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Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative

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[#LSY-30011] Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative


LSY-30011 | Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative, 96 wells/kit
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(1) Heterosubtypic Protections against Human-Infecting Avian Influenza Viruses Correlate to Biased Cross-T-Cell Responses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30087171
Publication Date : //
Against a backdrop of seasonal influenza virus epidemics, emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) occasionally jump from birds to humans, posing a public health risk, especially with the recent sharp increase in H7N9 infections. Evaluations of cross-reactive T-cell immunity to seasonal influenza viruses and human-infecting AIVs have been reported previously. However, the roles of influenza A virus-derived epitopes in the cross-reactive T-cell responses and heterosubtypic protections are not well understood; understanding those roles is important for preventing and controlling new emerging AIVs. Here, among the members of a healthy population presumed to have previously been infected by pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), we found that pH1N1-specific T cells showed cross- but biased reactivity to human-infecting AIVs, i.e., H5N1, H6N1, H7N9, and H9N2, which correlates with distinct protections. Through a T-cell epitope-based phylogenetic analysis, the cellular immunogenic clustering expanded the relevant conclusions to a broader range of virus strains. We defined the potential key conserved epitopes required for cross-protection and revealed the molecular basis for the immunogenic variations. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development. We revealed preexisting but biased T-cell reactivity of pH1N1 influenza virus to human-infecting AIVs, which provided distinct protections. The cross-reactive T-cell recognition had a regular pattern that depended on the T-cell epitope matrix revealed via bioinformatics analysis. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development.

Authors : Zhao Min, Liu Kefang, Luo Jiejian, Tan Shuguang, Quan Chuansong, Zhang Shuijun, Chai Yan, Qi Jianxun, Li Yan, Bi Yuhai, Xiao Haixia, Wong Gary, Zhou Jianfang, Jiang Taijiao, Liu Wenjun, Yu Hongjie, Yan Jinghua, Liu Yingxia, Shu Yuelong, Wu Guizhen, Wu Aiping, Gao George F, Liu William J,

(2) Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza A Virus Spreads Efficiently in Human Primary Monocyte-Derived Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30065728
Publication Date : //
Influenza A viruses cause recurrent epidemics and occasional global pandemics. Wild birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A virus from where the virus can be transmitted to poultry or to mammals including humans. Mortality among humans in the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection is even 60%. Despite intense research, there are still open questions in the pathogenicity of the H5N1 virus in humans. To characterize the H5N1 virus infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸs) and dendritic cells (DCs), we used human isolates of highly pathogenic H5N1/2004 and H5N1/1997 and low pathogenic H7N9/2013 avian influenza viruses in comparison with a seasonal H3N2/1989 virus. We noticed that the H5N1 viruses have an overwhelming ability to replicate and spread in primary human immune cell cultures, and even the addition of trypsin did not equalize the infectivity of H7N9 or H3N2 viruses to the level seen with H5N1 virus. H5N1 virus stocks contained more often propagation-competent viruses than the H7N9 or H3N2 viruses. The data also showed that human DCs and Mɸs maintain 1,000- and 10,000-fold increase in the production of infectious H5N1 virus, respectively. Both analyzed highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses showed multi-cycle infection in primary human DCs and Mɸs, whereas the H3N2 and H7N9 viruses were incapable of spreading in immune cells. Interestingly, H5N1 virus was able to spread extremely efficiently despite the strong induction of antiviral interferon gene expression, which may in part explain the high pathogenicity of H5N1 virus infection in humans.

Authors : Westenius Veera, Mäkelä Sanna M, Julkunen Ilkka, Österlund Pamela,

(3) