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IgG, Bovine; ELISA

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[#YSRTPBP002] IgG, Bovine; ELISA

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(1) Non-interference of Bovine-Human reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine ROTASIIL® with the immunogenicity of infant vaccines in comparison with a licensed rotavirus vaccine.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30104114
Publication Date : //
A newly developed bovine-human reassortant pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV, ROTASIIL®) was tested for its potential effect on the immunogenicity of concomitantly administered EPI vaccines in infants in a randomized controlled study in India.

Authors : Desai Sajjad, Rathi Niraj, Kawade Anand, Venkatramanan Padmasani, Kundu Ritabrata, Lalwani Sanjay K, Dubey A P, Venkateswara Rao J, Narayanappa D, Ghildiyal Radha, Gogtay Nithya J, Venugopal P, Palkar Sonali, Munshi Renuka, Bavdekar Ashish, Juvekar Sanjay, Ganguly Nupur, Niyogi Prabal, Uttam Kheya Ghosh, Kondekar Alpana, Kumbhar Dipti, Mohanlal Smilu, Agarwal Mukesh C, Shetty Parvan, Antony Kalpana, Gunale Bhagwat, Dharmadhikari Abhijeet, Deshpande Jagdish, Nalavade Uma, Sharma Deepa, Bansal Anurag, Tang Yuxiao, Flores Jorge, Kulkarni Prasad S,



(2) A Bovine Adenoviral Vector-Based H5N1 Influenza -Vaccine Provides Enhanced Immunogenicity and Protection at a Significantly Low Dose.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30101154
Publication Date : //
Several human and nonhuman adenovirus (AdV) vectors including bovine AdV type 3 (BAdV-3) were developed as gene delivery vectors to supplement and/or elude human AdV (HAdV)-specific neutralizing antibodies (vector immunity). Here we evaluated the vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy of BAdV-3 vector (BAd-H5HA) expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of a H5N1 influenza virus in a dose escalation study in mice with the intranasal (IN) or intramuscular (IM) route of inoculation in comparison with the HAdV type C5 (HAdV-C5) vector (HAd-H5HA) expressing HA of a H5N1 influenza virus. Dose-related increases in the immune responses were clearly noticeable. A single IM inoculation with BAd-H5HA resulted in enhanced cellular immune responses compared with that of HAd-H5HA and conferred complete protection following challenge with a heterologous H5N1 virus at the dose of 3 × 10 plaque-forming units (PFUs), whereas a significant amount of influenza virus was detected in the lungs of mice immunized with 1 × 10 PFUs of HAd-H5HA. Similarly, compared with that of HAd-H5HA, a single IN inoculation with BAd-H5HA produced significantly enhanced humoral (HA-specific immunoglobulin [IgG] and its subclasses, as well as HA-specific IgA) and cellular immune responses, and conferred complete protection following challenge with a heterologous H5N1 virus. Complete protection with BAd-H5HA was observed with the lowest vaccine dose (1 × 10 PFUs), but similar protection with HAd-H5HA was observed at the highest vaccine dose (1 × 10 PFUs). These results suggest that at least 30-fold dose sparing can be achieved with BAd-H5HA vector compared with HAd-H5HA vaccine vector.

Authors : Sayedahmed Ekramy E, Hassan Ahmed O, Kumari Rashmi, Cao Weiping, Gangappa Shivaprakash, York Ian, Sambhara Suryaprakash, Mittal Suresh K,



