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Interleukin 12 (IL_12), Clone CC326, Mab anti_Bovine, Biotin; flow_ELISA

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[#YSRTMCA2173B] Interleukin 12 (IL_12), Clone CC326, Mab anti_Bovine, Biotin; flow_ELISA

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YSRTMCA2173B | Interleukin 12 (IL_12), Clone CC326, Mab anti_Bovine, Biotin; flow_ELISA, 0.25 mg.
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(1) Preparation of transgenic Iranian lizard Leishmania coding HIL-12.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29296276
Publication Date : //
Leishmania are intracellular flagellate protozoan parasites cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in human. The immunological basis for resistance against leishmaniasis depends on Thl responses in the course of performance of cytokines like IL-12. In this study, a transgenic Leishmania coding human IL-12 was produced that can be used in Leishmanization.

Authors : Donyavi Tahereh, Bandehpour Mojgan, Kazemi Bahram,



(2) Distinct Trypanosoma cruzi isolates induce activation and apoptosis of human neutrophils.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29176759
Publication Date : //
Neutrophils are critical players in the first line of defense against pathogens and in the activation of subsequent cellular responses. We aimed to determine the effects of the interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi with human neutrophils, using isolates of the two major discrete type units (DTUs) associated with Chagas' disease in Latin America (clone Col1.7G2 and Y strain, DTU I and II, respectively). Thus, we used CFSE-stained trypomastigotes to measure neutrophil-T. cruzi interaction, neutrophil activation, cytokine expression and death, after infection with Col1.7G2 and Y strain. Our results show that the frequency of CFSE+ neutrophils, indicative of interaction, and CFSE intensity on a cell-per-cell basis were similar when comparing Col1.7G2 and Y strains. Interaction with T. cruzi increased neutrophil activation, as measured by CD282, CD284, TNF and IL-12 expression, although at different levels between the two strains. No change in IL-10 expression was observed after interaction of neutrophils with either strain. We observed that exposure to Y and Col1.7G2 caused marked neutrophil death. This was specific to neutrophils, since interaction of either strain with monocytes did not cause death. Our further analysis showed that neutrophil death was a result of apoptosis, which was associated with an upregulation of TNF-receptor, TNF and FasLigand, but not of Fas. Induction of TNF-associated neutrophil apoptosis by the different T. cruzi isolates may act as an effective common mechanism to decrease the host's immune response and favor parasite survival.

Authors : Magalhães Luísa M D, Viana Agostinho, de Jesus Augusto C, Chiari Egler, Galvão Lúcia, Gomes Juliana A, Gollob Kenneth J, Dutra Walderez O,



(3) Th1 Differentiation Drives the Accumulation of Intravascular, Non-protective CD4 T Cells during Tuberculosis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :28355562
Publication Date : //
Recent data indicate that the differentiation state of Th1 cells determines their protective capacity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we examined the role of Th1-polarizing factors in the generation of protective and non-protective subsets of Mtb-specific Th1 cells. We find that IL-12/23p40 promotes Th1 cell expansion and maturation beyond the CD73CXCR3T-bet stage, and T-bet prevents deviation of Th1 cells into Th17 cells. Nevertheless, IL- 12/23p40 and T-bet are also essential for the production of a prominent subset of intravascular CX3CR1KLRG1 Th1 cells that persists poorly and can neither migrate into the lung parenchyma nor control Mtb growth. Furthermore, T-bet suppresses development of CD69CD103 tissue resident phenotype effectors in lung. In contrast, Th1-cell-derived IFN-γ inhibits the accumulation of intravascular CX3CR1KLRG1 Th1 cells. Thus, although IL-12 and T-bet are essential host survival factors, they simultaneously oppose lung CD4 T cell responses at several levels, demonstrating the dual nature of Th1 polarization in tuberculosis.

Authors : Sallin Michelle A, Sakai Shunsuke, Kauffman Keith D, Young Howard A, Zhu Jinfang, Barber Daniel L,



(4) Membrane-bound p35 Subunit of IL-12 on Tumor Cells is Functionally Equivalent to Membrane-bound Heterodimeric Single Chain IL-12 for Induction of Anti-tumor Immunity.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27799876
Publication Date : //
In this study, we compared two different tumor cell vaccines for their induction of anti-tumor immunity; one was a tumor cell clone expressing a membrane-bound form of IL-12 p35 subunit (mbIL-12 p35 tumor clone), and the other was a tumor clone expressing heterodimeric IL-12 as a single chain (mb-scIL-12 tumor clone). The stimulatory effect of mb-scIL-12 on the proliferation of ConA-activated splenocytes was higher than that of mbIL-12 p35 . However, the stimulatory effect of mbIL-12 p35 was equivalent to that of recombinant soluble IL-12 (3 ng/ml). Interestingly, both tumor clones (mbIL-12 p35 and mb-scIL-12) showed similar tumorigenicity and induction of systemic anti-tumor immunity , suggesting that tumor cell expression of the membrane-bound p35 subunit is sufficient to induce anti-tumor immunity in our tumor vaccine model.

