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Granulocyte_Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM_CSF), Clone CC305, Mab anti_Bovine; ELISA_WB

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[#YSRTMCA1828] Granulocyte_Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM_CSF), Clone CC305, Mab anti_Bovine; ELISA_WB

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YSRTMCA1828 | Granulocyte_Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM_CSF), Clone CC305, Mab anti_Bovine; ELISA_WB, 0.5 mg.
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(1) Sarcodon imbricatus polysaccharides improve mouse hematopoietic function after cyclophosphamide-induced damage via G-CSF mediated JAK2/STAT3 pathway.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29784961
Publication Date : //
Sarcodon imbricatus, a rare medicinal and edible fungus, has various pharmacological bioactivities. We investigated the effects of S. imbricatus polysaccharides (SIPS) on hematopoietic function and identified the underlying mechanisms using in vitro experiments with CHRF, K562, and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) and in vivo experiments with a mouse model of cyclophosphamide-induced hematopoietic dysfunction. We found that SIPS induced proliferation and differentiation of CHRF and K562 cells and upregulated the expression of hematopoietic-related proteins, including p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK1p90), c-Myc, and ETS transcription factor, in the two cell lines. After 28 days of treatment, SIPS enhanced the bodyweight and thymus indices of the mice, alleviated enlargement of the spleen and liver, and contributed to the recovery of peripheral blood to normal levels. More importantly, the percentages of B lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem cells or hematopoietic progenitor cells were significantly elevated in bone marrow. Based on an antibody chip analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, SIPS were found to successfully regulate 12 cytokines to healthy levels in serum and spleen. The cytokines included the following: interleukins 1Ra, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, tumor necrosis factor α, interferonγ, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), C-C motif chemokine1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein1. Moreover, SIPS upregulated the phosphorylation levels of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the spleen, and similar results were validated in CHRF cells, K562 cells, and BMMNCs. The data indicate that SIPS activated the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, possibly by interactions among multiple cytokines, particularly G-CSF. We found that SIPS was remarkably beneficial to the bone marrow hematopoietic system, and we anticipate that it could improve myelosuppression induced by long-term radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

Authors : Wang Xue, Chu Qiubo, Jiang Xue, Yu Yue, Wang Libian, Cui Yaqi, Lu Jiahui, Teng Lirong, Wang Di,



(2) Tolerogenic bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induce neuroprotective regulatory T cells in a model of Parkinson's disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29783988
Publication Date : //
Administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases regulatory T cell (Treg) number and function with control of neuroinflammation and neuronal protection in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we demonstrated in an early phase 1 clinical trial that GM-CSF also improves motor skills in PD patients. However, the mechanisms of Treg induction and its effects on neuroprotective responses remain unknown. As GM-CSF induces tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) that in turn convert conventional T cells to Tregs, the pathways for DC induction of Tregs were assessed.

Authors : Schutt Charles R, Gendelman Howard E, Mosley R Lee,



(3) Extracellular Purine Metabolism Is the Switchboard of Immunosuppressive Macrophages and a Novel Target to Treat Diseases With Macrophage Imbalances.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29780382
Publication Date : //
If misregulated, macrophage (Mϕ)-T cell interactions can drive chronic inflammation thereby causing diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report that in a proinflammatory environment, granulocyte-Mϕ (GM-CSF)- and Mϕ colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-dependent Mϕs have dichotomous effects on T cell activity. While GM-CSF-dependent Mϕs show a highly stimulatory activity typical for M1 Mϕs, M-CSF-dependent Mϕs, marked by folate receptor β (FRβ), adopt an immunosuppressive M2 phenotype. We find the latter to be caused by the purinergic pathway that directs release of extracellular ATP and its conversion to immunosuppressive adenosine by co-expressed CD39 and CD73. Since we observed a misbalance between immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory Mϕs in human and murine arthritic joints, we devised a new strategy for RA treatment based on targeted delivery of a novel methotrexate (MTX) formulation to the immunosuppressive FRβCD39CD73 Mϕs, which boosts adenosine production and curtails the dominance of proinflammatory Mϕs. In contrast to untargeted MTX, this approach leads to potent alleviation of inflammation in the murine arthritis model. In conclusion, we define the Mϕ extracellular purine metabolism as a novel checkpoint in Mϕ cell fate decision-making and an attractive target to control pathological Mϕs in immune-mediated diseases.

