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Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative

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[#LSY-30011] Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative

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LSY-30011 | Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative, 96 wells/kit
More informations about Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative in Antibody-antibodies.com

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(1) Genetic compatibility of reassortants between avian H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses with higher pathogenicity in mammals.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30463961
Publication Date : //
The co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in birds in Egypt provides reassortment opportunities between these two viruses. However, little is known about the emergence potential of reassortants derived from Egyptian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses and about the biological properties of such reassortants. To evaluate the potential public health risk of reassortants of these viruses, we used reverse genetics to generate the 63 possible reassortants derived from contemporary Egyptian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses, containing the H5N1 surface gene segments and combinations of the H5N1 and H9N2 internal gene segments, and analyzed their genetic compatibility, replication ability and virulence in mice. Genes in the reassortants showed remarkably high compatibility. Replication of most reassortants was higher than the parental H5N1 virus in human cells. Six reassortants were thought to emerge in birds under neutral or positive selective pressure, and four of them had higher pathogenicity than the parental H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. Our results indicated that H5N1-H9N2 reassortants could be transmitted efficiently to mammals with significant public health risk if they emerge in Egypt, although the viruses might not emerge frequently in birds.Close interaction between avian influenza (AI) viruses and humans in Egypt appears to have resulted in many of the worldwide cases of human infections by both H5N1 and H9N2 AI viruses. Egypt is regarded as a hot spot of AI virus evolution. Although no natural reassortant of H5N1 and H9N2 AI viruses has been reported so far, their co-circulation in Egypt may allow emergence of reassortants that may present a significant public health risk. Using reverse genetics, we report here the first comprehensive data showing that H5N1-N9N2 reassortants have fairly high genetic compatibility and possibly higher pathogenicity in mammals, including humans, than the parental viruses. Our results provide insight into the emergence potential of avian H5N1-H9N2 reassortants that may pose a high public health risk.

Authors : Arai Yasuha, Ibrahim Madiha S, Elgendy Emad M, Daidoji Tomo, Ono Takao, Suzuki Yasuo, Nakaya Takaaki, Matsumoto Kazuhiko, Watanabe Yohei,



(2) Satellite telemetry tracks flyways of Asian Openbill storks in relation to H5N1 avian influenza spread and ecological change.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30445946
Publication Date : //
Asian Openbills, Anastomus oscitans, have long been known to migrate from South to Southeast Asia for breeding and nesting. In Thailand, the first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infection in the Openbills coincided with the outbreak in the poultry. Therefore, the flyways of Asian Openbills was determined to study their role in the spread of H5N1 HPAI virus to poultry and wild birds, and also within their flocks.

Authors : Ratanakorn Parntep, Suwanpakdee Sarin, Wiriyarat Witthawat, Eiamampai Krairat, Chaichoune Kridsada, Wiratsudakul Anuwat, Sariya Ladawan, Puthavathana Pilaipan,



(3) Full sequence analysis of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes and proteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus detected in Iran, 2015.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30368763
Publication Date : //
Over the last two decades, the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has gained a lot of attention due to its zoonotic and mutative nature. Iran is among the countries significantly affected by the virus as it hosts migratory birds during seasonal migration. In this study, the molecular characterizations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes and proteins of H5N1 strain A/chicken/Iran/8/2015 detected in backyard poultry, Mazandaran province, were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis classified this virus as a member of subclade 2.3.2.1c, with the cleavage site motif of "PQRERRRK-R/GLF". HA carried a few mutations altering affinity to mammalian cells; however, the virus was categorized as avian. NA protein had the 20-amino acid deletion at aa position 49-69 similar to those isolated since 2000. Mutations of H253Y and H274Y contributing to antiviral resistance were present in NA. From this analysis, it can be concluded that the wild migratory birds flying from Western Asia to Eastern Africa are probably the main carriers of seasonal H5N1 in the country.

Authors : Yegani Sima, Shoushtari Abdel-Hamid, Eshratabadi Fatemeh, Molouki Aidin,



(4) The culture of primary duck endothelial cells for the study of avian influenza.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30340527
Publication Date : //
Endothelial cells play a major role in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus pathogenesis in gallinaceous poultry species (e.g. chicken, turkey and quail). Upon infection of gallinaceous poultry with HPAI viruses, endothelial cells throughout the body become rapidly infected, leading to systemic dissemination of the virus, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oedema and haemorrhaging. In contrast, the pathogenesis of HPAI viruses in most wild bird species (e.g. duck, goose and gull species) is not associated with endothelial tropism. Indeed, viral antigen is not found in the endothelial cells of most wild bird species following infection with HPAI viruses. This differential endothelial cell tropism in avian species is poorly understood, mainly due to the absence of appropriate cell culture systems.

