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IgG, Bovine; ELISA

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[#YSRTPBP002] IgG, Bovine; ELISA

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(1) A novel detection method of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in cattle based on Cryptosporidium parvum virus 1.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30544221
Publication Date : //
Cryptosporidium parvum is an important zoonotic parasite that causes significant economic loss in the animal husbandry industry, especially the cattle industry. As there is no specific vaccine or drug against Cryptosporidium, a rapid and accurate method for the detection of C. parvum is of great significance. In this study, colloidal gold strips were developed based on Cryptosporidium parvum virus 1 (CSpV1) for the detection of C. parvum infection in cattle fecal samples. The colloidal gold solution was prepared by reducing trisodium citrate and the CSpV1 #5 monoclonal antibody was labeled with colloidal gold. A polyclonal antibody against the CSpV1 capsid protein and an anti-mouse IgG antibody were coated on the colloidal gold strips for use in the test and control lines, respectively. Our results showed that the detection sensitivity in fecal samples was up to a 1:64 dilution. There was no cross-reaction with Cryptosporidium andersoni or Giardia in the fecal samples. The different preservation conditions (room temperature, 4°C, and 37°C) and preservation time (7, 30, 60, and 90 days) were analyzed. The data showed that the strips could be preserved for 90 days at 4°C and for 60 days at room temperature or 37°C. The colloidal gold strips were used to detect the samples of 120 clinical fecal in Changchun, China. The results indicated that the rate of a positive test was 5% (6/120). This study provides a rapid and accurate method for detecting C. parvum infection in cattle and humans.

Authors : Tai Lixin, Li Jianhua, Yin Jigang, Zhang Nan, Yang Ju, Li He, Yang Zhengtao, Gong Pengtao, Zhang Xichen,



(2) Comparative efficacy of modified-live and inactivated vaccines in boosting responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus following neonatal mucosal priming of beef calves.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30532289
Publication Date : //
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is the leading cause of viral pneumonia in calves, making young passively immune calves candidates for vaccination, and raising issues concerning boosting of neonatally primed responses. To address this, 18, 2-month-old Angus-cross passively immune beef heifer calves that had been primed at birth with a combination viral intranasal vaccine were administered either a parenteral combination vaccine containing modified-live (MLV) BRSV or a similar vaccine containing inactivated BRSV. At 6 months of age, these calves and 2 controls that received only the MLV at 2 months of age were challenged with BRSV aerosol. Two calves, 1 control, and 1 MLV-boosted, developed severe respiratory disease and required euthanasia; the remaining calves developed no or mild respiratory disease and recovered. Calves that received the inactivated booster had significantly higher arterial oxygen concentrations on Day 7 after challenge and had anamnestic BRSV-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies after challenge; the MLV-boosted calves did not. These data suggest that adjuvanted inactivated parenteral BRSV vaccines administered at 2 months of age may provide better boosting for neonatally mucosally primed calves.

Authors : Ellis John, Gow Sheryl, Berenik Adam, Lacoste Stacey, Erickson Nathan,



(3) Seroepidemiological and molecular investigations of infections with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30522982
Publication Date : //
The aim of this study was to detect the seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) in endemic (Kyzylorda) and non-endemic (Almaty) oblasts of Kazakhstan.

Authors : Abdiyeva Karlygash, Turebekov Nurkeldi, Dmitrovsky Andrey, Tukhanova Nur, Shin Anna, Yeraliyeva Lyazat, Heinrich Norbert, Hoelscher Michael, Yegemberdiyeva Ravilya, Shapiyeva Zhanna, Kachiyeva Zulfiya, Zhalmagambetova Aliya, Montag Josef, Dobler Gerhard, Zinner Josua, Wagner Edith, Frey Stefan, Essbauer Sandra,



