was found in insulin concentration comparing old versus young dogs. Our data shows that white blood cells in young (40.4 ± 2.4 ng/mL) and old (35.3 ± 8.8 ng/mL) sled dogs have quantifiable but non-significant different GLUT4 levels (p > 0.05). Detecting GLUT4 via an ELISA in white blood cells, opens up minimally invasive avenues for studying the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with insulin resistance in more complex, dynamic and physiological systems. This project was the first step in developing a protocol for this simple, technique with a potential clinical application for diagnosing insulin resistance.

Authors : Schnurr Theresia M, Reynolds Arleigh J, Duffy Lawrence K, Dunlap Kriya L,

(10) Conditioning causes an increase in glucose transporter-4 levels in mononuclear cells in sled dogs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25236492
Publication Date : //
This study was designed to investigate the effects of physical conditioning on the expression of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter-4 protein (GLUT4) on mononuclear cells and HOMA-IR levels in dogs and compared to results reported in human skeletal muscle and the skeletal muscle of rodent models. Blood was sampled from conditioned dogs (n = 8) and sedentary dogs (n = 8). The conditioned dogs were exercised four months prior the experiment and were following a uniform training protocol, whereas the sedentary dogs were not. GLUT4 expression in mononuclear cells and plasma insulin levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood glucose levels were determined using blood plasma. HOMA-IR was calculated using plasma insulin and blood glucose levels using the linear approximation formula. Our results indicate that the state of conditioning had a significant effect on the GLUT4 expression at the surface of mononuclear cells. HOMA-IR was also affected by conditioning in dogs. GLUT4 levels in mononuclear cells of sled dogs were inversely correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrates that conditioning increases GLUT4 levels in mononuclear cells of sled dogs as it has been previously reported in skeletal muscle. Our results support the potential of white blood cells as a proxy tissue for studying insulin signaling and may lead to development of a minimally invasive and direct marker of insulin resistance. This may be the first report of GLUT4 in mononuclear cells in response to exercise and measured with ELISA.

Authors : Schnurr Theresia M, Reynolds Arleigh J, Gustafson Sally J, Duffy Lawrence K, Dunlap Kriya L,