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IgG1, Bovine; ELISA

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[#YSRTPBP003] IgG1, Bovine; ELISA

Related Publications :

(1) Effects of trace mineral amount and source on aspects of oxidative metabolism and responses to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in midlactation dairy cows.
(2) Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin and (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate/3,4- O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid/Tannic Acid Layer by Layer Assembled Microcapsule for Protecting Immunoglobulin G in Stomach Digestion and Release in Small Intestinal Tract.
(3) Induction of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Monocytes by Bovine Milk and Milk-Derived Immunoglobulin G.
(4) 3D cryogel composites as adsorbent for isolation of protein and small molecules.
(5) Effects of Nickel Supplementation on Antioxidant Status, Immune Characteristics, and Energy and Lipid Metabolism in Growing Cattle.
(6) Determining the IgG concentrations in bovine colostrum and calf sera with a novel enzymatic assay.
(7) Bulk tank milk ELISA to detect IgG1 prevalence and clustering to determine spatial distribution and risk factors of Fasciola hepatica-infected herds in Mexico.
(8) Effects of the equimolarly mixed cationic-nonionic surfactants of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate 80 on serum proteins-spectroscopic study.
(9) Enhanced immune responses to E2 protein and DNA formulated with ISA 61 VG administered as a DNA prime-protein boost regimen against bovine viral diarrhea virus.
(10) Facile preparation of microporous organic polymers functionalized macroporous hydrophilic resin for selective enrichment of glycopeptides.

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(1) Effects of trace mineral amount and source on aspects of oxidative metabolism and responses to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in midlactation dairy cows.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30322418
Publication Date : //
Trace minerals have important roles in immune function and oxidative metabolism; however, little is known about the relationships between supplementation level and source with outcomes in dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=48) beginning at 60 to 140 days in milk were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral amount and source on aspects of oxidative metabolism and responses to intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Cows were fed a basal diet meeting National Research Council (NRC) requirements except for no added zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or manganese (Mn). After a 4-week preliminary period, cows were assigned to one of four topdress treatments in a randomized complete block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) NRC inorganic (NRC levels using inorganic (sulfate-based) trace mineral supplements only); (2) NRC organic (NRC levels using organic trace mineral supplements (metals chelated to 2-hydroxy-4-(methythio)-butanoic acid); (3) commercial inorganic (approximately 2×NRC levels using inorganic trace mineral supplements only; and (4) commercial organic (commercial levels using organic trace mineral supplements only). Cows were fed the respective mineral treatments for 6 weeks. Treatment effects were level, source and their interaction. Activities of super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in erythrocyte lysate and concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma were measured as indices of oxidative metabolism. Effects of treatment on those indices were not significant when evaluated across the entire experimental period. Plasma immunoglobulin G level was higher in cows supplemented with organic trace minerals over the entire treatment period; responses assessed as differences of before and after Escherichia coli J5 bacterin vaccination at the end of week 2 of treatment period were not significant. Cows were administered an intramammary LPS challenge during week 5; during week 6 cows fed commercial levels of Zn, Cu and Mn tended to have higher plasma TAC and cows fed organic sources had decreased plasma TBARS. After the LPS challenge, the extent and pattern of response of plasma cortisol concentrations and clinical indices (rectal temperature and heart rate) were not affected by trace mineral level and source. Productive performance including dry matter intake and milk yield and composition were not affected by treatment. Overall, results suggest that the varying level and source of dietary trace minerals do not have significant short-term effects on oxidative metabolism indices and clinical responses to intramammary LPS challenge in midlactation cows.

Authors : Yasui T, Ehrhardt R M, Bowman G R, Vázquez-Añon M, Richards J D, Atwell C A, Overton T R,



(2) Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin and (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate/3,4- O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid/Tannic Acid Layer by Layer Assembled Microcapsule for Protecting Immunoglobulin G in Stomach Digestion and Release in Small Intestinal Tract.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30277397
Publication Date : //
The protein-polyphenol layer by layer (LbL) assembled polymer composite microcapsule is a considerable delivery system that can be used to improve the bioactive stability and effectiveness of natural compounds in various applications. In the present study, three kinds of polyphenols were loaded in the sequence of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 3,4- O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA), and tannin acid (TA) to prepare a BSA-polyphenol LbL membrane. The composition of IgG-(BSA-EGCG/3,4-diCQA/TA) microcapsules and their stability and releasing ability in the gastrointestinal tract were evaluated. In addition, by binding of these three kinds of polyphenols to BSA, the thermal denaturation temperature and ordered secondary structure of the BSA-polyphenol microcapsules were increased, and the time of scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) free radicals was significantly prolonged. These findings suggest that (BSA-EGCG/3,4-diCQA/TA) microcapsules can not only protect IgG in food processing and stomach digestion but also release it in the small intestinal tract for bioactive delivery.

