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Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative

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[#LSY-30011] Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative


LSY-30011 | Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative, 96 wells/kit
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(1) Dynamics of the 2004 avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in Thailand: The role of duck farming, sequential model fitting and control.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30314780
Publication Date : //
The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus persists in many countries and has been circulating in poultry, wild birds. In addition, the virus has emerged in other species and frequent zoonotic spillover events indicate that there remains a significant risk to human health. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of the disease in the poultry industry to develop a more comprehensive knowledge of the risks of transmission and to establish a better distribution of resources when implementing control. In this paper, we develop a set of mathematical models that simulate the spread of HPAI H5N1 in the poultry industry in Thailand, utilising data from the 2004 epidemic. The model that incorporates the intensity of duck farming when assessing transmision risk provides the best fit to the spatiotemporal characteristics of the observed outbreak, implying that intensive duck farming drives transmission of HPAI in Thailand. We also extend our models using a sequential model fitting approach to explore the ability of the models to be used in "real time" during novel disease outbreaks. We conclude that, whilst predictions of epidemic size are estimated poorly in the early stages of disease outbreaks, the model can infer the preferred control policy that should be deployed to minimise the impact of the disease.

Authors : Retkute Renata, Jewell Chris P, Van Boeckel Thomas P, Zhang Geli, Xiao Xiangming, Thanapongtharm Weerapong, Keeling Matt, Gilbert Marius, Tildesley Michael J,

(2) Passive inhalation of dry powder influenza vaccine formulations completely protects chickens against H5N1 lethal viral challenge.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30312742
Publication Date : //
Bird to human transmission of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) poses a significant risk of triggering a flu pandemic in the human population. Therefore, vaccination of susceptible poultry during an HPAIV outbreak might be the best remedy to prevent such transmissions. To this end, suitable formulations and an effective mass vaccination method that can be translated to field settings needs to be developed. Our previous study in chickens has shown that inhalation of a non-adjuvanted dry powder influenza vaccine formulation during normal breathing results in partial protection against lethal influenza challenge. The aim of the present study was to improve the effectiveness of pulmonary vaccination by increasing the vaccine dose deposited in the lungs and by the use of suitable adjuvants. Two adjuvants, namely, Bacterium-like Particles (BLP) and Advax, were spray freeze dried with influenza vaccine into dry powder formulations. Delivery of dry formulations directly at the syrinx revealed that BLP and Advax had the potential to boost either systemic or mucosal immune responses or both. Upon passive inhalation of dry influenza vaccine formulations in an optimized set-up, BLP and Advax/BLP adjuvanted formulations induced significantly higher systemic immune responses than the non-adjuvanted formulation. Remarkably, all vaccinated animals not only survived a lethal influenza challenge, but also did not show any shedding of challenge virus except for two out of six animals in the Advax group. Overall, our results indicate that passive inhalation is feasible, effective and suitable for mass vaccination of chickens if it can be adapted to field settings.

Authors : Tomar Jasmine, Biel Carin, de Haan Cornelis A M, Rottier Peter J M, Petrovsky Nikolai, Frijlink Henderik W, Huckriede Anke, Hinrichs Wouter L J, Peeters Ben,

(3) Molecular identification of avian influenza virus subtypes H5N1 and H9N2 in birds from farms and live bird markets and in respiratory patients.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30202644
Publication Date : //
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been endemic in Egypt since 2006, and the co-circulation of high-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and low-pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 subtypes in poultry has been reported; therefore, Egypt is considered a hotspot for the generation of new subtypes and genotypes. We aimed to characterize AIVs circulating on commercial farms and in live bird markets (LBMs) during the winters of 2015 and 2016 in the study area and to identify H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in respiratory patients.

Authors : Tolba Hala M N, Abou Elez Rasha M M, Elsohaby Ibrahim, Ahmed Heba A,

(4) The Drivers of Pathology in Zoonotic Avian Influenza: The Interplay Between Host and Pathogen.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30135686
Publication Date : //
The emergence of zoonotic strains of avian influenza (AI) that cause high rates of mortality in people has caused significant global concern, with a looming threat that one of these strains may develop sustained human-to-human transmission and cause a pandemic outbreak. Most notable of these viral strains are the H5N1 highly pathogenic AI and the H7N9 low pathogenicity AI viruses, both of which have mortality rates above 30%. Understanding of their mechanisms of infection and pathobiology is key to our preparation for these and future viral strains of high consequence. AI viruses typically circulate in wild bird populations, commonly infecting waterfowl and also regularly entering commercial poultry flocks. Live poultry markets provide an ideal environment for the spread AI and potentially the selection of mutants with a greater propensity for infecting humans because of the potential for spill over from birds to humans. Pathology from these AI virus infections is associated with a dysregulated immune response, which is characterized by systemic spread of the virus, lymphopenia, and hypercytokinemia. It has been well documented that host/pathogen interactions, particularly molecules of the immune system, play a significant role in both disease susceptibility as well as disease outcome. Here, we review the immune/virus interactions in both avian and mammalian species, and provide an overview or our understanding of how immune dysregulation is driven. Understanding these susceptibility factors is critical for the development of new vaccines and therapeutics to combat the next pandemic influenza.