Authors : Ohradanova-Repic Anna, Machacek Christian, Charvet Celine, Lager Franck, Le Roux Delphine, Platzer René, Leksa Vladimir, Mitulovic Goran, Burkard Thomas R, Zlabinger Gerhard J, Fischer Michael B, Feuillet Vincent, Renault Gilles, Blüml Stephan, Benko Miroslav, Suchanek Miloslav, Huppa Johannes B, Matsuyama Takami, Cavaco-Paulo Artur, Bismuth Georges, Stockinger Hannes,



(4) Spleen mediates a distinct hematopoietic progenitor response supporting tumor-promoting myelopoiesis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29771686
Publication Date : //
Cancer progression is associated with alterations of intra- and extramedullary hematopoiesis to support a systemic tumor-promoting myeloid response. However, the functional specialty, mechanism, and clinical relevance of extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) remain unclear. Here we showed that the heightened splenic myelopoiesis in tumor-bearing hosts was not only characterized by the accumulation of myeloid precursors, but also associated with profound functional alterations of splenic early hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). With the distinct capability to produce and respond to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), these splenic HSPCs were "primed" and committed to generating immunosuppressive myeloid cells. Mechanistically, the CCL2-CCR2 axis-dependent recruitment and the subsequent local education by the splenic stroma were critical for eliciting this splenic HSPC response. Selective abrogation of this splenic EMH was sufficient to synergistically enhance the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade. Clinically, patients with different types of solid tumors exhibited increased splenic HSPC levels associated with poor survival. These findings reveal a unique and important role of splenic hematopoiesis in the tumor-associated myelopoiesis.

Authors : Wu Chong, Ning Huiheng, Liu Mingyu, Lin Jie, Luo Shufeng, Zhu Wenjie, Xu Jing, Wu Wen-Chao, Liang Jing, Shao Chun-Kui, Ren Jiaqi, Wei Bin, Cui Jun, Chen Min-Shan, Zheng Limin,



(5) Cytokine Release, Determined by a Multiplex Cytokine Assay, in Response to Coccidioidal Antigen Stimulation of Whole Blood among Subjects with Recently Diagnosed Primary Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29769377
Publication Date : //
The elements of the cellular immune response in human coccidioidomycosis remain undefined. We examined the release of an array of inflammatory proteins in response to incubation with a coccidioidal antigen preparation to ascertain which of these might be associated with diagnosis and outcome. Patients with a recent diagnosis of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis and a control group of healthy subjects were studied. Blood samples were incubated for 18 h with T27K, a soluble coccidioidal preparation containing multiple glycosylated antigens, and the supernatant was assayed for inflammatory proteins using the multiplex Luminex system. The presentation and course of illness were compared to the levels of the inflammatory proteins. Among the 31 subjects studied, the median time from diagnosis to assay was 15 days. Of the 30 inflammatory proteins measured, the levels of only 7 proteins, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-1 receptor alpha (IL-1RA), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-2, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were more than 10-fold above the levels seen without antigen stimulation. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 were significantly elevated in those subjects not receiving triazole antifungal therapy compared to those who were receiving triazole antifungal therapy. While the levels of IL-1RA were nonspecifically elevated, elevated levels of IL-13 were seen only in those with active pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Only six cytokines were specifically increased in subjects with recently diagnosed primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. While IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α have been previously noted, the finding of elevated levels of the innate cytokines GM-CSF and IL-1β could suggest that these, as well as IL-13, are early and specific markers for pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as Valley fever, is a common pneumonia in the southwestern United States. In this paper, we examined the release of 30 inflammatory proteins in whole-blood samples obtained from persons with coccidioidal pneumonia after the blood samples were incubated with a preparation made from the causative fungus, We found that six of these proteins, all cytokines, were specifically released in high concentrations in these patients. Three of the cytokines were seen very early in disease, and an assay for all six might serve as a marker for the early diagnosis of Valley fever.

Authors : Ampel Neil M, Robey Ian, Nguyen Chinh T, Roller Brentin, August Jessica, Knox Kenneth S, Pappagianis Demosthenes,



(6) Selenium deficiency inhibits differentiation and immune function and imbalances the Th1/Th2 of dendritic cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29766201
Publication Date : //
Selenium (Se) deficiency inhibits immune cell differentiation, affects immune response, and leads to cellular and humoral immune dysfunction. However, the impact of Se deficiency on the differentiation and Th1/Th2 balance of dendritic cells is still unclear. In this study, we replicated a model of Se-deficient chickens by feeding the chickens with a low-Se diet (i.e., the content of Se is 0.008 mg per kg diet). On this basis, we explored the effect of Se deficiency on the differentiation of chicken dendritic cells by induction culture of peripheral blood monocyte cells. We induced chicken dendritic cells by incubating mononuclear cells with a 100 ng mL-1 recombinant chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and 20 ng mL-1 recombinant chicken IL-4 for total 7 days. The results showed that Se deficiency decreased the expression of cell-surface markers including CD11c, CD40, CD86, and MHC II. Furthermore, we analyzed the cytokine profiles using real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA. The results indicated that Se deficiency inhibited the expression of selenoproteins and changed the secretion of IL-10, IL-12p40, and IFN-γ. Additionally, Se deficiency weakened the ability of dendritic cells to stimulate the proliferation of mixed allogeneic lymphocytes. In conclusion, Se deficiency suppressed the differentiation and immune function of chicken dendritic cells by down-regulating the expression of CD11c, CD40, CD86, MHC II, and selenoproteins. The result also showed that the Th1/Th2 imbalance was induced by enhancing the secretion of Th1-type cytokine IL-12p40 and IFN-γ and reducing that of Th2-type cytokine IL-10. Our findings contribute to understanding the mechanism of Se deficiency in the differentiation and immune function of chicken dendritic cells.

