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Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative

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[#LSY-30011] Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative


LSY-30011 | Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative, 96 wells/kit
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(1) Genetic analysis and biological characteristics of different internal gene origin H5N6 reassortment avian influenza virus in China in 2016.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29778197
Publication Date : //
Clade of H5N6 subtype Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) has become dominant clade in South-East Asia. So far, a total of 16 cases of human infection, including 6 deaths, have been confirmed since 2014. In this study, we systematically investigated the genetic evolution and biological characteristics of these viruses. We first carried out phylogenetic and statistical analysis of all H5N6 viruses that were downloaded from Influenza Research Database, GISAID and isolates from our lab. We found that H5N6 AIVs continued to reassort with other AIVs subtypes since 2014. Among these H5N6 reassortments, four main gene types were identified: A (internal genes of H5N1-origin), B (PB2 of H6-origin, and others of H5N1-origin), C (internal genes of H9-origin) and D (PB2 of H6-origin and PB1of H3-origin, and others of H5N1). In addition, after several years of evolution, gene type D is currently the dominant gene type. To systematically compare the genetic and evolutionary characteristics and pathogenicity of these viruses, four H5N6 AIVs of different gene types were selected for further analysis. S4, XZ6, GD1602 and YZ587 virus represented gene type A, B, C and D, respectively. Their NA genes were all originated from H6 and their whole genome showed a high similarity with human isolates. All these isolates could both bind with SA-α2,3 Gal and SA-α2,6 Gal receptors. Pathogenicity test showed that these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens, while YZ587 showed the lowest virulence. Moreover, XZ6 and S4 viruses were highly pathogenic in ducks and moderately pathogenic in mice, while GD1602 and YZ587 viruses were no-pathogenic in these animals. Interestingly, GD1602 and YZ587-like viruses were responsible for 4 and 2 human infection cases in 2016, respectively. Therefore, our study showed that the YZ587 virus which has mixed internal genes, showed lower virulence in avian species and mammals compared to other genotype viruses. Overall, our findings suggest that the H5N6 avian influenza virus is undergoing constantly evolving and reassortment. Thus, our study highlights the necessary of continued surveillance of the H5N6 AIVs in birds and paying close attention to the spread of these novel reassortment viruses.

Authors : Sun Wenqiang, Li Jiaxin, Hu Jiao, Jiang Daxiu, Xing Chaonan, Zhan Tiansong, Liu Xiufan,

(2) Migratory Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus Transmit H5N1 Virus between China and Mongolia: Combination Evidence from Satellite Tracking and Phylogenetics Analysis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29728621
Publication Date : //
In late 2014, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hereafter HPAI) H5N1 outbreak infected whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering at the Sanmenxia Reservoir area, China, and raised concerns about migratory linkages between wintering and breeding grounds of whooper swans. In this study, 61 swans were satellite tracked from 2013 to 2016 to determine the spatial association of their migration routes and H5N1 outbreaks, and 3596 fecal samples were collected along the migration routes for virology testing. Swans departed the wintering grounds and migrated along the Yellow River, and flew over the Yin Mountains in China. The Brownian bridge movement model showed there was a high degree of spatiotemporal overlap between the core use area along the spring migration pathway and historical H5N1 events in China and Mongolia from 2005 to 2015. The H5N1 strain was isolated and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the HA gene sequence generated is genetically similar to that of the epidemic strain at a previous wintering site (the Sanmenxia Reservoir area) along its flyway. Our results identified a previously unknown migratory link of whooper swans in central China with Mongolia and confirmed that the swans could carry the HPAI H5N1 virus during migration, resulting in long-distance transmission.

Authors : Li Shuhong, Meng Weiyue, Liu Dongping, Yang Qiqi, Chen Lixia, Dai Qiang, Ma Tian, Gao Ruyi, Ru Wendong, Li Yunfeng, Yu Pengbo, Lu Jun, Zhang Guogang, Tian Huaiyu, Chai Hongliang, Li Yanbing,

(3) Experimental infection of H5N1 and H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Northern Pintail (Anas acuta).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29726612
Publication Date : //
The wide geographic spread of Eurasian Goose/Guangdong lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade viruses by wild birds is of great concern. In December 2014, an H5N8 HPAI clade Group A ( virus was introduced to North America. Long-distance migratory wild aquatic birds between East Asia and North America, such as Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), were strongly suspected of being a source of intercontinental transmission. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity, infectivity and transmissibility of an H5N8 HPAI clade virus in Northern Pintails and compared the results to that of an H5N1 HPAI clade virus. All of Northern Pintails infected with either H5N1 or H5N8 virus lacked clinical signs and mortality, but the H5N8 clade virus was more efficient at replicating within and transmitting between Northern Pintails than the H5N1 clade virus. The H5N8-infected birds shed high titre of viruses from oropharynx and cloaca, which in the field supported virus transmission and spread. This study highlights the role of wild waterfowl in the intercontinental spread of some HPAI viruses. Migratory aquatic birds should be carefully monitored for the early detection of H5 clade and other HPAI viruses.