Authors : Chen Chunxu, Chen Guijie, Wan Peng, Chen Dan, Zhu Tao, Hu Bing, Sun Yi, Zeng Xiaoxiong,



(3) Induction of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Monocytes by Bovine Milk and Milk-Derived Immunoglobulin G.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30262772
Publication Date : //
Innate immune memory, also termed "trained immunity" in vertebrates, has been recently described in a large variety of plants and animals. In most cases, trained innate immunity is induced by pathogens or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and is associated with long-term epigenetic, metabolic, and functional reprogramming. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that food components can mimic PAMPs effects and induce trained immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine milk or its components can induce trained immunity in human monocytes. To this aim, monocytes were exposed for 24 h to β-glucan, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-ligands, bovine milk, milk fractions, bovine lactoferrin (bLF), and bovine Immunoglobulin G (bIgG). After washing away the stimulus and a resting period of five days, the cells were re-stimulated with TLR ligands and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) and interleukin (IL)-6 production was measured. Training with β-glucan resulted in higher cytokine production after TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8 stimulation. When monocytes trained with raw milk were re-stimulated with TLR1/2 ligand Pam3CSK4, trained cells produced more IL-6 compared to non-trained cells. Training with bIgG resulted in higher cytokine production after TLR4 and TLR7/8 stimulation. These results show that bovine milk and bIgG can induce trained immunity in human monocytes. This confirms the hypothesis that diet components can influence the long-term responsiveness of the innate immune system.

Authors : van Splunter Marloes, van Osch Thijs L J, Brugman Sylvia, Savelkoul Huub F J, Joosten Leo A B, Netea Mihai G, van Neerven R J Joost,



(4) 3D cryogel composites as adsorbent for isolation of protein and small molecules.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30262055
Publication Date : //
A green and promising sample pretreatment method was successfully established, which efficiently isolated proteins and small molecules in human serum. This method was achieved based on the multifunctional polymer, cryogel, as a solid phase extraction (SPE) monolith easily equipped in a syringe. The cryogel (pDC/GO-DE) was composed of diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DC) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HE), which was further modified with graphene oxide (GO) and N-diethylethanamine hydrobromide (DE). Various proteins, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (Lys), γ-globulins, immunoglobulin G (IgG), transferrin, small molecules (ribavirin, adenosine, ofloxacin, estriol, rutin, amoxicillin, ibuprofen, 1-methyl-3-phenyl-propylamine, and benzylamine) and their mixtures were successively studied as model analytes to evaluate the new material and demonstrate the isolation mechanism, which was mainly dependent on mixed-mode ion-exchange and the hybrid hydrophobicity-hydrophilicity property of pDC/GO-DE cryogel. Moreover, the three-dimensional macroporous structure contributed to the underlying size-selective isolation. When 10 times diluted human serum was used as the sample, more than 95% of proteins were adsorbed within 10 min under physiological conditions, and the interference matrix in serum was also efficiently reduced. After recycling three times, the extraction ratio of proteins in human serum was still higher than 90%. When four small molecules (camptothecin, ribavirin, 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine and ofloxacin) were added to blank human serum, their recoveries were within 65.6-81.8%, and were comparable to those obtained by protein precipitation method (63.7-83.2%).