Authors : Sun Zhepeng, Xu Zhe, Wang Dongxu, Yao Haidong, Li Shu,



(7) Adeno-associated Virus Vector-mediated Interleukin-10 Induction Prevents Vascular Inflammation in a Murine Model of Kawasaki Disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29765083
Publication Date : //
Kawasaki disease (KD), which is the leading cause of pediatric heart disease, is characterized by coronary vasculitis and subsequent aneurysm formation. Although intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is effective for reducing aneurysm formation, a certain number of patients are resistant to this therapy. Because interleukin-10 (IL-10) was identified as a negative regulator of cardiac inflammation in a murine model of KD induced by Candida albicans water-soluble fraction (CAWS), we investigated the effect of IL-10 supplementation in CAWS-induced vasculitis. Mice were injected intramuscularly with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding IL-10, then treated with CAWS. The induction of AAV-mediated IL-10 (AAV-IL-10) significantly attenuated the vascular inflammation and fibrosis in the aortic root and coronary artery, resulting in the improvement of cardiac dysfunction and lethality. The predominant infiltrating inflammatory cells in the vascular walls were Dectin-2CD11b macrophages. In vitro experiments revealed that granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced Dectin-2 expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages and enhanced the CAWS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6. IL-10 had no effect on the Dectin-2 expression but significantly inhibited the production of cytokines. IL-10 also inhibited CAWS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not Syk. Furthermore, the induction of AAV-IL-10 prevented the expression of TNF-α and IL-6, but not GM-CSF and Dectin-2 at the early phase of CAWS-induced vasculitis. These findings demonstrate that AAV-IL-10 may have therapeutic application in the prevention of coronary vasculitis and aneurysm formation, and provide new insights into the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of KD.

Authors : Nakamura Jun, Watanabe Sachiko, Kimura Hiroaki, Kobayashi Motoi, Karasawa Tadayoshi, Kamata Ryo, Usui-Kawanishi Fumitake, Sadatomo Ai, Mizukami Hiroaki, Nagi-Miura Noriko, Ohno Naohito, Kasahara Tadashi, Minota Seiji, Takahashi Masafumi,



(8) [Imiquimod combined with dendritic cell vaccine decreases Treg proportion and enhances anti-tumor responses in mice bearing melanoma].[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29762000
Publication Date : //
To investigate the therapeutic effect of Toll-like receptor 7( TLR7) agonist imiquimod combined with dendritic cell( DC)-based tumor vaccine on melanoma in mice and the potential mechanism.

Authors : Ren Shurong, Wang Qiubo, Zhang Yanli, Lu Cuixiu, Li Ping, Li Yumei,



(9) The ratios of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of chronic periodontitis patients with and without type 2 diabetes and/or smoking habit.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29737428
Publication Date : //
This study assessed the impact of chronic periodontitis (CP) and CP associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or smoking on the serum ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Authors : Miranda Tamires Szeremeske, Heluy Sílvia Lacerda, Cruz Daniele Ferreira, da Silva Hélio Doyle Pereira, Feres Magda, Figueiredo Luciene Cristina, Duarte Poliana Mendes,



(10) Extended Culture of Bone Marrow with Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor Generates Immunosuppressive Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29736292
Publication Date : //
Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are generated from bone marrow (BM) cells cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for a week. In this study we investigated the effect of duration on the BM culture with GM-CSF. Within several months, the cells in the BM culture gradually expressed homogeneous levels of CD11c and major histocompatibility complex II on surface, and they became unable to stimulate allogeneic naïve T cells in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). In addition, when the BM culture were sustained for 32 wk or longer, the BM cells acquired ability to suppress the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in MLR as well as the response of ovalbumin-specific OT-I transgenic T cells in antigen-dependent manner. We found that, except for programmed death-ligand 1, most cell surface molecules were expressed lower in the BM cells cultured with GM-CSF for the extended duration. These results indicate that BM cells in the extended culture with GM-CSF undergo 2 distinct steps of functional change; first, they lose the immunostimulatory capacity; and next, they gain the immunosuppressive ability.

Authors : Na Hye Young, Sohn Moah, Ryu Seul Hye, Choi Wanho, In Hyunju, Shin Hyun Soo, Park Chae Gyu,