(3) The latest FAD - Faecal antibody detection in cattle. Protocol and results from three UK beef farms naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30086804
Publication Date : //
Antibodies at gastrointestinal mucosal membranes play a vital role in immunological protection against a range of pathogens, including helminths. Gastrointestinal health is central to efficient livestock production, and such infections cause significant losses. Fecal samples were taken from 114 cattle, across three beef farms, with matched blood samples taken from 22 of those animals. To achieve fecal antibody detection, a novel fecal supernatant was extracted. Fecal supernatant and serum samples were then analysed, using adapted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocols, for levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, IgM, and Teladorsagia circumcincta-specific IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE (in the absence of reagents for cattle-specific nematode species). Fecal nematode egg counts were conducted on all fecal samples. Assays performed successfully and showed that IgA was the predominant antibody in fecal samples, whereas IgG was predominant in serum. Total IgA in feces and serum correlated within individuals (0.581, P = 0.005), but other Ig types did not. Results support the hypothesis that the tested protocols are an effective method for the non-invasive assessment of cattle immunology. The method could be used as part of animal health assessments, although further work is required to interpret the relationship between results and levels of infection and immunity.

Authors : Cooke A S, Watt K A, Morgan E R, Dungait J A J,



(4) Recording Heart Rate Variability of Dairy Cows to the Cloud-Why Smartphones Provide Smart Solutions.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30081480
Publication Date : //
In the last decades, there has been an increasing interest in animal protection and welfare issues. Heart rate variability (HRV) measurement with portable heart rate monitors on cows has established itself as a suitable method for assessing physiological states. However, more forward-looking technologies, already successfully applied to evaluate HRV data, are pushing the market. This study examines the validity and usability of collecting HRV data by exchanging the Polar watch V800 as a receiving unit of the data compared to a custom smartphone application on cows. Therefore, both receivers tap one signal sent by the Polar H7 transmitter simultaneously. Furthermore, there is a lack of suitable methods for the preparation and calculation of HRV parameters, especially for livestock. A method is presented for calculating more robust time domain HRV parameters via median formation. The comparisons of the respective simultaneous recordings were conducted after artifact correction for time domain HRV parameters. High correlations ( = 0.82⁻0.98) for cows as well as for control data set in human being ( = 0.98⁻0.99) were found. The utilization of smart devices and the robust method to determine time domain HRV parameters may be suitable to generate valid HRV data on cows in field-based settings.

Authors : Wierig Maren, Mandtler Leonard P, Rottmann Peter, Stroh Viktor, Müller Ute, Büscher Wolfgang, Plümer Lutz,



(5) Relative virulence in bison and cattle of bison-associated genotypes of Mycoplasma bovis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30080673
Publication Date : //
Mycoplasma bovis, a frequent contributor to polymicrobial respiratory disease in cattle, has recently emerged as a major health problem in North American bison. Strong circumstantial evidence suggests it can be the sole pathogen causing disease manifestations in outbreaks of mortality in bison, but direct evidence is lacking. The goal of this study was to compare clinical signs and lesions in bison and cattle experimentally infected with field isolates of M. bovis recovered from bison. Bison (n = 7) and cattle (n = 6), seronegative for anti-M. bovis IgG, were exposed intranasally to M. bovis and necropsied 4-6 weeks later. Blood and nasal swabs were collected on day 0 (before exposure), day 11 and at necropsy. Samples of lung, lymph node, liver and spleen were also collected at necropsy. The only clinical sign observed was an elevation in the core body temperature of bison during the first few weeks post-exposure. Grossly visible lesions were apparent at necropsy in the lungs of five bison and the lymph node of one bison, while none were evident in cattle. Histologic evaluation revealed moderate to severe pulmonary lesions in four bison but none in cattle. M. bovis was recovered from tissues demonstrating gross lesions and from the lymph nodes of one additional bison and two cattle. All animals seroconverted by the time of necropsy. These data provide the first direct evidence that M. bovis can be a sole or primary cause of respiratory disease in healthy bison, although the isolates used were unable to cause disease in healthy cattle.

Authors : Register Karen B, Olsen Steven C, Sacco Randy E, Ridpath Julia, Falkenberg Shollie, Briggs Robert, Kanipe Carly, Madison Rebecca,



(6) Bovine milk derived skimmed milk powder and whey protein concentrate modulates shedding in the mouse intestinal tract.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30065896
Publication Date : //
Skimmed milk powder (SMP) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were manufactured from fresh milk collected from cows producing high or low Immunoglobulin (Ig) A levels in their milk. In addition commercial products were purchased for use as diluent or control treatments. A murine enteric disease model () was used to assess whether delivery of selected bioactive molecules (IgA, IgG, Lactoferrin (Lf)) or formulation delivery matrix (SMP, WPC) affected faecal shedding of bacteria in infected mice. In trial one, faecal pellets collected from mice fed SMP containing IgA (0.007-0.35 mg/mL), IgG (0.28-0.58 mg/mL) and Lf (0.03-0.1 mg/mL) contained fewer (cfu) compared to control mice fed water (day 8, < 0.04, analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher's unprotected least significant difference (ULSD)). In trial two, WPC containing IgA (0.35-1.66 mg/mL), IgG (0.58-2.36 mg/mL) and Lf (0.02-0.45 mg/mL) did not affect shedding, but SMP again reduced faecal levels (day 12, < 0.04, ANOVA followed by Fisher's ULSD). No was detected in sham phosphate-buffered saline inoculated mice. Mice fed a commercial WPC shed significantly greater numbers of over 4 consecutive days (Fishers ULSD test), compared to control mice fed water. These data indicate that SMP, but not WPC, modulates faecal shedding in infected mice and may impact progression of infection independently of selected bioactive concentration. This suggests that food matrix can impact biological effects of foods.

Authors : Cakebread Julie, Hodgkinson Alison, Wallace Olivia, Callaghan Megan, Hurford Daralyn, Wieliczko Robert, Harris Paul, Haigh Brendan,



(7) Homology between cattle bull sperm and bacterial antigenic proteins viz a viz possible role in immunological infertility.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30058086
Publication Date : //
This study was carried out to investigate the possible presence of identical sperm and bacterial antigens which may cause similar antisperm antibody production leading to lower fertility. Cross-reactive antigens of cattle bull spermatozoa and different bacteria including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Bacillus sp, and Staphylococcus sp were characterized by immunoblotting and mass fingerprinting. Significant cross-reactivity was obtained for 75, 72, 44, 40, 33, 30, 25, 18, 14 kDa proteins with purified IgG of calves, heifers and cows between spermatozoa and the studied bacteria. Significantly (p<0.05) matched cross-reactive 40/33/30 kDa sperm, 33 kDa Staphylococcus sp/Bacillus sp and 40/25 kDa E. coli proteins were analyzed. Mass fingerprinting of 40/33/30 kDa (spermatozoa); 40/25 kDa (E. coli) and 33 kDa (Bacillus/Staphylococcus) proteins revealed their matching with vitellogenin-1-like/mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD/acrosin-binding protein isoform XI; outer membrane insertion signal domain/spore coat protein and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, respectively. Acrosin-binding protein isoform X1 and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD contributes to the capacitation of spermatozoa. Spore coat protein; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of E. coli; Bacillus/ Staphylococcus are 37.6% and 39.01% identical to acrosin-binding protein isoform X1; mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD of cattle bull spermatozoa. It can be interpreted from these observations that cross-reacting antibodies developed against 33/30 kDa sperm proteins and 25, 33 kDa bacterial proteins in cows may affect the functional activity of spermatozoa leading to delayed fertility in heifers and cows. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Authors : Ahuja Ankit Kumar, Cheema Ranjna S,



