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PKA Regulatory Subunit, Mab anti_Bovine; Clone RS17, ELISA,IF

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[#YSRTMCA4729] PKA Regulatory Subunit, Mab anti_Bovine; Clone RS17, ELISA,IF

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YSRTMCA4729 | PKA Regulatory Subunit, Mab anti_Bovine; Clone RS17, ELISA,IF, 0.2 mg.
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(1) Protein kinase A: regulation and receptor-mediated delivery of antisense oligonucleotides and cytotoxic drugs.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :12119275
Publication Date : //
Protein kinases help regulate eukaryotic cell division. We investigated the regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and casein kinase (CK) type I activity in normal cells and in cancer. To assess this activity in biopsies we suggest a new parameter--the ratio of CK activity and total PKA activity divided by cAMP concentration: CK/PKA/cAMP. In 98 samples of colon mucosa in normal, inflamed, polyp, and adenocarcinoma cells, we found this parameter to be fairly constant in normal conditions and increased 10-fold in colon cancer; the ratio does not depend on the place of biopsy or the patient's age or sex. Experiments with model systems of concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes and regenerating rat liver showed that in normal cell proliferation the parameter increases 2-3-fold, as compared to a 30-fold increase in cancer. Unlike normal cells, malignant cells show CK activation and decrease of cAMP; therefore, PKA activity decreases. This suggests a correlation of CK and PKA activity and significant damage to their regulation at pathological changes of tissue proliferation. To further study concerted CK and PKA regulation we used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit RKII beta. We produced 11 antibodies in three groups: inhibiting, which block cAMP binding with RII beta and inhibit holoenzyme formation (RS6); activating, which enhance cAMP binding and do not affect holoenzyme formation (RS28); and neutral (RS17). To investigate mAb influence on protein kinase regulation in live cells we permeabilized pheochromocytoma PC12 by digitonin. When used at 5-microM concentration for 5 min, digitonin allowed us to deliver mAb into PC12 cells at 30-34-nM concentration, leaving 68-75% viable cells. Protein kinase activity was measured within 0.5 and 4 h after incorporation of mAbs into cells. After 30 min incorporation, mAb RS6 blocked PKA activation in PC12 cells under the influence of cAMP; other mAbs showed no effect. mAb RS6 caused a 4-fold increase of free C subunit activity 4 h after incorporation. mAb RS38 decreased R2C2 activity and did not influence C subunit activity. The change of free C subunit activity caused by mAb incorporation was followed by a synchronized, well-balanced change of CK type I activity, which suggests a correlation between the two phosphorylation systems of cell proteins.

Authors : Sveshnikov P G, Grozdova I D, Nesterova M V, Severin E S,



(2) Positive regulation of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion by protein kinase A.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :11591815
Publication Date : //
Integrin receptor activation is an important regulatory mechanism for cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesion. In this study, we explore a signaling pathway activated by mAb 12G10, an antibody that can activate beta(1) integrins and induce integrin-mediated cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. We have found that the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is required for both mAb 12G10-induced cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion of HT-1080 cells. Binding of mAb 12G10 to beta(1) integrins stimulates an increase in intracellular cAMP levels and PKA activity, and a concomitant shift in the localization of the PKA type II regulatory subunits from the cytoplasm to areas where integrins expressing the 12G10 epitope are located. MAb 12G10-induced cell-cell adhesion was mimicked by a combination of clustering beta(1) integrins and elevating PKA activity with Sp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate or forskolin. We also show that two processes required for HT-1080 cell-cell adhesion, integrin clustering and F-actin polymerization are both dependent on PKA. Taken together, our data suggest that PKA plays a key role in the signaling pathway, resulting from activation of beta(1) integrins, and that this enzyme may be required for upregulation of cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesion.

