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IgG2, Bovine; ELISA

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[#YSRTPBP004] IgG2, Bovine; ELISA


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(1) Acellular Fish Skin Grafts and Pig Urinary Bladder Matrix Assessed in the Collagen-Induced Arthritis Mouse Model.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30334466
Publication Date : //
It is vital that cellular- and tissue-based products (CTPs) used for wound treatment do not provoke autoimmunity. In this study, the immunogenic response to extracts of 2 CTPs of piscine and porcine origin was assessed in the collagen-induced arthritis model. Male DBA/1J mice were divided into 4 groups, each composed of 7 to 9 animals. Each animal was injected with one of following to assess their immune responses: (1) bovine type II collagen (100 µg) in Freund's adjuvant, (2) extract of piscine skin (100 µg) in Freund's adjuvant, (3) extract of porcine urinary bladder matrix (100 µg) in Freund's adjuvant, or (4) Freund's adjuvant alone (control) at the beginning of the experiment and 3 weeks later. Clinical signs of arthritis were assessed from week 5 onwards, and anti-type II and anti-type I collagen antibody immunoglobulin G (IgG) serum levels were measured before injections and 8 weeks after exposure using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Only the mice exposed to bovine type II collagen developed clinical arthritis accompanied by very high anti-type II collagen IgG serum levels. Anti-type II collagen IgG serum levels were also detected in the porcine group but were undetectable in the piscine skin and control groups after 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in anti-type I collagen IgG serum levels among the groups. The results showed that piscine skin did not provoke systemic autoimmunity against type II collagens in DBA/1J mice.

Authors : Magnusson Skuli, Kjartansson Hilmar, Baldursson Baldur Tumi, Astradsdottir Katrin, Ågren Magnus S, Hilmarsson Hilmar, Sigurjonsson Gudmundur Fertram,

(2) Seroreactivity and Risk Factors Associated with Infection among Cattle Slaughterhouse Workers in South Korea.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30332766
Publication Date : //
Q fever, caused by , is a zoonotic disease that is an occupational hazard to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. A nationwide serologic study among cattle slaughterhouse workers who were presumed to be at risk of having infection in South Korea was performed to investigate the seroreactivity of infection and identify related risk factors. Out of 1017 cattle slaughterhouse workers in South Korea, 923 (90.8%) participated in this cross-sectional study. Samples were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) antibodies against phase II via indirect immunofluorescence assay. The overall seroreactivity, defined as IgG or IgM antibody titer cutoffs ≥1:16, was 9.1% (84/923). Additionally, a significant association was found between the seroreactivity of infection and performing carcass evisceration work (odds ratio, 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.39⁻4.03) in multivariate analysis. To diminish infection, cattle slaughterhouse workers need to take precautions during the evisceration process.

Authors : Park Ji-Hyuk, Hwang Seon Do, Acharya Dilaram, Lee Seung Hun, Hwang Kyu Jam, Yoo Seok-Ju, Lee Kwan,