Authors : Horman William S J, Nguyen Thi H O, Kedzierska Katherine, Bean Andrew G D, Layton Daniel S,

(5) Attenuation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses in Indonesia following the reassortment and acquisition of genes from low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus progenitors.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30131494
Publication Date : //
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus is endemic in Indonesian poultry and has caused sporadic human infection in Indonesia since 2005. Surveillance of H5N1 viruses in live bird markets (LBMs) during 2012 and 2013 was carried out to provide epidemiologic and virologic information regarding viral circulation and the risk of human exposure. Real-time RT-PCR of avian cloacal swabs and environmental samples revealed influenza A-positive specimens, which were then subjected to virus isolation and genomic sequencing. Genetic analysis of specimens collected at multiple LBMs in Indonesia identified both low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H3N8) and HPAI A(H5N1) viruses belonging to clade Comparison of internal gene segments among the LPAI and HPAI viruses revealed that the latter had acquired the PB2, PB1, and NS genes from LPAI progenitors and other viruses containing a wild type (wt) genomic constellation. Comparison of murine infectivity of the LPAI A(H3N8), wt HPAI A(H5N1) and reassortant HPAI A(H5N1) viruses showed that the acquisition of LPAI internal genes attenuated the reassortant HPAI virus, producing a mouse infectivity/virulence phenotype comparable to that of the LPAI virus. Comparison of molecular markers in each viral gene segment suggested that mutations in PB2 and NS1 may facilitate attenuation. The discovery of an attenuated HPAI A(H5N1) virus in mice that resulted from reassortment may have implications for the capability of these viruses to transmit and cause disease. In addition, surveillance suggests that LBMs in Indonesia may play a role in the generation of reassortant A(H5) viruses and should be monitored.

Authors : Dharmayanti Ni Luh Putu Indi, Thor Sharmi W, Zanders Natosha, Hartawan Risza, Ratnawati Atik, Jang Yunho, Rodriguez Marisela, Suarez David L, Samaan Gina, Pudjiatmoko , Davis C Todd,

(6) Heterosubtypic Protections against Human-Infecting Avian Influenza Viruses Correlate to Biased Cross-T-Cell Responses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30087171
Publication Date : //
Against a backdrop of seasonal influenza virus epidemics, emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) occasionally jump from birds to humans, posing a public health risk, especially with the recent sharp increase in H7N9 infections. Evaluations of cross-reactive T-cell immunity to seasonal influenza viruses and human-infecting AIVs have been reported previously. However, the roles of influenza A virus-derived epitopes in the cross-reactive T-cell responses and heterosubtypic protections are not well understood; understanding those roles is important for preventing and controlling new emerging AIVs. Here, among the members of a healthy population presumed to have previously been infected by pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), we found that pH1N1-specific T cells showed cross- but biased reactivity to human-infecting AIVs, i.e., H5N1, H6N1, H7N9, and H9N2, which correlates with distinct protections. Through a T-cell epitope-based phylogenetic analysis, the cellular immunogenic clustering expanded the relevant conclusions to a broader range of virus strains. We defined the potential key conserved epitopes required for cross-protection and revealed the molecular basis for the immunogenic variations. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development. We revealed preexisting but biased T-cell reactivity of pH1N1 influenza virus to human-infecting AIVs, which provided distinct protections. The cross-reactive T-cell recognition had a regular pattern that depended on the T-cell epitope matrix revealed via bioinformatics analysis. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development.

Authors : Zhao Min, Liu Kefang, Luo Jiejian, Tan Shuguang, Quan Chuansong, Zhang Shuijun, Chai Yan, Qi Jianxun, Li Yan, Bi Yuhai, Xiao Haixia, Wong Gary, Zhou Jianfang, Jiang Taijiao, Liu Wenjun, Yu Hongjie, Yan Jinghua, Liu Yingxia, Shu Yuelong, Wu Guizhen, Wu Aiping, Gao George F, Liu William J,

(7) Influenza A(H5N1) viruses with A(H9N2) single gene (matrix or PB1) reassortment isolated from Cambodian live bird markets.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30075357
Publication Date : //
Live bird market surveillance for avian influenza viruses in Cambodia in 2015 has led to the detection of two 7:1 reassortant influenza A(H5N1) clade viruses. These reassortant strains, designated A/duck/Cambodia/Z564W35M1/2015 and A/chicken/Cambodia/Z850W49M1/2015, both contained a single gene (PB1 and matrix gene, respectively) from concurrently circulating A(H9N2) influenza viruses. All other viral genes from both isolates clustered with A(H5N1) clade viruses. Continued and prolonged co-circulation of influenza A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) viruses in Cambodian live bird markets may present a risk for the emergence of novel influenza reassortant viruses with negative agricultural and/or public health implications.