Authors : Kwon J-H, Lee D-H, Swayne D E, Noh J-Y, Yuk S-S, Jeong S, Lee S-H, Woo C, Shin J-H, Song C-S,

(4) H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus Is Efficiently Transmissible and Induces an Antibody Response in Chickens.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29706970
Publication Date : //
H7N9 viruses pose a threat to human health and they are no less harmful to the poultry industry than the H5N1 avian influenza viruses. However, the pathogenesis, transmissibility, and the host immune response of the H7N9 virus in chickens and mice remain unclear. In this study, we found that H7N9 viruses replicated in multiple organs of the chicken and viral shedding persisted up to 30 days postinoculation (DPI). The viruses were efficiently transmitted between chickens through direct contact. Notably, chickens infected with H7N9 had high antibody levels throughout the entire observation period and their antibody response lasted for 30 DPI. The expression levels of the pattern-recognition receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to be significantly upregulated in the brain using quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of TLR3, TLR7, MDA5, Mx, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-α, and IFN-γ were also significantly different in the lungs of infected chickens. We found that the viruses isolated from these birds had low pathogenicity in mice, produced little weight loss and could only replicate in the lungs. Our findings suggested that the H7N9 viruses could replicate in chickens and mice and be efficiently transmitted between chickens, which presented a significant threat to human and poultry health.

Authors : Jiao Peirong, Song Yafen, Huang Jianni, Xiang Chengwei, Cui Jin, Wu Siyu, Qu Nannan, Wang Nianchen, Ouyang Guowen, Liao Ming,

(5) Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 Virus from Egyptian Domestic Waterfowl in 2017.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29701481
Publication Date : //
In 2016, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was detected in wild birds for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, we identified the HPAI virus H5N8 of clade from domestic waterfowl in Egypt, suggesting its transmission to the domestic poultry from the migratory birds. Based on partial hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequence, this virus has a close genetic relationship with subtype H5N8 viruses circulating in Asia and Europe. Pathologically, H5N8 virus in hybrid duck induced nervous signs accompanied by encephalomalacia, hemorrhages, nonsuppurative encephalitis and nonsuppurative vasculitis. The granular layer of cerebellum showed multifocal areas of hydropic degeneration and the Purkinje cell neurons were necrotized or lost. Additionally, the lung, kidney and spleen were congested, and necrotizing pancreatitis was also observed. The co-circulation of both HPAI H5N1 and H5N8 subtypes with the low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 subtype complicate the control of AI in Egypt with the possibility of emergence of new reassortant viruses. Therefore, continuous monitoring with implementation of strict control measures is required.

Authors : Anis Anis, AboElkhair Mohammed, Ibrahim Mahmoud,

(6) Phylogeography of H5N1 avian influenza virus in Indonesia.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29691995
Publication Date : //
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described. The spread is consistent with wild bird flyways and poultry trading routes. H5N1 migration was associated with the regions of high chicken densities and low human development indices. These results can be used to inform more targeted planning of H5N1 control and prevention activities in Indonesia.

Authors : Njoto E N, Scotch M, Bui C M, Adam D C, Chughtai A A, MacIntyre C R,

(7) Replication and pathogenic potential of influenza A virus subtypes H3, H7, and H15 from free-range ducks in Bangladesh in mammals.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29691394
Publication Date : //
Surveillance of wild aquatic birds and free-range domestic ducks in the Tanguar Haor wetlands in Bangladesh has identified influenza virus subtypes H3N6, H7N1, H7N5, H7N9, and H15N9. Molecular characterization of these viruses indicates their contribution to the genesis of new genotypes of H5N1 influenza viruses from clade that are dominant in poultry markets in Bangladesh as well as to the genesis of the highly pathogenic H5N8 virus currently causing disease outbreaks in domestic poultry in Europe and the Middle East. Therefore, we studied the antigenicity, replication, and pathogenicity of influenza viruses isolated from Tanguar Haor in the DBA/2J mouse model. All viruses replicated in the lung without prior mammalian adaptation, and H7N1 and H7N9 viruses caused 100% and 60% mortality, respectively. H7N5 viruses replicated only in the lungs, whereas H7N1 and H7N9 viruses also replicated in the heart, liver, and brain. Replication and transmission studies in mallard ducks showed that H7N1 and H7N9 viruses replicated in ducks without clinical signs of disease and shed at high titers from the cloaca of infected and contact ducks, which could facilitate virus transmission and spread. Our results indicate that H7 avian influenza viruses from free-range ducks can replicate in mammals, cause severe disease, and be efficiently transmitted to contact ducks. Our study highlights the role of free-range ducks in the spread of influenza viruses to other species in live poultry markets and the potential for these viruses to infect and cause disease in mammals.