(3) Effects of trace mineral amount and source on aspects of oxidative metabolism and responses to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in midlactation dairy cows.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30322418
Publication Date : //
Trace minerals have important roles in immune function and oxidative metabolism; however, little is known about the relationships between supplementation level and source with outcomes in dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=48) beginning at 60 to 140 days in milk were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral amount and source on aspects of oxidative metabolism and responses to intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Cows were fed a basal diet meeting National Research Council (NRC) requirements except for no added zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or manganese (Mn). After a 4-week preliminary period, cows were assigned to one of four topdress treatments in a randomized complete block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) NRC inorganic (NRC levels using inorganic (sulfate-based) trace mineral supplements only); (2) NRC organic (NRC levels using organic trace mineral supplements (metals chelated to 2-hydroxy-4-(methythio)-butanoic acid); (3) commercial inorganic (approximately 2×NRC levels using inorganic trace mineral supplements only; and (4) commercial organic (commercial levels using organic trace mineral supplements only). Cows were fed the respective mineral treatments for 6 weeks. Treatment effects were level, source and their interaction. Activities of super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocyte lysate and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma were measured as indices of oxidative metabolism. Effects of treatment on those indices were not significant when evaluated across the entire experimental period. Plasma immunoglobulin G level was higher in cows supplemented with organic trace minerals over the entire treatment period; responses assessed as differences of before and after Escherichia coli J5 bacterin vaccination at the end of week 2 of treatment period were not significant. Cows were administered an intramammary LPS challenge during week 5; during week 6 cows fed commercial levels of Zn, Cu and Mn tended to have higher plasma TAC and cows fed organic sources had decreased plasma TBARS. After the LPS challenge, the extent and pattern of response of plasma cortisol concentrations and clinical indices (rectal temperature and heart rate) were not affected by trace mineral level and source. Productive performance including dry matter intake and milk yield and composition were not affected by treatment. Overall, results suggest that the varying level and source of dietary trace minerals do not have significant short-term effects on oxidative metabolism indices and clinical responses to intramammary LPS challenge in midlactation cows.

Authors : Yasui T, Ehrhardt R M, Bowman G R, Vázquez-Añon M, Richards J D, Atwell C A, Overton T R,

(4) Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin and (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate/3,4- O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid/Tannic Acid Layer by Layer Assembled Microcapsule for Protecting Immunoglobulin G in Stomach Digestion and Release in Small Intestinal Tract.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30277397
Publication Date : //
The protein-polyphenol layer by layer (LbL) assembled polymer composite microcapsule is a considerable delivery system that can be used to improve the bioactive stability and effectiveness of natural compounds in various applications. In the present study, three kinds of polyphenols were loaded in the sequence of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 3,4- O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA), and tannin acid (TA) to prepare a BSA-polyphenol LbL membrane. The composition of IgG-(BSA-EGCG/3,4-diCQA/TA) microcapsules and their stability and releasing ability in the gastrointestinal tract were evaluated. In addition, by binding of these three kinds of polyphenols to BSA, the thermal denaturation temperature and ordered secondary structure of the BSA-polyphenol microcapsules were increased, and the time of scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) free radicals was significantly prolonged. These findings suggest that (BSA-EGCG/3,4-diCQA/TA) microcapsules can not only protect IgG in food processing and stomach digestion but also release it in the small intestinal tract for bioactive delivery.

Authors : Chen Chunxu, Chen Guijie, Wan Peng, Chen Dan, Zhu Tao, Hu Bing, Sun Yi, Zeng Xiaoxiong,

(5) Induction of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Monocytes by Bovine Milk and Milk-Derived Immunoglobulin G.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30262772
Publication Date : //
Innate immune memory, also termed "trained immunity" in vertebrates, has been recently described in a large variety of plants and animals. In most cases, trained innate immunity is induced by pathogens or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and is associated with long-term epigenetic, metabolic, and functional reprogramming. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that food components can mimic PAMPs effects and induce trained immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine milk or its components can induce trained immunity in human monocytes. To this aim, monocytes were exposed for 24 h to β-glucan, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-ligands, bovine milk, milk fractions, bovine lactoferrin (bLF), and bovine Immunoglobulin G (bIgG). After washing away the stimulus and a resting period of five days, the cells were re-stimulated with TLR ligands and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) and interleukin (IL)-6 production was measured. Training with β-glucan resulted in higher cytokine production after TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8 stimulation. When monocytes trained with raw milk were re-stimulated with TLR1/2 ligand Pam3CSK4, trained cells produced more IL-6 compared to non-trained cells. Training with bIgG resulted in higher cytokine production after TLR4 and TLR7/8 stimulation. These results show that bovine milk and bIgG can induce trained immunity in human monocytes. This confirms the hypothesis that diet components can influence the long-term responsiveness of the innate immune system.

