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IgG, Bovine; ELISA

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[#YSRTPBP002] IgG, Bovine; ELISA


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(1) Effects of pegbovigrastim administration on periparturient diseases, milk production, and reproductive performance of Holstein cows.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30316593
Publication Date : //
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treating Holstein cows with pegbovigrastim on periparturient diseases, milk production, and reproductive performance while exploring the mode of action of an immunomodulatory protein. Cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments, untreated control (CTR, n = 423) and pegbovigrastim (PEG, n = 417). At 7 d from the anticipated calving date (d -7), cows allocated to PEG received a subcutaneous injection of 15 mg of pegylated recombinant bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (pegbovigrastim injection, Imrestor, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). A second injection was administered within 24 h after calving (d 0). Blood samples were obtained from a subset of cows (CTR, n = 103; PEG, n = 102) at -7 and 0, 3, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. Samples were used for hemogram and quantification of haptoglobin, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and trace and macro minerals. Vaginal cytobrush was performed on the same subset cows at d 0, 7, and 14 to assess the relative neutrophil count. Additionally, colostrum samples were collected to measure IgG, IgM, IgA, and lactoferrin concentrations. Postpartum disease occurrence was recorded from calving until 30 d in milk (DIM). Weekly milk yield was recorded for the first 12 wk after calving. Cows treated with PEG had a 3- to 4-fold increase in circulating polymorphonuclear leukocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte numbers, with a peak at 3 d after treatment followed by a gradual decline, but the counts remained significantly greater compared with CTR at 14 DIM. The administration of PEG did not affect the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, retained fetal membranes, metritis, puerperal metritis, and endometritis. Primiparous cows treated with PEG tended to have lower odds of developing hyperketonemia than CTR [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23 to 1.42]. Cows treated with PEG had higher odds of being diagnosed with lameness within 30 DIM compared with CTR (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.76); however, we found no significant differences by 60 DIM. Treatment with PEG increased the odds of displaced abomasum (OR = 8.27, 95% CI = 1.02 to 66.6). Cows treated with PEG had higher odds of being diagnosed with 1 or more clinical diseases compared with CTR cows (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.90). We observed no differences in linear scores or milk composition between treatments. Furthermore, primiparous cows treated with PEG produced more milk than CTR primiparous cows during the first 12 wk postpartum (PEG = 37.51 ± 0.66; CTR = 35.91 ± 0.65 kg), but no differences were observed on energy-corrected milk. Treatment did not alter reproductive performance; additionally, cows diagnosed with metritis or puerperal metritis and treated with PEG tended to have higher proportion of neutrophils in the vaginal mucosa when compared with CTR metritic cows. Although PEG treatment increased circulating polymorphonuclear leukocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte numbers, as expected, it was detrimental to cow health because it increased morbidity.

Authors : Zinicola M, Korzec H, Teixeira A G V, Ganda E K, Bringhenti L, Tomazi A C C H, Gilbert R O, Bicalho R C,

(2) An observational study on passive immunity in Irish suckler beef and dairy calves: Tests for failure of passive transfer of immunity and associations with health and performance.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30314781
Publication Date : //
The study objectives were to: 1) evaluate the diagnostic performance of passive immunity tests for classification of failure of passive transfer (FPT) risk, based on their relationships with calf health and performance, and 2) describe the epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in suckler beef and dairy calves under Irish conditions. A total of 1392 suckler beef calves (n = 111 farms) and 2090 dairy calves (84 farms) were included in this observational study. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture. Serum samples were analysed for total IgG concentration using an ELISA assay, total protein concentration by clinical analyser (TP - CA), globulin concentration, zinc sulphate turbidity (ZST) units, total solids percentage by Brix refractometer (TS - BRIX), and total protein concentration by digital refractometer (TP - DR). Crude and cause-specific morbidity, all-cause mortality, and standardised 205-day body weight (BW) were determined. Generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between suckler beef and dairy calves for morbidity, mortality, growth and passive immunity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine optimal test cut-offs for classification of health and growth outcomes. Overall, 20% of suckler beef and 30% of dairy calves were treated for at least one disease event by 6 mo. of age. Suckler beef calves had greater odds of bovine respiratory disease (BRD; odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.8, 1.2-6.5, P = 0.01), navel infection (5.1, 1.9-13.2, P < 0.001), and joint infection/lameness (3.2, 1.3-7.8, P = 0.01) during the first 6 mo. of life than dairy calves. In addition, from birth to 6 mo. of age, suckler beef calves had greater rates of navel infection (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 95% CI: 3.3, 1.3-8.4, P = 0.01), but decreased rates of diarrhoea (0.9, 0.2-0.9, P = 0.03) compared to dairy calves. Optimal test cut-offs for classification of morbidity and mortality outcomes in suckler beef calves ranged from 8 to 9 mg/ml ELISA, 56 to 61 g/l TP - CA, 26 to 40 g/l globulin, 12 to 18 ZST units, 8.4% TS - BRIX, and 5.3 to 6.3 g/dl TP - DR. Optimal test cut-offs for classification of morbidity and growth outcomes in dairy calves ranged from 10 to 12 mg/ml ELISA, 57 to 60 g/l TP - CA, 29 to 34 g/l globulin, 19 ZST units, 7.8 to 8.4% TS - BRIX, and 5.7 to 5.9 g/dl TP - DR.

