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IgG2, Bovine; ELISA

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[#YSRTPBP004] IgG2, Bovine; ELISA

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(1) Facile preparation of microporous organic polymers functionalized macroporous hydrophilic resin for selective enrichment of glycopeptides.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30032777
Publication Date : //
A macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) with ∼10 μm diameter was synthesized by seed-swelling polymerization and further modified with a layer of microporous organic polymers (MOP) by "one-pot" solvothermal reaction. The resulting MAR@MOP exhibited high specific surface area of 131.3 m/g, which was higher than that of pristine MAR (57.8 m/g). The contact angle also decreased from 58.8° (MAR) to 24° (MAR@MOP), indicating that the MOP was successfully grafted onto the surface of MAR. The chemical composition of MAR@MOP was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, C NMR and element analysis. The enrichment efficiency of MAR@MOP to glycopeptides was demonstrated by trapping N-linked glycopeptides from tryptic digests of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and bovine fetuin. Furthermore, 879 unique N-glycosylation sites in 811 unique glycopeptides sequence mapped to 516 N-glycosylated proteins were identified in three replicate analyses of proteins extracted from mouse liver. Therefore, this hydrophilic MOP-coated adsorbent would be applied in the enrichment and identification of low-abundance N-linked glycopeptides in complicated biological samples.

Authors : Li Ya, Wang Hongwei, You Xin, Ma Shujuan, Dong Jing, Wei Yinmao, Ou Junjie, Ye Mingliang,



(2) Fully Human Immunoglobulin G From Transchromosomic Bovines Treats Nonhuman Primates Infected With Ebola Virus Makona Isolate.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30010950
Publication Date : //
Transchromosomic bovines (Tc-bovines) adaptively produce fully human polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies after exposure to immunogenic antigen(s). The National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research and collaborators rapidly produced and then evaluated anti-Ebola virus IgG immunoglobulins (collectively termed SAB-139) purified from Tc-bovine plasma after sequential hyperimmunization with an Ebola virus Makona isolate glycoprotein nanoparticle vaccine. SAB-139 was characterized by several in vitro production, research, and clinical level assays using wild-type Makona-C05 or recombinant virus/antigens from different Ebola virus variants. SAB-139 potently activates natural killer cells, monocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and has high-binding avidity demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. SAB-139 has similar concentrations of galactose-α-1,3-galactose carbohydrates compared with human-derived intravenous Ig, and the IgG1 subclass antibody is predominant. All rhesus macaques infected with Ebola virus/H.sapiens-tc/GIN/2014/Makona-C05 and treated with sufficient SAB-139 at 1 day (n = 6) or 3 days (n = 6) postinfection survived versus 0% of controls. This study demonstrates that Tc-bovines can produce pathogen-specific human Ig to prevent and/or treat patients when an emerging infectious disease either threatens to or becomes an epidemic.

Authors : Luke Thomas, Bennett Richard S, Gerhardt Dawn M, Burdette Tracey, Postnikova Elena, Mazur Steven, Honko Anna N, Oberlander Nicholas, Byrum Russell, Ragland Dan, St Claire Marisa, Janosko Krisztina B, Smith Gale, Glenn Gregory, Hooper Jay, Dye John, Pal Subhamoy, Bishop-Lilly Kimberly A, Hamilton Theron, Frey Kenneth, Bollinger Laura, Wada Jiro, Wu Hua, Jiao Jin-An, Olinger Gene G, Gunn Bronwyn, Alter Galit, Khurana Surender, Hensley Lisa E, Sullivan Eddie, Jahrling Peter B,



(3) Identification of the antigenic region of Neospora caninum dense granule protein 7 using ELISA.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29959092
Publication Date : //
Dense granule protein 7 (NcGRA7) is a potent diagnostic antigen of Neospora caninum. Some studies have reported on the difficult expression, low yield, and variable degree of solubility of recombinant NcGRA7. We aimed to unravel the possible causes for these issues and tested NcGRA7 antigenicity in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The NcGRA7 coding sequence (217 amino acids) was split into five amino acid regions: NcGRA7m (27-217), NcGRA7m3 (27-160), NcGRA7m4 (27-135), NcGRA7m5 (161-190), and NcGRA7m6 (188-217). Three fragments, NcGRA7m, NcGRA7m3 and NcGRA7m4, exhibited high antigenic properties when tested against experimentally-infected mice and dog sera by ELISA. High levels of IgG2 antibodies against NcGRA7m3 were observed in field dog sera. In experimentally and naturally-infected cattle, the N. caninum-specific sera only reacted with NcGRA7m, indicating that this antigenic region differs among the three animal species. This study presents valuable information about the antigenic properties and topology of NcGRA7, and highlights its suitability for diagnostic purposes.