Authors : van Splunter Marloes, van Osch Thijs L J, Brugman Sylvia, Savelkoul Huub F J, Joosten Leo A B, Netea Mihai G, van Neerven R J Joost,

(6) 3D cryogel composites as adsorbent for isolation of protein and small molecules.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30262055
Publication Date : //
A green and promising sample pretreatment method was successfully established, which efficiently isolated proteins and small molecules in human serum. This method was achieved based on the multifunctional polymer, cryogel, as a solid phase extraction (SPE) monolith easily equipped in a syringe. The cryogel (pDC/GO-DE) was composed of diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DC) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HE), which was further modified with graphene oxide (GO) and N-diethylethanamine hydrobromide (DE). Various proteins, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (Lys), γ-globulins, immunoglobulin G (IgG), transferrin, small molecules (ribavirin, adenosine, ofloxacin, estriol, rutin, amoxicillin, ibuprofen, 1-methyl-3-phenyl-propylamine, and benzylamine) and their mixtures were successively studied as model analytes to evaluate the new material and demonstrate the isolation mechanism, which was mainly dependent on mixed-mode ion-exchange and the hybrid hydrophobicity-hydrophilicity property of pDC/GO-DE cryogel. Moreover, the three-dimensional macroporous structure contributed to the underlying size-selective isolation. When 10 times diluted human serum was used as the sample, more than 95% of proteins were adsorbed within 10 min under physiological conditions, and the interference matrix in serum was also efficiently reduced. After recycling three times, the extraction ratio of proteins in human serum was still higher than 90%. When four small molecules (camptothecin, ribavirin, 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine and ofloxacin) were added to blank human serum, their recoveries were within 65.6-81.8%, and were comparable to those obtained by protein precipitation method (63.7-83.2%).

Authors : Zhao Shuling, Wang Dongdong, Zhu Shuqiang, Liu Xiaoyan, Zhang Haixia,

(7) Effects of Nickel Supplementation on Antioxidant Status, Immune Characteristics, and Energy and Lipid Metabolism in Growing Cattle.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30238420
Publication Date : //
Nickel (Ni) has not been elucidated as an essential mineral in dairy animals, though in plants and lower organisms, its role in activation of urease enzyme is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ni supplementation on intake, growth performance, urease activity, antioxidant and immune status, and energy and lipid metabolism in growing cattle. Eighteen growing Hariana heifers were randomly allocated into three groups on body weight (125 ± 3.0 kg) and age basis (10 ± 2.0 months). Feeding regimen was similar in all the groups except that treatment groups were supplemented with 0.0 (Ni), 1.5 (Ni), and 3.0 (Ni) mg of Ni/kg dry matter (DM) in three respective groups. DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency, plasma urease activity, biomarkers of antioxidant and immune status, energy and lipid metabolism, and plasma Ni levels were observed during the 90-day experimental period. There was linear increase (p < 0.05) in mean DMI and ADG without affecting feed efficiency was observed in 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM supplemented heifers. Dietary Ni supplementation showed linear increase (p < 0.05) in mean plasma urease activity. No effects of (p > 0.05) of Ni supplementation were observed on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity and plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) concentration; whereas, mean plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) showed linear decrease (p < 0.001) in Ni-supplemented groups. Adding Ni up to 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM did not exert (p > 0.05) any effect on plasma total immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. Mean plasma cortisol level showed negative association with supplemental Ni levels and concentration was found lowest (p < 0.05) in 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM-added group. Dietary Ni supplementation did not affect mean plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). There was a linear increase (p < 0.001) in plasma Ni concentrations as the Ni concentrations increased in the diet. The results of present study indicated that dietary supplementation of 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM improved performance of growing cattle by increasing urease activity.