Authors : Kim Hyun-Jin, Park Sang Min, Lee Hayyoung, Kim Young Sang,



(5) Evaluation of the Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based on Two Field Strains.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :27556483
Publication Date : //
One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3-4 and ORFs 5-6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332, or a mock inoculum. At 25 days post-vaccination (dpv), the pigs in each group were divided further into two groups and challenged with either K08-1054 or K07-2273. All of the pigs were observed until 42 dpv and were euthanized for pathological evaluation. Overall, the CV-vaccinated group exhibited higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression and of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies compared with the other groups after vaccination and also demonstrated better protection levels against both viruses compared with the challenge control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that CV might be an effective vaccine model that can confer a broader range of cross-protection to various PRRSV strains.

Authors : Shabir Nadeem, Khatun Amina, Nazki Salik, Kim Bumseok, Choi Eun-Jin, Sun Dong, Yoon Kyoung-Jin, Kim Won-Il,



(6) Expansion of circulating CD56bright natural killer cells in patients with JAK2-positive chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms during treatment with interferon-α.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :25082025
Publication Date : //
In recent years, major molecular remissions have been observed in patients with JAK2-positive chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) after therapy with IFN-α. IFN-α is known to have altering effects on immune cells involved in immune surveillance and might consequently enhance anti-tumor immune response against the JAK2-mutated clone. The objective of this study was to investigate circulating levels and phenotype of natural killer cells in 29 JAK2-positive MPN patients during IFN-α treatment. Furthermore, functional studies of NK cells upon target-cell recognition and cytokine stimulation were performed. The CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cell subtypes display different properties in terms of cytokine production and cytotoxicity, respectively. Our results show a significant increase in the proportion of CD56(bright) NK cells and a decreasing CD56(dim) population during treatment with IFN-α compared to patients that are untreated, treated with hydroxyurea and healthy controls, P < 0.0001. Furthermore, an overall increase in cytokine-dependent (IL-12 and IL-15) IFN-γ expression by CD56(dim) NK cells during IFN-α treatment was observed. In contrast, our data indicate a compromised NK cell response to target-cell recognition during treatment with IFN-α in four patients. We also report low levels of circulating NK cells in untreated patients compared to healthy donors, patients treated with hydroxyurea and IFN-α, P = 0.02. Based on our findings, one might speculate whether treatment with IFN-α skews the human NK population toward a helper type that may assist in CD8(+) T cell priming in lymphoid tissues at the expense of their immediate cytotoxic functions in peripheral blood and tissues.

Authors : Riley Caroline H, Hansen Morten, Brimnes Marie K, Hasselbalch Hans C, Bjerrum Ole W, Straten Per Thor, Svane Inge Marie, Jensen Morten Krogh,



(7) Direct T cell-tumour interaction triggers TH1 phenotype activation through the modification of the mesenchymal stromal cells transcriptional programme.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :24809778
Publication Date : //
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous cells with immunoregulatory and wound-healing properties. In cancer, they are known to be an essential part of the tumour microenvironment. However, their role in tumour growth and rejection remains unclear. To investigate this, we co-cultured human MSCs, tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and melanoma cells to investigate the role of MSCs in the tumour environment.

Authors : Jin P, Civini S, Zhao Y, De Giorgi V, Ren J, Sabatino M, Jin J, Wang H, Bedognetti D, Marincola F, Stroncek D,