Authors : Abdelbaky Hanan H, Fereig Ragab M, Nishikawa Yoshifumi,



(4) Concentration of Immunoglobulins in Microfiltration Permeates of Skim Milk: Impact of Transmembrane Pressure and Temperature on the IgG Transmission Using Different Ceramic Membrane Types and Pore Sizes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29958476
Publication Date : //
The use of bioactive bovine milk immunoglobulins (Ig) has been found to be an alternative treatment for certain human gastrointestinal diseases. Some methodologies have been developed with bovine colostrum. These are considered in laboratory scale and are bound to high cost and limited availability of the raw material. The main challenge remains in obtaining high amounts of active IgG from an available source as mature cow milk by the means of industrial processes. Microfiltration (MF) was chosen as a process variant, which enables a gentle and effective concentration of the Ig fractions (ca. 0.06% in raw milk) while reducing casein and lactose at the same time. Different microfiltration membranes (ceramic standard and gradient), pore sizes (0.14⁻0.8 µm), transmembrane pressures (0.5⁻2.5 bar), and temperatures (10, 50 °C) were investigated. The transmission of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and casein during the filtration of raw skim milk (<0.1% fat) was evaluated during batch filtration using a single channel pilot plant. The transmission levels of IgG (~160 kDa) were measured to be at the same level as the reference major whey protein β-Lg (~18 kDa) at all evaluated pore sizes and process parameters despite the large difference in molecular mass of both fractions. Ceramic gradient membranes with a pore sizes of 0.14 µm showed IgG-transmission rates between 45% to 65% while reducing the casein fraction below 1% in the permeates. Contrary to the expectations, a lower pore size of 0.14 µm yielded fluxes up to 35% higher than 0.2 µm MF membranes. It was found that low transmembrane pressures benefit the Ig transmission. Upscaling the presented results to a continuous MF membrane process offers new possibilities for the production of immunoglobulin enriched supplements with well-known processing equipment for large scale milk protein fractionation.

Authors : Heidebrecht Hans-Jürgen, Toro-Sierra José, Kulozik Ulrich,



(5) Conformational and Organizational Insights into Serum Proteins during Competitive Adsorption on Self-Assembled Monolayers.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29936836
Publication Date : //
Physicochemical interactions of proteins with surfaces mediate the interactions between the implant and the biological system. Surface chemistry of the implant is crucial as it regulates the events at the interface. The objective of this study was to explore the performance of modified surfaces for such interactions relevant to various biomedical applications. Because of a wide range of surface wettability, we aimed to study protein behavior (i.e., conformational changes and their packing) during competitive protein adsorption. Three serum proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA; fibrinogen, FB; and immunoglobulin G, IgG) were tested for their conformational changes and orientation upon adsorption on hydrophilic (COOH and amine), moderately hydrophobic (mixed and hybrid), and hydrophobic (octyl) surfaces generated via silanization. Modified surfaces were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Adsorbed masses of proteins from single and binary protein solutions on different surfaces were quantified along with their secondary structure analyses. Maximum adsorbed protein masses were found to be on negatively charged and hydrophobic (octyl) surfaces because of ionic and hydrophobic interactions between protein molecules and surfaces, respectively. Side-on and end-on orientations of adsorbed protein molecules were analyzed using theoretical and AFM analyses. We observed compact and elongated forms of BSA molecules on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. We further found a linear increase in the α-helix content of BSA and β-sheet contents of FB and IgG proteins with the increasing side-on (%)-oriented protein molecules on the surfaces. This indicates that side-on orientations of adsorbed FB and IgG lead to the formation of β-sheets. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was employed to quantify the protein types and their ratio in competitively adsorbed proteins on different surfaces. A theoretical analysis was also used to determine the % secondary structures of competitively adsorbed proteins from BSA/FB and BSA/IgG solutions, which very well agreed with experimental results. The competitive protein adsorption from both BSA/FB and BSA/IgG solutions was found to be entropy-driven, as revealed by thermodynamic studies performed using isothermal titration calorimetry.