Authors : Singh Anuj, Kumar Muneendra, Kumar Vinod, Roy Debashis, Kushwaha Raju, Vaswani Shalini, Kumar Avinash,

(8) Determining the IgG concentrations in bovine colostrum and calf sera with a novel enzymatic assay.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30214721
Publication Date : //
Immune protection in newborn calves relies on a combination of the timing, volume and quality of colostrum consumed by the calf after birth. Poor quality colostrum with inadequate immunoglobulin concentration contributes to failed transfer of passive immunity in calves, leading to higher calf morbidity and mortality. Therefore, estimating colostrum quality and ensuring the transfer of passive immunity on farm is of critical importance. Currently, there are no on-farm tools that directly measure immunoglobulin content in colostrum or serum. The aim of this study was to apply a novel molecular assay, split trehalase immunoglobulin G assay (STIGA), to directly estimate immunoglobulin content in dairy and beef colostrum and calf sera, and to examine its potential to be developed as on-farm test. The STIGA is based on a split version of trehalase TreA, an enzyme that converts trehalose into glucose, enabling the use of a common glucometer for signal detection. In a first study, 60 dairy and 64 beef colostrum and 83 dairy and 84 beef calf sera samples were tested with STIGA, and the resulting glucose production was measured and compared with radial immunodiffusion, the standard method for measuring immunoglobulin concentrations.

Authors : Drikic M, Windeyer C, Olsen S, Fu Y, Doepel L, De Buck J,

(9) Effects of the equimolarly mixed cationic-nonionic surfactants of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate 80 on serum proteins-spectroscopic study.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30145466
Publication Date : //
Liposomes are a common delivery vehicle for drugs or biologicals, but some common surfactants used as liposome components may cause denaturation and malfunction of serum proteins and cell surface proteins. In this study, we examined the effects of liposome lipid didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), nonionic polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate 80 (Tween 80), and the equimolar mixture on the properties of serum proteins. Bovine serum albumin was selected as the main model protein, and the effects of the DDAB, Tween 80, and a 1:1 mixture on its spectroscopic behavior were investigated. The effects of surfactants on the five major serum proteins: human serum albumin, apolipoprotein A1, transferrin, fibrinogen and immunoglobulin G were also examined. Finally, the results were verified on human serum. The results indicated that weak interactions exist between human serum proteins and the equimolar mixture of DDAB-Tween 80, significantly different from the strong interactions of DDAB and Tween 80 with proteins. The salient features of cationic-nonionic surfactants enable their use in liposome composition, with improved drug delivery efficiency.

Authors : Qiao Hua, Li Bo, Zhang Huichao, Liu Dan, Diao Haipeng, Sun Gongqin, Xie Jun,

(10) Facile preparation of microporous organic polymers functionalized macroporous hydrophilic resin for selective enrichment of glycopeptides.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30032777
Publication Date : //
A macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) with ∼10 μm diameter was synthesized by seed-swelling polymerization and further modified with a layer of microporous organic polymers (MOP) by "one-pot" solvothermal reaction. The resulting MAR@MOP exhibited high specific surface area of 131.3 m/g, which was higher than that of pristine MAR (57.8 m/g). The contact angle also decreased from 58.8° (MAR) to 24° (MAR@MOP), indicating that the MOP was successfully grafted onto the surface of MAR. The chemical composition of MAR@MOP was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, C NMR and element analysis. The enrichment efficiency of MAR@MOP to glycopeptides was demonstrated by trapping N-linked glycopeptides from tryptic digests of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and bovine fetuin. Furthermore, 879 unique N-glycosylation sites in 811 unique glycopeptides sequence mapped to 516 N-glycosylated proteins were identified in three replicate analyses of proteins extracted from mouse liver. Therefore, this hydrophilic MOP-coated adsorbent would be applied in the enrichment and identification of low-abundance N-linked glycopeptides in complicated biological samples.

Authors : Li Ya, Wang Hongwei, You Xin, Ma Shujuan, Dong Jing, Wei Yinmao, Ou Junjie, Ye Mingliang,