Authors : Zhao Shuling, Wang Dongdong, Zhu Shuqiang, Liu Xiaoyan, Zhang Haixia,



(5) Effects of Nickel Supplementation on Antioxidant Status, Immune Characteristics, and Energy and Lipid Metabolism in Growing Cattle.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30238420
Publication Date : //
Nickel (Ni) has not been elucidated as an essential mineral in dairy animals, though in plants and lower organisms, its role in activation of urease enzyme is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ni supplementation on intake, growth performance, urease activity, antioxidant and immune status, and energy and lipid metabolism in growing cattle. Eighteen growing Hariana heifers were randomly allocated into three groups on body weight (125 ± 3.0 kg) and age basis (10 ± 2.0 months). Feeding regimen was similar in all the groups except that treatment groups were supplemented with 0.0 (Ni), 1.5 (Ni), and 3.0 (Ni) mg of Ni/kg dry matter (DM) in three respective groups. DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency, plasma urease activity, biomarkers of antioxidant and immune status, energy and lipid metabolism, and plasma Ni levels were observed during the 90-day experimental period. There was linear increase (p < 0.05) in mean DMI and ADG without affecting feed efficiency was observed in 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM supplemented heifers. Dietary Ni supplementation showed linear increase (p < 0.05) in mean plasma urease activity. No effects of (p > 0.05) of Ni supplementation were observed on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity and plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) concentration; whereas, mean plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) showed linear decrease (p < 0.001) in Ni-supplemented groups. Adding Ni up to 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM did not exert (p > 0.05) any effect on plasma total immunoglobulin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. Mean plasma cortisol level showed negative association with supplemental Ni levels and concentration was found lowest (p < 0.05) in 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM-added group. Dietary Ni supplementation did not affect mean plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). There was a linear increase (p < 0.001) in plasma Ni concentrations as the Ni concentrations increased in the diet. The results of present study indicated that dietary supplementation of 3.0 mg of Ni/kg DM improved performance of growing cattle by increasing urease activity.

Authors : Singh Anuj, Kumar Muneendra, Kumar Vinod, Roy Debashis, Kushwaha Raju, Vaswani Shalini, Kumar Avinash,



(6) Determining the IgG concentrations in bovine colostrum and calf sera with a novel enzymatic assay.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30214721
Publication Date : //
Immune protection in newborn calves relies on a combination of the timing, volume and quality of colostrum consumed by the calf after birth. Poor quality colostrum with inadequate immunoglobulin concentration contributes to failed transfer of passive immunity in calves, leading to higher calf morbidity and mortality. Therefore, estimating colostrum quality and ensuring the transfer of passive immunity on farm is of critical importance. Currently, there are no on-farm tools that directly measure immunoglobulin content in colostrum or serum. The aim of this study was to apply a novel molecular assay, split trehalase immunoglobulin G assay (STIGA), to directly estimate immunoglobulin content in dairy and beef colostrum and calf sera, and to examine its potential to be developed as on-farm test. The STIGA is based on a split version of trehalase TreA, an enzyme that converts trehalose into glucose, enabling the use of a common glucometer for signal detection. In a first study, 60 dairy and 64 beef colostrum and 83 dairy and 84 beef calf sera samples were tested with STIGA, and the resulting glucose production was measured and compared with radial immunodiffusion, the standard method for measuring immunoglobulin concentrations.

Authors : Drikic M, Windeyer C, Olsen S, Fu Y, Doepel L, De Buck J,



(7) Bulk tank milk ELISA to detect IgG1 prevalence and clustering to determine spatial distribution and risk factors of Fasciola hepatica-infected herds in Mexico.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30178720
Publication Date : //
Fasciola hepatica is a helminth parasite that causes huge economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. Fasciolosis is an emerging foodborne zoonotic disease that affects both humans and grazing animals. This study investigated the associations between climatic/environmental factors (derived from satellite data) and management factors affecting the spatial distribution of this liver fluke in cattle herds across different climate zones in three Mexican states. A bulk-tank milk (BTM) IgG1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used to detect F. hepatica infection levels of 717 cattle herds between January and April 2015. Management data were collected from the farms by questionnaire. The parasite's overall herd prevalence and mean optical density ratio (ODR) were 62.76% and 0.67, respectively. The presence of clustered F. hepatica infections was studied using the spatial scan statistic. Three marked clusters in the spatial distribution of the parasite were observed. Logistic regression was used to test three models of potential statistical association from the ELISA results using climatic, environmental and management variables. The final model based on climatic/environmental and management variables included the following factors: rainfall, elevation, proportion of grazed grass in the diet, contact with other herds, herd size, parasite control use and education level as significant predictors. Geostatistical kriging was applied to generate a risk map for the presence of parasites in dairy herds in Mexico. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of F. hepatica in Mexican cattle herds is influenced by multifactorial effects and should be considered in developing regionally adapted control measures.