Authors : Hasan Abshar, Waibhaw Gyan, Pandey Lalit M,



(6) Experimental and bioinformatic approach to identifying antigenic epitopes in human α- and β-enolases.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29922723
Publication Date : //
Human α- and β-enolases are highly homologous enzymes, difficult to differentiate immunologically. In this work, we describe production, purification and properties of anti-α- and anti-β-enolase polyclonal antibodies. To raise antibodies, rabbits were injected with enolase isoenzymes that were purified from human kidney (α-enolase) and skeletal muscle (β-enolase). Selective anti-α- and anti-β-enolase antibodies were obtained by affinity chromatography on either α- or β-enolase-Sepharose columns. On Western blots, antibodies directed against human β-enolase, did not react with human α-isoenzyme, but recognized pig and rat β-enolase. To determine what makes these antibodies selective bioinformatic tools were used to predict conformational epitopes for both enolase isoenzymes. Three predicted epitopes were mapped to the same regions in both α- and β-enolase. Peptides corresponding to predicted epitopes were synthesized and tested against purified antibodies. One of the pin-attached peptides representing α-enolase epitope (the C-terminal portion of the epitope 3 - SPDDPSRYISPDQ) reacted with anti-α-enolase, while the other also derived from the α-enolase sequence (epitope 2 - NVIKEKYGKDATN) was recognized by anti-β-enolase antibodies. Interestingly, neither anti-α- nor anti-β-antibody reacted with a peptide corresponding to the epitope 2 in β-enolase (GVIKAKYGKDATN). Further analysis showed that substitution of E with A in α-enolase epitope 2 peptide lead to 70% loss of immunological activity, while replacement of A with E in peptide representing β-enolase epitope 2, caused 67% increase in immunological activity. Our results suggest that E is essential for preserving immunologically active conformation in epitope 2 peptidic homolog, while it is not crucial for this epitope's antigenic activity in native β-enolase.

Authors : Pietkiewicz Jadwiga, Danielewicz Regina, Bednarz-Misa Iwona S, Ceremuga Ireneusz, Wiśniewski Jerzy, Mierzchala-Pasierb Magdalena, Bronowicka-Szydełko Agnieszka, Ziomek Edmund, Gamian Andrzej,



(7) A new monoclonal antibody against rhamnogalacturonan II and its application to immunocytochemical detection of rhamnogalacturonan II in Arabidopsis roots.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29912643
Publication Date : //
Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is a region of pectin macromolecules that is present in plant primary cell walls. RG-II can be solubilized from cell walls as a borate-RG-II complex (B-RG-II), where two RG-II fragments are cross-linked via a borate diester linkage. Here, a rabbit monoclonal antibody against B-RG-II was prepared, which recognized both B-RG-II and RG-II monomers without borate ester-crosslinking. A pectic fragment with unknown structure was also recognized by the antibody, but neither homogalacturonan nor rhamnogalacturonan I was recognized. Immunoelectron microscopic analyses of Arabidopsis root tip cells were performed using this antibody. The signal was detected in developing cell plates and cell walls, which were denser in longitudinal walls than in transverse walls. These results coincide with our previous results obtained in suspension cultured tobacco cells, confirming that RG-II is present in cell plates at an early stage of their assembly.

Authors : Zhou Ye, Kobayashi Masaru, Awano Tatsuya, Matoh Toru, Takabe Keiji,



(8) Isolation of biofunctional bovine immunoglobulin G from milk- and colostral whey with mixed-mode chromatography at lab and pilot scale.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29843945
Publication Date : //
The aim of the present work was to develop a new scalable and cost-efficient process to isolate bovine immunoglobulin G from colostral whey with high purity and minimal loss of activity. The mixed mode material Mercapto-Ethyl-Pyridine-Hypercel™ was identified appropriate for direct capture of immunoglobulin G. The binding mechanism is primarily based on hydrophobic interactions at physiological conditions. As compared to immunoglobulin G, all other low molecular whey proteins such as α-Lactalbumin or β-Lactoglobulin, except lactoperoxidase, are more hydrophilic and were therefore found in the flow-through fraction. In order to remove lactoperoxidase as an impurity the column was combined in series with a second mixed mode material (Capto™- with N-benzoyl-homocysteine as ligand) using the same binding conditions. At pH 7.5 the carboxyl group of this ligand is negatively charged and can hence bind the positively charged lactoperoxidase, whose isoelectric point is at pH 9.6. After sample application, the columns were eluted separately. By combining the two columns it was possible to obtain immunoglobulin G with a purity of >96.1% and yield of 65-80%. The process development was carried out using 1 mL columns and upscaling was performed in three steps up to a column volume of 8800 mL for the Hypercel™ column and 3000 mL for the Capto™- column. At this scale it is possible to obtain 130-150 g pure immunoglobulin G from 3 L colostrum within five hours, including the regeneration of both columns. Additionally, the impact of freeze-drying on the isolated immunoglobulin G was studied. The nativity of the freeze dried immunoglobulin was above 95%, which was proven by reversed phase liquid chromatography and validated by differential scanning calorimetry. The activity of immunoglobulin G was preserved over the isolation process and during drying as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In conclusion, by applying the proposed isolation process, it becomes feasible to obtain pure, active and stable imunnunoglobulin G at large scale.