Authors : Suttie Annika, Karlsson Erik A, Deng Yi-Mo, Horm Srey Viseth, Yann Sokhoun, Tok Songha, Sorn San, Holl Davun, Tum Sothyra, Hurt Aeron C, Greenhill Andrew R, Barr Ian G, Horwood Paul F, Dussart Philippe,

(8) Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza A Virus Spreads Efficiently in Human Primary Monocyte-Derived Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30065728
Publication Date : //
Influenza A viruses cause recurrent epidemics and occasional global pandemics. Wild birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A virus from where the virus can be transmitted to poultry or to mammals including humans. Mortality among humans in the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection is even 60%. Despite intense research, there are still open questions in the pathogenicity of the H5N1 virus in humans. To characterize the H5N1 virus infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸs) and dendritic cells (DCs), we used human isolates of highly pathogenic H5N1/2004 and H5N1/1997 and low pathogenic H7N9/2013 avian influenza viruses in comparison with a seasonal H3N2/1989 virus. We noticed that the H5N1 viruses have an overwhelming ability to replicate and spread in primary human immune cell cultures, and even the addition of trypsin did not equalize the infectivity of H7N9 or H3N2 viruses to the level seen with H5N1 virus. H5N1 virus stocks contained more often propagation-competent viruses than the H7N9 or H3N2 viruses. The data also showed that human DCs and Mɸs maintain 1,000- and 10,000-fold increase in the production of infectious H5N1 virus, respectively. Both analyzed highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses showed multi-cycle infection in primary human DCs and Mɸs, whereas the H3N2 and H7N9 viruses were incapable of spreading in immune cells. Interestingly, H5N1 virus was able to spread extremely efficiently despite the strong induction of antiviral interferon gene expression, which may in part explain the high pathogenicity of H5N1 virus infection in humans.

Authors : Westenius Veera, Mäkelä Sanna M, Julkunen Ilkka, Österlund Pamela,

(9) MicroRNA hsa-miR-324-5p Suppresses H5N1 Virus Replication by Targeting the Viral PB1 and Host CUEDC2.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30045983
Publication Date : //
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that are crucial posttranscriptional regulators for host mRNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs may modulate host response during RNA virus infection. However, the role of miRNAs in immune response against H5N1 infection is not clearly understood. In this study, we showed that expression of cellular miRNA miR-324-5p was downregulated in A549 cells in response to infection with RNA viruses H5N1, A/PR8/H1N1, and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and transfection with poly(I·C). We found that miR-324-5p inhibited H5N1 replication by targeting the PB1 viral RNA of H5N1 in host cells. In addition, transcriptome analysis revealed that miR-324-5p enhanced the expression of type I interferon, type III interferon, and interferon-inducible genes (ISGs) by targeting CUEDC2, the negative regulator of the JAK1-STAT3 pathway. Together, these findings highlight that the miR-324-5p plays a crucial role in host defense against H5N1 by targeting viral PB1 and host CUEDC2 to inhibit H5N1 replication. Highly pathogenic influenza A virus (HPAIV) continues to pose a pandemic threat globally. From 2003 to 2017, H5N1 HPAIV caused 453 human deaths, giving it a high mortality rate (52.74%). This work shows that miR-324-5p suppresses H5N1 HPAIV replication by directly targeting the viral genome (thereby inhibiting viral gene expression) and cellular CUEDC2 gene, the negative regulator of the interferon pathway (thereby enhancing antiviral genes). Our study enhances the knowledge of the role of microRNAs in the cellular response to viral infection. Also, the study provides help in understanding how the host cells utilize small RNAs in controlling the viral burden.

Authors : Kumar Ashish, Kumar Akhilesh, Ingle Harshad, Kumar Sushil, Mishra Richa, Verma Mahendra Kumar, Biswas Debasis, Kumar Nachimuthu Senthil, Mishra Anamika, Raut Ashwin Ashok, Takaoka Akinori, Kumar Himanshu,

(10) Compatibility between haemagglutinin and neuraminidase drives the recent emergence of novel clade H5Nx avian influenza viruses in China.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29999588
Publication Date : //
Genetic reassortments between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 subtype viruses with different neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have increased in prevalence since 2010 in wild birds and poultry from China. The HA gene slightly evolved from clade 2.3.4 to clade, raising the question of whether novel clade HA broke the balance with N1 but is matched well with NAx to drive viral epidemics. To clarify the role of compatibility between HA and NA on the prevalence of H5Nx subtypes, we constructed 10 recombinant viruses in which the clade 2.3.4 or clade HA genes were matched with different NA (N1, N2 and N8) genes and evaluated viral characteristics and pathogenicity. Combinations between clade 2.3.4 HA and N1 or between clade HA and NAx, but not between clade HA and N1, or between clade 2.3.4 HA and NAx, promoted viral growth, NA activity, thermostability, low-pH stability and pathogenicity in chicken and mice. These findings suggest that both clade 2.3.4 HA/N1 and clade HA/NAx displayed a better match, which could promote the increased prevalence of clade 2.3.4 H5N1 AIV (prior to 2010) and clade H5Nx AIV (since 2010) in China, respectively.

Authors : Qin Tao, Zhu Jingjing, Ma Ruonan, Yin Yuncong, Chen Sujuan, Peng Daxin, Liu Xiufan,