Authors : Davis Raissa L, Choi Geunho, Kuiken Thijs, Quéré Pascale, Trapp Sascha, Short Kirsty R, Richard Mathilde,



(5) Dynamics of the 2004 avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in Thailand: The role of duck farming, sequential model fitting and control.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30314780
Publication Date : //
The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus persists in many countries and has been circulating in poultry, wild birds. In addition, the virus has emerged in other species and frequent zoonotic spillover events indicate that there remains a significant risk to human health. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of the disease in the poultry industry to develop a more comprehensive knowledge of the risks of transmission and to establish a better distribution of resources when implementing control. In this paper, we develop a set of mathematical models that simulate the spread of HPAI H5N1 in the poultry industry in Thailand, utilising data from the 2004 epidemic. The model that incorporates the intensity of duck farming when assessing transmision risk provides the best fit to the spatiotemporal characteristics of the observed outbreak, implying that intensive duck farming drives transmission of HPAI in Thailand. We also extend our models using a sequential model fitting approach to explore the ability of the models to be used in "real time" during novel disease outbreaks. We conclude that, whilst predictions of epidemic size are estimated poorly in the early stages of disease outbreaks, the model can infer the preferred control policy that should be deployed to minimise the impact of the disease.

Authors : Retkute Renata, Jewell Chris P, Van Boeckel Thomas P, Zhang Geli, Xiao Xiangming, Thanapongtharm Weerapong, Keeling Matt, Gilbert Marius, Tildesley Michael J,



(6) Passive inhalation of dry powder influenza vaccine formulations completely protects chickens against H5N1 lethal viral challenge.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30312742
Publication Date : //
Bird to human transmission of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) poses a significant risk of triggering a flu pandemic in the human population. Therefore, vaccination of susceptible poultry during an HPAIV outbreak might be the best remedy to prevent such transmissions. To this end, suitable formulations and an effective mass vaccination method that can be translated to field settings needs to be developed. Our previous study in chickens has shown that inhalation of a non-adjuvanted dry powder influenza vaccine formulation during normal breathing results in partial protection against lethal influenza challenge. The aim of the present study was to improve the effectiveness of pulmonary vaccination by increasing the vaccine dose deposited in the lungs and by the use of suitable adjuvants. Two adjuvants, namely, Bacterium-like Particles (BLP) and Advax, were spray freeze dried with influenza vaccine into dry powder formulations. Delivery of dry formulations directly at the syrinx revealed that BLP and Advax had the potential to boost either systemic or mucosal immune responses or both. Upon passive inhalation of dry influenza vaccine formulations in an optimized set-up, BLP and Advax/BLP adjuvanted formulations induced significantly higher systemic immune responses than the non-adjuvanted formulation. Remarkably, all vaccinated animals not only survived a lethal influenza challenge, but also did not show any shedding of challenge virus except for two out of six animals in the Advax group. Overall, our results indicate that passive inhalation is feasible, effective and suitable for mass vaccination of chickens if it can be adapted to field settings.

Authors : Tomar Jasmine, Biel Carin, de Haan Cornelis A M, Rottier Peter J M, Petrovsky Nikolai, Frijlink Henderik W, Huckriede Anke, Hinrichs Wouter L J, Peeters Ben,



(7) Molecular identification of avian influenza virus subtypes H5N1 and H9N2 in birds from farms and live bird markets and in respiratory patients.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30202644
Publication Date : //
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been endemic in Egypt since 2006, and the co-circulation of high-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and low-pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 subtypes in poultry has been reported; therefore, Egypt is considered a hotspot for the generation of new subtypes and genotypes. We aimed to characterize AIVs circulating on commercial farms and in live bird markets (LBMs) during the winters of 2015 and 2016 in the study area and to identify H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in respiratory patients.