Authors : Heidebrecht Hans-Jürgen, Kainz Bernadette, Schopf Roland, Godl Klaus, Karcier Züleyha, Kulozik Ulrich, Förster Beatrix,



(9) Systemic humoral immunity in beef bulls following therapeutic vaccination against Tritrichomonas foetus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29773139
Publication Date : //
The utility of therapeutic vaccination of bulls against Tritrichomonas foetus has been advocated in previous studies, but anecdotal reports suggest this practice does not clear infections and may additionally confound diagnostic testing by reducing parasite burdens below detectable limits. The objective of this study was to characterize the systemic humoral immune response to therapeutic vaccination in T. foetus-infected bulls over a period of four months using an indirect ELISA and to compare the dynamics of this response to culture and PCR results to establish the existence of a relationship (or lack thereof) between immunization and infection status. A study population of 4- to 6-year-old T. foetus-infected beef bulls (n = 20) was divided equally into a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group received two doses of commercially prepared whole cell killed vaccine 2 weeks apart while the control group received injections of vaccine diluent. Blood samples were collected at each injection and at 4 subsequent dates every 4 weeks thereafter (i.e. 0, 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 wks) to measure IgG and IgG antibody subisotype response via an indirect ELISA. Preputial smegma samples were collected at the four monthly intervals following vaccination for diagnosis of infection via InPouch™ culture, Modified Diamond's Medium (MDM) culture, and PCR. Humoral response for both IgG isotypes from week 2 through week 18 were significantly increased in vaccinates compared to controls. No significant decrease in infection prevalence was detected in the treatment group for any of the diagnostic methods used. The apparent lack of pathogen clearance during a stimulated immune response suggests that therapeutic vaccination may not be a useful T. foetus management practice.

Authors : Alling Christopher, Rae D Owen, Ma Xiaojie, Neumann Laura, Lollis L Gene, Steele Elizabeth, Yelvington John, Naikare Hemant K, Walden Heather Stockdale, Crews John, Boughton Raoul,



(10) Ultrasonic Pretreatment Combined with Dry-State Glycation Reduced the Immunoglobulin E/Immunoglobulin G-Binding Ability of α-Lactalbumin Revealed by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29758985
Publication Date : //
Bovine α-lactalbumin (α-LA) is one of major food allergens in cow's milk. The present work sought to research the effects of ultrasonic pretreatment combined with dry heating-induced glycation between α-LA and galactose on the immunoglobulin E (IgE)/immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding ability and glycation extent of α-LA, determined by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-resolution mass spectrometry, respectively. The IgE/IgG-binding ability of glycated α-LA was significantly decreased as a result of ultrasonic pretreatment, while the average molecular weight, incorporation ratio (IR) value, location and number of glycation sites, and degree of substitution per peptide (DSP) value were elevated. When the mixtures of α-LA and galactose were pretreated by ultrasonication at 150 W/cm, glycated α-LA possesses seven glycation sites, the highest IR and DSP values, and the lowest IgE/IgG-binding ability. Therefore, the decrease in the IgE/IgG-binding ability of α-LA depends upon not only the shielding effect of the linear epitope found to be caused by the glycation of K13, K16, K58, K93, and K98 sites but also the intensified glycation extent, which reflected in the increase of the IR value, the number of glycation sites, and the DSP value. Moreover, allergenic proteins and monosaccharides pretreated by ultrasonication and then followed by dry-state glycation were revealed as a promising way of achieving lower allergenicity of proteins in food processing.

Authors : Liu Jun, Tu Zong-Cai, Liu Guang-Xian, Niu Chen-di, Yao Hong-Lin, Wang Hui, Sha Xiao-Mei, Shao Yan-Hong, Kaltashov Igor A,