(4) A Single-Step Gold Nanoparticle-Blood Serum Interaction Assay Reveals Humoral Immunity Development and Immune Status of Animals from Neonates to Adults.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30521752
Publication Date : //
A well-developed, functional immune system is paramount to combat harmful attack from pathogenic organisms and prevent infectious diseases. Newborn animals and humans have only limited immunity upon birth, but their immune functions are expected to develop within weeks to months and eventually to reach a maturity that will provide full protection. Despite the importance of immune activity in animal and human health management, there is no convenient test available that allows for rapid assessment of the state of immune function in non-laboratory settings. Here we report an extremely simple and rapid blood test that may be used in point-of-care clinics or field settings to evaluate the humoral immune status of animals. The test detects a cooperative interaction between a gold nanoparticle and arguably the three most important proteins involved in the immune system: immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and at least one complement protein, C3, in the blood serum. Such interactions cause the gold nanoparticles to form clusters and aggregates. The average particle size of the gold nanoparticle-serum mixture, measured by dynamic light scattering, corresponds positively to the immune status and activity of the subject. Our study demonstrates that the test may be used not only for monitoring the immune function development from neonates to adults, but also for detecting active immune responses during infection. Although data reported here are largely based on murine and bovine models, it is likely that this test will be applicable to humans as well.

Authors : Zheng Tianyu, Crews John, McGill Jodi, Dhume Kunal, Finn Caroline, Strutt Tara, McKinstry Karl K, Huo Qun,



(5) Cytometric Micro-Bead Magnetic Suspension Array for High-Throughput Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin B1.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30520622
Publication Date : //
High-throughput and low-cost detection of mycotoxins in complex matrices is becoming increasingly urgent but still challenged for ultra-sensitive analyses. Here we reported a green and practical cytometric micro-bead magnetic suspension array (CBMSA) strategy for rapid and economical detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in multiple batches of lotus seeds samples. The protocol included the fabrication of the suspension array chips by immobilizing the biotin-modified bovine serum albumin-AFB1 (antigen) onto the surface of streptavidin-coated magnetic micro-beads in a multi-wells array, the indirect immuno-competition of antigen and target of AFB1 in lotus seed samples with the specific antibodies, the rapid magnetic separation regardless complex pretreatment steps, and the ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection of fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (FITC-IgG) probes. After systematical optimization regarding some crucial parameters, the developed CBMSA assay allowed for ultra-sensitive detection of AFB1 with limit of detection as low as 7.8125 pg kg-1. For high-throughput analysis, the CBMSA technique was capable of on-site coinstantaneous detection of 50-100 samples in one operation within 30 s only needing a small amount (50 μL) of solution, which is much cheaper, greener and more user-friendly than conventional techniques. Moreover, CBMSA with magnetic separation are free of multi-times' centrifugation and clean-up steps to avoid unpredictable loss of targets. Since various capture and fluorescent probes can be randomly constructed and bound onto the surface of magnetic micro-beads to establish the ultra-sensitive detection system, the CBMSA technique is very promising for more trace-analytes in complex matrices and for broad point-of-need applications, such as drug screening and real-time high-throughput analysis.

Authors : Liu Xiaofei, Liao Xiaofang, Sun Chaonan, Ying Guangyao, Wei Fang, Xing Xiaoyan, Shi Linchun, Sun Yifan, Zhou Lidong, Kong Weijun,



(6) Field application of an indirect gE ELISA on pooled milk samples for the control of IBR in free and marker vaccinated dairy herds.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30518363
Publication Date : //
The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a new strategy for monitoring the serological response against Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1), the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Bulk milk samples have already been identified as cost effective diagnostic matrices for monitoring purposes. Nevertheless, most eradication programs are still based on individual standard assays. In a region of northwestern Italy (Piedmont), the voluntary eradication program for IBR has become economically unsustainable. Being the prevalence of infection still high, glycoprotein E-deleted marker vaccines are commonly used but gE blocking ELISAs are less sensitive on bulk milk samples compared to blood serum.

Authors : Colitti Barbara, Muratore Elvira, Careddu Maria Elena, Bertolotti Luigi, Iotti Bryan, Giacobini Mario, Profiti Margherita, Nogarol Chiara, Böttcher Jens, Ponzo Andreino, Facelli Roberto, Rosati Sergio,



(7) Accelerated Blood Clearance of Antibodies by Nanosized Click Antidotes.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30516974
Publication Date : //
Long blood half-life is one of the advantages of antibodies over small molecule drugs. At the same time, prolonged half-life is a problem for imaging applications or in the case of antibody-induced toxicities. There is a substantial need for antidotes that can quickly clear antibodies from systemic circulation and peripheral tissues. Engineered nanoparticles exhibit intrinsic affinity for clearance organs (mainly liver and spleen). trans-Cyclooctene (TCO) and methyltetrazine (MTZ) are versatile copper-free click chemistry components that are extensively being used for in vivo bioorthogonal couplings. To test the ability of nanoparticles to eliminate antibodies, we prepared a set of click-modified, clinically relevant antidotes based on several classes of drug carriers: phospholipid-PEG micelles, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and cross-linked dextran iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles. Mice were injected with IRDye 800CW-labeled, click-modified IgG followed by a click-modified antidote or PBS (control), and the levels of the IgG were monitored up to 72 h postinjection. Long-circulating lipid micelles produced a spike in IgG levels at 1 h, decreased IgG levels at 24 h, and did not decrease the area under the curve (AUC) and IgG accumulation in main organs. Long-circulating BSA decreased IgG levels at 1 and 24 h, decreased the AUC, but did not significantly decrease organ accumulation. Long-circulating CLIO nanoworms increased IgG levels at 1 h, decreased IgG levels at 24 h, did not decrease the AUC, and did not decrease the organ accumulation. On the other hand, short-circulating CLIO nanoparticles decreased IgG levels at 1 and 24 h, significantly decreasing the AUC and accumulation in the main organs. Multiple doses of CLIO and BSA were not able to completely eliminate the antibody from blood, despite the click reactivity of the residual IgG, likely due to exchange of IgG between blood and tissue compartments. Pharmacokinetic modeling suggests that short antidote half-life and fast click reaction rate should result in higher IgG depletion efficiency. Short-circulating click-modified nanocarriers are the most effective antidotes for elimination of antibodies from blood. This study sets a stage for future development of antidotes based on nanomedicine.

Authors : Smith Weston J, Wang Guankui, Gaikwad Hanmant, Vu Vivian P, Groman Ernest, Bourne David W A, Simberg Dmitri,



(8) Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among slaughtered indigenous cattle, abattoir personnel and pregnant women in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30509193
Publication Date : //
Brucellosis is a neglected debilitating zoonosis with a high prevalence in many developing countries. Bovine brucellosis is widespread in Cameroon but the epidemiological situation of human brucellosis is not known. A cross sectional study was carried to determine the seroprevalence and factors associated with bovine and human Brucellosis among abattoir personnel and pregnant women in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon.

Authors : Awah-Ndukum Julius, Mouiche Mohamed Moctar Mouliom, Kouonmo-Ngnoyum Lucy, Bayang Houli Nicolas, Manchang Tanyi Kingsley, Poueme Rodrigue Simonet Namegni, Kouamo Justin, Ngu-Ngwa Victor, Assana Emmanuel, Feussom Kameni Jean Marc, Zoli André Pagnah,



(9) Animals as amplify hosts in the spread of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus A systematic review and meta-analysis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30500443
Publication Date : //
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome visus (SFTSV). Both seroprevalence of anti-SFTSV antibodies specific to SFTSV (IgG or IgM) in differences animal hosts had been investigated in many epidemiological studies without systemic estimated. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis reaching a more comprehensive result to clarify prevalence of SFTSV in animals.

Authors : Chen Can, Li Peng, Li Ke-Feng, Wang Hong-Ling, Dai Ya-Xin, Cheng Xi, Yan Jian-Bo,



(10) Serological evidence of inter-epizootic/inter-epidemic circulation of Rift Valley fever virus in domestic cattle in Kyela and Morogoro, Tanzania.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30418975
Publication Date : //
Tanzania is among the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootic/endemic countries in sub Saharan Africa, where RVF disease outbreaks occur within a range of 3 to 17-year intervals. Detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antibodies in animals in regions with no previous history of outbreaks raises the question of whether the disease is overlooked due to lack-of effective surveillance systems, or if there are strains of RVFV with low pathogenicity. Furthermore, which vertebrate hosts are involved in the inter-epidemic and inter-epizootic maintenance of RVFV? In our study region, the Kyela and Morogoro districts in Tanzania, no previous RVF outbreaks have been reported.

Authors : Matiko Mirende Kichuki, Salekwa Linda Peniel, Kasanga Christopher Jacob, Kimera Sharadhuli Idd, Evander Magnus, Nyangi Wambura Philemon,