Authors : Todd C G, McGee M, Tiernan K, Crosson P, O'Riordan E, McClure J, Lorenz I, Earley B,

(3) Ascorbic acid synthesis and transportation capacity in old laying hens and the effects of dietary supplementation with ascorbic acid.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30305897
Publication Date : //
Laying hens over 75 weeks of age commonly show great declines in immunity and production performance. It is unclear whether these declines can be relieved by supplementing with ascorbic acid (AA) in feed. Two trials were conducted to investigate the synthesis and metabolism of AA in layers of different ages and the effects of dietary supplemental AA on the performance and the immune and antioxidant statuses of 78 weeks old hens.

Authors : Gan Liping, Fan Hao, Nie Wei, Guo Yuming,

(4) Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin and (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate/3,4- O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid/Tannic Acid Layer by Layer Assembled Microcapsule for Protecting Immunoglobulin G in Stomach Digestion and Release in Small Intestinal Tract.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30277397
Publication Date : //
The protein-polyphenol layer by layer (LbL) assembled polymer composite microcapsule is a considerable delivery system that can be used to improve the bioactive stability and effectiveness of natural compounds in various applications. In the present study, three kinds of polyphenols were loaded in the sequence of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 3,4- O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA), and tannin acid (TA) to prepare a BSA-polyphenol LbL membrane. The composition of IgG-(BSA-EGCG/3,4-diCQA/TA) microcapsules and their stability and releasing ability in the gastrointestinal tract were evaluated. In addition, by binding of these three kinds of polyphenols to BSA, the thermal denaturation temperature and ordered secondary structure of the BSA-polyphenol microcapsules were increased, and the time of scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) free radicals was significantly prolonged. These findings suggest that (BSA-EGCG/3,4-diCQA/TA) microcapsules can not only protect IgG in food processing and stomach digestion but also release it in the small intestinal tract for bioactive delivery.

Authors : Chen Chunxu, Chen Guijie, Wan Peng, Chen Dan, Zhu Tao, Hu Bing, Sun Yi, Zeng Xiaoxiong,

(5) Anti-DNase I Antibody: A New Serological Reactivity in Primary Sjögren Syndrome.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30273262
Publication Date : //
Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease that particularly affects exocrine glands. Dry eye is one of the most important features of this syndrome, and a recent study reported reduced deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) activity in the tear of patients with dry eye. We therefore postulated that patients with pSS might have antibodies targeting DNAse I.

Authors : Griffo Priscilla, Viana Vilma V S T, Pasoto Sandra G, Leon Elaine P, Bonfa Eloisa,

(6) Induction of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Monocytes by Bovine Milk and Milk-Derived Immunoglobulin G.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30262772
Publication Date : //
Innate immune memory, also termed "trained immunity" in vertebrates, has been recently described in a large variety of plants and animals. In most cases, trained innate immunity is induced by pathogens or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and is associated with long-term epigenetic, metabolic, and functional reprogramming. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that food components can mimic PAMPs effects and induce trained immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine milk or its components can induce trained immunity in human monocytes. To this aim, monocytes were exposed for 24 h to β-glucan, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-ligands, bovine milk, milk fractions, bovine lactoferrin (bLF), and bovine Immunoglobulin G (bIgG). After washing away the stimulus and a resting period of five days, the cells were re-stimulated with TLR ligands and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) and interleukin (IL)-6 production was measured. Training with β-glucan resulted in higher cytokine production after TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8 stimulation. When monocytes trained with raw milk were re-stimulated with TLR1/2 ligand Pam3CSK4, trained cells produced more IL-6 compared to non-trained cells. Training with bIgG resulted in higher cytokine production after TLR4 and TLR7/8 stimulation. These results show that bovine milk and bIgG can induce trained immunity in human monocytes. This confirms the hypothesis that diet components can influence the long-term responsiveness of the innate immune system.