Authors : El-Shesheny Rabeh, Feeroz Mohammed M, Krauss Scott, Vogel Peter, McKenzie Pamela, Webby Richard J, Webster Robert G,

(8) Comparative Epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 and H5N6 in Vietnamese Live Bird Markets: Spatiotemporal Patterns of Distribution and Risk Factors.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29675418
Publication Date : //
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been circulating in Vietnam since 2003, whilst outbreaks of HPAI H5N6 virus are more recent, having only been reported since 2014. Although the spatial distribution of H5N1 outbreaks and risk factors for virus occurrence has been extensively studied, there have been no comparative studies for H5N6. Data collected through active surveillance of Vietnamese live bird markets (LBMs) between 2011 and 2015 were used to explore and compare the spatiotemporal distributions of H5N1- and H5N6-positive LBMs. Conditional autoregressive models were developed to quantify spatiotemporal associations between agroecological factors and the two HPAI strains using the same set of predictor variables. Unlike H5N1, which exhibited a strong north-south divide, with repeated occurrence in the extreme south of a cluster of high-risk provinces, H5N6 was homogeneously distributed throughout Vietnam. Similarly, different agroecological factors were associated with each strain. Sample collection in the months of January and February and higher average maximum temperature were associated with higher likelihood of H5N1-positive market-day status. The likelihood of market days being positive for H5N6 increased with decreased river density, and with successive Rounds of data collection. This study highlights marked differences in spatial patterns and risk factors for H5N1 and H5N6 in Vietnam, suggesting the need for tailored surveillance and control approaches.

Authors : Mellor Kate C, Meyer Anne, Elkholly Doaa A, Fournié Guillaume, Long Pham T, Inui Ken, Padungtod Pawin, Gilbert Marius, Newman Scott H, Vergne Timothée, Pfeiffer Dirk U, Stevens Kim B,

(9) Wild ducks excrete highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 (2014-2015) without clinical or pathological evidence of disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29670093
Publication Date : //
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is essentially a poultry disease. Wild birds have traditionally not been involved in its spread, but the epidemiology of HPAI has changed in recent years. After its emergence in southeastern Asia in 1996, H5 HPAI virus of the Goose/Guangdong lineage has evolved into several sub-lineages, some of which have spread over thousands of kilometers via long-distance migration of wild waterbirds. In order to determine whether the virus is adapting to wild waterbirds, we experimentally inoculated the HPAI H5N8 virus clade group A from 2014 into four key waterbird species-Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and common pochard (Aythya ferina)-and compared virus excretion and disease severity with historical data of the HPAI H5N1 virus infection from 2005 in the same four species. Our results showed that excretion was highest in Eurasian wigeons for the 2014 virus, whereas excretion was highest in common pochards and mallards for the 2005 virus. The 2014 virus infection was subclinical in all four waterbird species, while the 2005 virus caused clinical disease and pathological changes in over 50% of the common pochards. In chickens, the 2014 virus infection caused systemic disease and high mortality, similar to the 2005 virus. In conclusion, the evidence was strongest for Eurasian wigeons as long-distance vectors for HPAI H5N8 virus from 2014. The implications of the switch in species-specific virus excretion and decreased disease severity may be that the HPAI H5 virus more easily spreads in the wild-waterbird population.

Authors : van den Brand Judith M A, Verhagen Josanne H, Veldhuis Kroeze Edwin J B, van de Bildt Marco W G, Bodewes Rogier, Herfst Sander, Richard Mathilde, Lexmond Pascal, Bestebroer Theo M, Fouchier Ron A M, Kuiken Thijs,

(10) Spatial clustering of pathology submissions during the initial introduction and spread of avian influenza H5N1 in poultry in Nigeria in 2006-2007.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29631310
Publication Date : //
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 spread throughout Nigeria between 2006 and 2007. Bird samples collected across the country were submitted through the free-of-charge (FOC) program to the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (NVRI-Vom) laboratory. The present article describes the spatial distributions and evaluated clustering of the FOC submissions from poultry farms at the global, local, and focal levels between 2006 and 2007 epidemic in Nigeria. Spatial statistics evaluating clustering of the FOC submissions were implemented using the Moran's I test, the purely spatial cluster analysis with the SaTScan Poisson model, and the Bithell's linear score test. A significant global clustering of the FOC submissions was observed. Significant local clusters of submissions were observed in the North-East, North-Central, and South-West zones. There was significant decline in FOC submissions with increasing distance from NVRI-Vom. These results indicated that the geographic area of influence of the FOC submission program in Nigeria was limited to regions closer to the diagnostic laboratory. This work provides a detailed insight into the surveillance activities during the HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria, and should assist policy-makers and field veterinarians to improve the effectiveness of national eradication plans in the face of any outbreak of animal diseases.

Authors : Ekong Pius S, Cardona Carol J, Bryssinckx Ward, Ikechukwu-Eneh Chinyere, Lombin Lami H, Carpenter Tim E,