(8) Tumor Cell Clone Expressing the Membrane-bound Form of IL-12p35 Subunit Stimulates Antitumor Immune Responses Dominated by CD8(+) T Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :23700396
Publication Date : //
IL-12 is a secretory heterodimeric cytokine composed of p35 and p40 subunits. IL-12 p35 and p40 subunits are sometimes produced as monomers or homodimers. IL-12 is also produced as a membrane-bound form in some cases. In this study, we hypothesized that the membrane-bound form of IL-12 subunits may function as a costimulatory signal for selective activation of TAA-specific CTL through direct priming without involving antigen presenting cells and helper T cells. MethA fibrosarcoma cells were transfected with expression vectors of membrane-bound form of IL-12p35 (mbIL-12p35) or IL-12p40 subunit (mbIL-12p40) and were selected under G418-containing medium. The tumor cell clones were analyzed for the expression of mbIL-12p35 or p40 subunit and for their stimulatory effects on macrophages. The responsible T-cell subpopulation for antitumor activity of mbIL-12p35 expressing tumor clone was also analyzed in T cell subset-depleted mice. Expression of transfected membrane-bound form of IL-12 subunits was stable during more than 3 months of in vitro culture, and the chimeric molecules were not released into culture supernatants. Neither the mbIL-12p35-expressing tumor clones nor mbIL-12p40-expressing tumor clones activated macrophages to secrete TNF-α. Growth of mbIL-12p35-expressing tumor clones was more accelerated in the CD8(+) T cell-depleted mice than in CD4(+) T cell-depleted or normal mice. These results suggest that CD8(+) T cells could be responsible for the rejection of mbIL-12p35-expressing tumor clone, which may bypass activation of antigen presenting cells and CD4(+) helper T cells.

Authors : Lim Hoyong, Do Seon Ah, Park Sang Min, Kim Young Sang,



(9) Effects of Leishmania major clones showing different levels of virulence on infectivity, differentiation and maturation of human dendritic cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22861367
Publication Date : //
Leishmania parasites and dendritic cell interactions (DCs) play an essential role in initiating and directing T cell responses and influence disease evolution. These interactions may vary depending on Leishmania species and strains. To evaluate the correlation between Leishmania major (Lm) virulence and in-vitro human DC response, we compared the ability of high (HV) and low virulent (LV) Lm clones to invade, modulate cytokine production and interfere with differentiation of DCs. Clones derived from HV and LV (HVΔlmpdi and LVΔlmpdi), and deleted for the gene coding for a Lm protein disulphide isomerase (LmPDI), probably involved in parasite natural pathogenicity, were also used. Unlike LV, which fails to invade DCs in half the donors, HV promastigotes were associated with a significant increase of the infected cells percentage and parasite burden. A significant decrease of both parameters was observed in HVΔlmpdi-infected DCs, compared to wild-type cells. Whatever Lm virulence, DC differentiation was accompanied by a significant decrease in CD1a expression. Lm clones decreased interleukin (IL)-12p70 production similarly during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maturation of DCs. LPS stimulation was associated with a weak increase in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 productions in HV-, HVΔlmpdi- and LVΔlmpdi-infected DCs. These results indicate that there is a significant variability in the capacity of Lm clones to infect human DCs which depends upon their virulence, probably involving LmPDI protein. However, independently of their virulence, Lm clones were able to down-regulate CD1a expression during DC differentiation and IL-12p70 production during DC maturation, which may favour their survival.

Authors : Markikou-Ouni W, Ben Achour-Chenik Y, Meddeb-Garnaoui A,



(10) Evaluation of γ-retroviral vectors that mediate the inducible expression of IL-12 for clinical application.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :22576348
Publication Date : //
The clinical application of interleukin-12 (IL-12) has been hindered by the toxicity associated with its systemic administration. To potentially overcome this problem, we developed a promoter designed to direct IL-12 expression within the tumor environment using an inducible composite promoter containing binding motifs for the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) linked to a minimal IL-2 promoter. In this study, the NFAT promoter was coupled to a single-chain human IL-12 gene and inserted into 2 γ-retroviral self-inactivating vectors (SERS.NFAT.hIL12 and SERS.NFAT.hIL12.PA2) and 1 γ-retroviral vector (MSGV1.NFAT.hIL.12 PA2). Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were double transduced with an antigen-specific T-cell receptor and the 3 NFAT.hIL12 vectors. Evaluation of inducible IL-12 expression, transduction efficiency, and vector production considerations led to the choice of the MSGV1.NFAT.hIL12.PA2 vector for clinical application. MSGV1.NFAT.hIL12.PA2 PG13 retroviral vector producer cell clones were screened by transduction of tumor antigen-specific PBLs. On the basis of expression studies in PBL, clone D3 was chosen to produce clinical-grade viral vector supernatant and was demonstrated to efficiently transduce young tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). The vector-transduced young TIL with known tumor recognition demonstrated specific inducible IL-12 production after coculture with HLA-matched tumor targets and had augmented effector function as demonstrated by increased IFN-γ secretion. These results support the clinical application of adoptive transfer of young TIL engineered with the NFAT.hIL12 vector as a new approach for cancer immunotherapy.

Authors : Zhang Ling, Feldman Steven A, Zheng Zhili, Chinnasamy Nachimuthu, Xu Hui, Nahvi Azam V, Dudley Mark E, Rosenberg Steven A, Morgan Richard A,