Authors : Villa-Mancera A, Reynoso-Palomar A,



(8) Effects of the equimolarly mixed cationic-nonionic surfactants of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate 80 on serum proteins-spectroscopic study.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30145466
Publication Date : //
Liposomes are a common delivery vehicle for drugs or biologicals, but some common surfactants used as liposome components may cause denaturation and malfunction of serum proteins and cell surface proteins. In this study, we examined the effects of liposome lipid didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), nonionic polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate 80 (Tween 80), and the equimolar mixture on the properties of serum proteins. Bovine serum albumin was selected as the main model protein, and the effects of the DDAB, Tween 80, and a 1:1 mixture on its spectroscopic behavior were investigated. The effects of surfactants on the five major serum proteins: human serum albumin, apolipoprotein A1, transferrin, fibrinogen and immunoglobulin G were also examined. Finally, the results were verified on human serum. The results indicated that weak interactions exist between human serum proteins and the equimolar mixture of DDAB-Tween 80, significantly different from the strong interactions of DDAB and Tween 80 with proteins. The salient features of cationic-nonionic surfactants enable their use in liposome composition, with improved drug delivery efficiency.

Authors : Qiao Hua, Li Bo, Zhang Huichao, Liu Dan, Diao Haipeng, Sun Gongqin, Xie Jun,



(9) Enhanced immune responses to E2 protein and DNA formulated with ISA 61 VG administered as a DNA prime-protein boost regimen against bovine viral diarrhea virus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30077483
Publication Date : //
The aim of this study was to develop and test an optimal vaccination strategy against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) based on the E2 glycoprotein of the BJ1305 strain. To achieve higher E2-specific antibody titers and to broaden the cellular immune response, a plasmid encoding the E2 protein (pcDNA3.1-E2) was constructed and a purified recombinant E2 protein was generated. The E2 protein was emulsified in the adjuvant ISA 61 VG prior to administration. We immunized mice three times with pcDNA3.1-E2 or the recombinant E2 protein or primed twice with pcDNA3.1-E2 and boosted once with the E2 protein. To evaluate the protection against BVDV conferred by the vaccines, the mice were challenged with BVDV strain Oregon C24V after the third immunization. Although all immunized mice developed humoral and cellular immune responses, the E2-specific antibody titers in the DNA prime-protein boost group were significantly higher than those elicited by either the DNA or the protein vaccine. In addition, vaccination with the E2 DNA vaccine induced higher percentages of CD4IFN-γ T cells and CD8IFN-γ T cells among total CD3 T cells than the other regimens. The predominant antibody subclass in the vaccinated mice was IgG1. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels in the DNA prime-protein boost group were significantly higher after the third immunization than in the other groups. Moreover, the mice treated with the DNA prime-protein boost vaccination regimen acquired protection against BVDV challenge, as shown by a significant reduction of viremia, only minor pathological changes, and a lower viral antigen burden than in the control and solo vaccinated mice. These results demonstrate the potential advantage of a DNA prime-protein boost vaccination approach over a solo vaccination for the prevention of BVDV. The ability of this vaccine strategy to control and eradicate BVD in herds warrants further investigation.

Authors : Cai Dongjie, Song Quanjiang, Duan Cong, Wang Shenghua, Wang Jiufeng, Zhu Yaohong,



(10) Facile preparation of microporous organic polymers functionalized macroporous hydrophilic resin for selective enrichment of glycopeptides.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30032777
Publication Date : //
A macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) with ∼10 μm diameter was synthesized by seed-swelling polymerization and further modified with a layer of microporous organic polymers (MOP) by "one-pot" solvothermal reaction. The resulting MAR@MOP exhibited high specific surface area of 131.3 m/g, which was higher than that of pristine MAR (57.8 m/g). The contact angle also decreased from 58.8° (MAR) to 24° (MAR@MOP), indicating that the MOP was successfully grafted onto the surface of MAR. The chemical composition of MAR@MOP was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, C NMR and element analysis. The enrichment efficiency of MAR@MOP to glycopeptides was demonstrated by trapping N-linked glycopeptides from tryptic digests of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and bovine fetuin. Furthermore, 879 unique N-glycosylation sites in 811 unique glycopeptides sequence mapped to 516 N-glycosylated proteins were identified in three replicate analyses of proteins extracted from mouse liver. Therefore, this hydrophilic MOP-coated adsorbent would be applied in the enrichment and identification of low-abundance N-linked glycopeptides in complicated biological samples.

Authors : Li Ya, Wang Hongwei, You Xin, Ma Shujuan, Dong Jing, Wei Yinmao, Ou Junjie, Ye Mingliang,