Authors : Tolba Hala M N, Abou Elez Rasha M M, Elsohaby Ibrahim, Ahmed Heba A,



(8) The Drivers of Pathology in Zoonotic Avian Influenza: The Interplay Between Host and Pathogen.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30135686
Publication Date : //
The emergence of zoonotic strains of avian influenza (AI) that cause high rates of mortality in people has caused significant global concern, with a looming threat that one of these strains may develop sustained human-to-human transmission and cause a pandemic outbreak. Most notable of these viral strains are the H5N1 highly pathogenic AI and the H7N9 low pathogenicity AI viruses, both of which have mortality rates above 30%. Understanding of their mechanisms of infection and pathobiology is key to our preparation for these and future viral strains of high consequence. AI viruses typically circulate in wild bird populations, commonly infecting waterfowl and also regularly entering commercial poultry flocks. Live poultry markets provide an ideal environment for the spread AI and potentially the selection of mutants with a greater propensity for infecting humans because of the potential for spill over from birds to humans. Pathology from these AI virus infections is associated with a dysregulated immune response, which is characterized by systemic spread of the virus, lymphopenia, and hypercytokinemia. It has been well documented that host/pathogen interactions, particularly molecules of the immune system, play a significant role in both disease susceptibility as well as disease outcome. Here, we review the immune/virus interactions in both avian and mammalian species, and provide an overview or our understanding of how immune dysregulation is driven. Understanding these susceptibility factors is critical for the development of new vaccines and therapeutics to combat the next pandemic influenza.

Authors : Horman William S J, Nguyen Thi H O, Kedzierska Katherine, Bean Andrew G D, Layton Daniel S,



(9) Attenuation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses in Indonesia following the reassortment and acquisition of genes from low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus progenitors.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30131494
Publication Date : //
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus is endemic in Indonesian poultry and has caused sporadic human infection in Indonesia since 2005. Surveillance of H5N1 viruses in live bird markets (LBMs) during 2012 and 2013 was carried out to provide epidemiologic and virologic information regarding viral circulation and the risk of human exposure. Real-time RT-PCR of avian cloacal swabs and environmental samples revealed influenza A-positive specimens, which were then subjected to virus isolation and genomic sequencing. Genetic analysis of specimens collected at multiple LBMs in Indonesia identified both low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H3N8) and HPAI A(H5N1) viruses belonging to clade 2.1.3.2a. Comparison of internal gene segments among the LPAI and HPAI viruses revealed that the latter had acquired the PB2, PB1, and NS genes from LPAI progenitors and other viruses containing a wild type (wt) genomic constellation. Comparison of murine infectivity of the LPAI A(H3N8), wt HPAI A(H5N1) and reassortant HPAI A(H5N1) viruses showed that the acquisition of LPAI internal genes attenuated the reassortant HPAI virus, producing a mouse infectivity/virulence phenotype comparable to that of the LPAI virus. Comparison of molecular markers in each viral gene segment suggested that mutations in PB2 and NS1 may facilitate attenuation. The discovery of an attenuated HPAI A(H5N1) virus in mice that resulted from reassortment may have implications for the capability of these viruses to transmit and cause disease. In addition, surveillance suggests that LBMs in Indonesia may play a role in the generation of reassortant A(H5) viruses and should be monitored.

Authors : Dharmayanti Ni Luh Putu Indi, Thor Sharmi W, Zanders Natosha, Hartawan Risza, Ratnawati Atik, Jang Yunho, Rodriguez Marisela, Suarez David L, Samaan Gina, Pudjiatmoko , Davis C Todd,



(10) Heterosubtypic Protections against Human-Infecting Avian Influenza Viruses Correlate to Biased Cross-T-Cell Responses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30087171
Publication Date : //
Against a backdrop of seasonal influenza virus epidemics, emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) occasionally jump from birds to humans, posing a public health risk, especially with the recent sharp increase in H7N9 infections. Evaluations of cross-reactive T-cell immunity to seasonal influenza viruses and human-infecting AIVs have been reported previously. However, the roles of influenza A virus-derived epitopes in the cross-reactive T-cell responses and heterosubtypic protections are not well understood; understanding those roles is important for preventing and controlling new emerging AIVs. Here, among the members of a healthy population presumed to have previously been infected by pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), we found that pH1N1-specific T cells showed cross- but biased reactivity to human-infecting AIVs, i.e., H5N1, H6N1, H7N9, and H9N2, which correlates with distinct protections. Through a T-cell epitope-based phylogenetic analysis, the cellular immunogenic clustering expanded the relevant conclusions to a broader range of virus strains. We defined the potential key conserved epitopes required for cross-protection and revealed the molecular basis for the immunogenic variations. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development. We revealed preexisting but biased T-cell reactivity of pH1N1 influenza virus to human-infecting AIVs, which provided distinct protections. The cross-reactive T-cell recognition had a regular pattern that depended on the T-cell epitope matrix revealed via bioinformatics analysis. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development.

Authors : Zhao Min, Liu Kefang, Luo Jiejian, Tan Shuguang, Quan Chuansong, Zhang Shuijun, Chai Yan, Qi Jianxun, Li Yan, Bi Yuhai, Xiao Haixia, Wong Gary, Zhou Jianfang, Jiang Taijiao, Liu Wenjun, Yu Hongjie, Yan Jinghua, Liu Yingxia, Shu Yuelong, Wu Guizhen, Wu Aiping, Gao George F, Liu William J,