(8) Short communication: Validation of methods for practically evaluating failed passive transfer of immunity in calves arriving at a veal facility.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30055915
Publication Date : //
Providing a sufficient quantity of high-quality colostrum to male and female calves soon after birth is critical to reduce the risk of disease and mortality. Practical tests have not been validated to determine failed passive transfer of immunity upon arrival at veal facilities. There are many challenges to validation, including the lack of information on the age of the calf and the high prevalence of dehydration. The objective of this study was to validate a semiquantitative IgG antibody test using whole blood and a digital refractometer using serum to determine passive transfer of immunity status. A total of 149 Holstein calves were evaluated upon arrival at a milk-fed veal facility for dehydration status and had blood drawn to evaluate passive transfer of immunity. Serum IgG determined by radial immunodiffusion was used as the gold standard for the validation of the tests, and a cut-off point of <1,000 mg/dL of IgG was used to indicate failed passive transfer of immunity. Serum total protein (STP) was evaluated using a digital refractometer (Misco Palm Abbe no. PA202x, Misco, Solon, OH), and a semiquantitative test (ZAPvet Bovine IgG test, NOWDiagnostics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) was used on whole blood. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to compare STP and IgG levels. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were calculated for STP and the semiquantitative IgG test. A total of 31 calves (21%) had serum IgG <1,000 mg/dL. Twelve percent of calves were showing signs of clinical dehydration when assessed upon arrival. The serum total protein (STP) was very well correlated with the concentration of IgG (R = 0.75). The STP cut point to determine passive transfer was ≥5.1 g/dL, yielding a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 90%. The semiquantitative antibody test on whole blood performed poorly, with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 44%. This study demonstrates that serum total protein is a reliable measure for evaluating passive transfer of immunity and can be used despite a high prevalence of dehydration.

Authors : Renaud D L, Duffield T F, LeBlanc S J, Kelton D F,



(9) Seroprevalence and Virus Activity of Rift Valley Fever in Cattle in Eastern Region of Democratic Republic of the Congo.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30050953
Publication Date : //
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that is characterized by periodic and severe outbreaks in humans and animals. Published information on the occurrence of RVF in domestic animals is very scarce in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). To assess possible circulation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in cattle in the eastern province of DRC, 450 sera collected from cattle in North Kivu, South Kivu, and Ituri provinces were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for the detection of viral Immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for detection of viral RVF RNA. A cumulative anti-RVF IgG prevalence of 6.22% (95% CI 4.25-8.97) was recorded from the three provinces sampled. In North Kivu and Ituri provinces the anti-RVF IgG prevalence was 12.67% [95% CI 7.80-19.07] and 6% [95% CI 2.78-11.08], respectively, while all the sera collected from South Kivu province were negative for anti-RVF IgG antibodies. Anti-RVF IgM prevalence of 1.8% was obtained among sampled animals in the three provinces. None of the positive anti-RVF IgM samples (n=8) was positive for viral RVFV RNA using RT-PCR. Our findings suggest that RVFV is widely distributed among cattle in eastern province of DRC particularly in North Kivu and Ituri provinces although the epidemiological factors supporting this virus circulation remain unknown in these areas.

Authors : Georges Tshilenge M, Justin Masumu, Victor Mbao, Marie Kayembe Jean, Mark Rweyemamu, Léopold Mulumba Mfumu K,



(10) Facile preparation of microporous organic polymers functionalized macroporous hydrophilic resin for selective enrichment of glycopeptides.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30032777
Publication Date : //
A macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) with ∼10 μm diameter was synthesized by seed-swelling polymerization and further modified with a layer of microporous organic polymers (MOP) by "one-pot" solvothermal reaction. The resulting MAR@MOP exhibited high specific surface area of 131.3 m/g, which was higher than that of pristine MAR (57.8 m/g). The contact angle also decreased from 58.8° (MAR) to 24° (MAR@MOP), indicating that the MOP was successfully grafted onto the surface of MAR. The chemical composition of MAR@MOP was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, C NMR and element analysis. The enrichment efficiency of MAR@MOP to glycopeptides was demonstrated by trapping N-linked glycopeptides from tryptic digests of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and bovine fetuin. Furthermore, 879 unique N-glycosylation sites in 811 unique glycopeptides sequence mapped to 516 N-glycosylated proteins were identified in three replicate analyses of proteins extracted from mouse liver. Therefore, this hydrophilic MOP-coated adsorbent would be applied in the enrichment and identification of low-abundance N-linked glycopeptides in complicated biological samples.

Authors : Li Ya, Wang Hongwei, You Xin, Ma Shujuan, Dong Jing, Wei Yinmao, Ou Junjie, Ye Mingliang,