Authors : Whittard J D, Akiyama S K,



(3) Binding of the human cytomegalovirus 80-kDa immediate-early protein (IE2) to minor groove A/T-rich sequences bounded by CG dinucleotides is regulated by protein oligomerization and phosphorylation.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :9875333
Publication Date : //
The 80-kDa immediate-early regulatory protein IE2 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) functions as an essential positive transactivator of downstream viral promoters, but it also specifically down-regulates transcription from the major immediate-early promoter through a 14-bp DNA target motif known as the cis-repression signal (CRS) located at the transcription start site. The IE2 protein purified from bacteria as a fusion product of either staphylococcal Protein A/IE2(290-579) or glutathione-S-transferase (GST)/IE2(346-579) bound specifically to a [32P]-labeled CRS oligonucleotide probe in an in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). In contrast, no direct interaction with the CRS probes could be detected with IE2 wild-type protein in extracts from infected or transfected mammalian cells or when synthesized by in vitro translation. However, in vitro phosphorylation of GST/IE2(346-579) by incubation with either the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) or a HeLa cell nuclear extract strongly inhibited its DNA-binding activity. This process required ATP hydrolysis and could be reversed by subsequent incubation with bacterial alkaline phosphatase. Importantly, dephosphorylation of the constitutively expressed native IE2 protein present in a nuclear extract from the U373(A45) cell line unmasked a specific CRS DNA-binding activity that could be supershifted with anti-IE2 monoclonal antibody (mAb). A series of high-molecular-weight hetero-oligomeric DNA-bound structures of intermediate mobility were formed in EMSA assays when a mixture of staphylococcal Protein A/IE2 and GST/IE2 was coincubated with the CRS probe. Coincubation with a DNA-binding negative but dimerization-competent GST/IE2 deletion mutant competitively inhibited DNA-binding by staphylococcal Protein A/IE2, whereas coincubation with a GST/IE2 deletion mutant that lacked the ability to both dimerize and bind to DNA failed to influence the mobility of the DNA-bound staphylococcal Protein A/IE2 protein. Therefore, IE2 appears to bind to DNA as a higher-order oligomer in which the presence of subunits with mutant DNA-binding domains interferes with the overall DNA-binding function. A series of point mutations introduced into each of nine conserved motifs throughout the DNA-binding and dimerization domain, all of which abolish the ability of the transfected intact IE2 protein to autoregulate the MIE promoter, also all lacked the ability to bind to CRS sequences as GST/IE2(346-379) fusion proteins. Detailed analysis of point mutations in the 14-bp CRS target DNA binding motif revealed that IE2 binds in a relatively sequence-independent manner to 10-bp-long A/T-rich DNA elements bounded on each side by CG dinucleotides. Moreover, the A/T-rich minor groove binding agent distamycin, but not the G/C-rich minor groove binding agent chromomycin-A3, actively competed with IE2 for binding to the CRS motif in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, IE2 binds preferentially as multimerized dimers to A/T-rich sequences in the minor groove that are flanked on both sides by appropriately spaced CG dinucleotides, and inhibition of the DNA-binding or oligomerization activity by PKA phosphorylation probably accounts for the inactivity of the mammalian and in vitro translated forms of the protein.

Authors : Waheed I, Chiou C J, Ahn J H, Hayward G S,



(4) Interactions between the epidermal growth factor receptor and type I protein kinase A: biological significance and therapeutic implications.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :9563874
Publication Date : //
Peptide growth factors regulate normal cellular proliferation and differentiation through autocrine and paracrine pathways and are involved in cancer development and progression. Among the endogenous growth factors, the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of human cancer. In fact, overexpression of EGF-related growth factors such as transforming growth factor alpha and amphiregulin and/or their specific receptor, the EGF receptor (EGFR), has been detected in several types of human cancers, including breast, lung, and colorectal cancers. Therefore, the blockade of EGFR activation by using anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been proposed as a potential anticancer therapy. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an intracellular enzyme with serine-threonine kinase activity that plays a key role in cell growth and differentiation. Two PKA isoforms with identical catalytic (C) subunits but different cAMP-binding regulatory (R) subunits (defined as RI in PKAI and RII in PKAII) have been identified. Predominant expression of PKAII is found in normal nonproliferating tissues and in growth-arrested cells, whereas enhanced levels of PKAI are detected steadily in tumor cells and transiently in normal cells exposed to mitogenic stimuli. Overexpression of PKAI has been correlated recently with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Inhibition of PKAI expression and function by specific pharmacological agents such as the selective cAMP analogue 8-chloro-cAMP (8-Cl-cAMP) induces growth inhibition in various human cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. We have provided experimental evidence of a functional cross-talk between ligand-induced EGFR activation and PKAI expression and function. In fact, PKAI is overexpressed and activated following transforming growth factor alpha-induced transformation in several rodent and human cell line models. Furthermore, PKAI is involved in the intracellular mitogenic signaling following ligand-induced EGFR activation. We have shown that an interaction between EGFR and PKAI occurs through direct binding of the RI subunit to the Grb2 adaptor protein. In this respect, PKAI seems to function downstream of the EGFR, and experimental evidence suggests that PKAI is acting upstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We have also demonstrated that the functional interaction between the EGFR and the PKAI pathways could have potential therapeutic implications. In fact, the combined interference with both EGFR and PKAI with specific pharmacological agents, such as anti-EGFR blocking MAbs and cAMP analogues, has a cooperative antiproliferative effect on human cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor activity of this combination could be explored in a clinical setting because both the 8-Cl-cAMP analogue and the anti-EGFR blocking MAb C225 have entered human clinical trial evaluation. Finally, both MAb C225 and 8-Cl-cAMP are specific inhibitors of intracellular mitogenic signaling that have different mechanisms of action compared with conventional cytotoxic drugs. In this respect, a cooperative growth-inhibitory effect in combination with several chemotherapeutic agents in a large series of human cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo has been demonstrated for anti-EGFR blocking MAbs or for 8-Cl-cAMP. Therefore, the combination of MAb C225 and 8-Cl-cAMP following chemotherapy could be investigated in cancer patients.

Authors : Ciardiello F, Tortora G,