Authors : van Splunter Marloes, van Osch Thijs L J, Brugman Sylvia, Savelkoul Huub F J, Joosten Leo A B, Netea Mihai G, van Neerven R J Joost,

(7) 3D cryogel composites as adsorbent for isolation of protein and small molecules.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30262055
Publication Date : //
A green and promising sample pretreatment method was successfully established, which efficiently isolated proteins and small molecules in human serum. This method was achieved based on the multifunctional polymer, cryogel, as a solid phase extraction (SPE) monolith easily equipped in a syringe. The cryogel (pDC/GO-DE) was composed of diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DC) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HE), which was further modified with graphene oxide (GO) and N-diethylethanamine hydrobromide (DE). Various proteins, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (Lys), γ-globulins, immunoglobulin G (IgG), transferrin, small molecules (ribavirin, adenosine, ofloxacin, estriol, rutin, amoxicillin, ibuprofen, 1-methyl-3-phenyl-propylamine, and benzylamine) and their mixtures were successively studied as model analytes to evaluate the new material and demonstrate the isolation mechanism, which was mainly dependent on mixed-mode ion-exchange and the hybrid hydrophobicity-hydrophilicity property of pDC/GO-DE cryogel. Moreover, the three-dimensional macroporous structure contributed to the underlying size-selective isolation. When 10 times diluted human serum was used as the sample, more than 95% of proteins were adsorbed within 10 min under physiological conditions, and the interference matrix in serum was also efficiently reduced. After recycling three times, the extraction ratio of proteins in human serum was still higher than 90%. When four small molecules (camptothecin, ribavirin, 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine and ofloxacin) were added to blank human serum, their recoveries were within 65.6-81.8%, and were comparable to those obtained by protein precipitation method (63.7-83.2%).

Authors : Zhao Shuling, Wang Dongdong, Zhu Shuqiang, Liu Xiaoyan, Zhang Haixia,

(8) Serologic Survey and Risk Factors for Infection among Dairy Cattle Farmers in Korea.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30250410
Publication Date : //
The zoonotic disease Q fever is caused by and usually affects high-risk human populations. We conducted a serological survey of dairy cattle farmers in Korea to determine seroreactivity and identify risk factors for infection.

Authors : Park Ji-Hyuk, Chu Hyuk, Yoo Seok-Ju, Hwang Kyu-Jam, Lim Hyun-Sul,

(9) Ketoprofen affects the mammary immune response in dairy cows in vivo and in vitro.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30243628
Publication Date : //
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly administered parenterally in addition to antimicrobial mastitis therapy to increase the well-being of the diseased animal. As mastitis is usually a localized infection of mammary tissue, we tested the hypothesis that a local administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through the teat canal could have anti-inflammatory effects on the affected area. We investigated the effects of intramammarily administered ketoprofen (KET) during an LPS-induced immune response on somatic cell count (SCC) and blood-milk barrier integrity. In addition, we investigated the effects of KET on the mRNA abundance of immune factors and their prostaglandin E2 secretion in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro. Six cows received 0.2 µg of LPS (serotype O26:B6) together with 50 mg of KET into one quarter and LPS only in the opposing quarter. The increase of SCC and of serum albumin (SA) and IgG concentrations and the increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in milk induced by LPS were lower in quarters that received KET in addition. In 3 cows, intramammary KET (50 mg) without additional LPS did not affect SCC, SA, IgG, and LDH in milk. Effects of KET on the immune response of mammary epithelial cells in vitro were investigated in cells from 3 cows challenged with or without LPS (0.2 µg/mL) and with or without additional KET in 2 concentrations (1.25 or 2.5 mg/mL). Ketoprofen reduced the LPS-induced increase of mRNA abundance of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-8, serum amyloid A, and cyclooxygenase-2. The mRNA abundance of cyclooxygenase-1 and prostaglandin E synthase was reduced in cells without LPS challenge by addition of KET at 2.5 mg/mL. Furthermore, the LPS-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 of mammary epithelial cells into the supernatant could not be detected if KET was added. The results demonstrate that intramammary KET diminishes the increase of SCC and reduces the impairment of the blood-milk barrier (based on SA and LDH in milk), leading to a reduced IgG concentration in milk during LPS-induced mastitis. In mammary epithelial cells, KET limits the expression of several immune factors that are increased during an immune response. In summary, intramammary administration of KET reduces the inflammatory response in the mammary gland. However, it remains unclear whether the inhibited transfer of immune cells and IgG from blood into milk after KET administration would reduce the success of the immune defense in infectious mastitis.

Authors : Dan Denisa, Bruckmaier Rupert M, Wellnitz Olga,

(10) A genome-wide association study for natural antibodies measured in blood of Canadian Holstein cows.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30241501
Publication Date : //
Natural antibodies (NAb) are an important component of the innate immune system, and fight infections as a part of the first line defence. NAb are poly-reactive and can respond non-specifically to antigens. Therefore, NAb may be a key trait when evaluating an animal's potential natural disease resistance. Variation in NAb is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study genetic parameters of NAb were estimated and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to gain further understanding on the genes that are responsible for the observed genetic variation of NAb in Canadian Holsteins.

Authors : de Klerk Britt, Emam Mehdi, Thompson-Crispi Kathleen A, Sargolzaei Mehdi, van der Poel Johan J, Mallard Bonnie A,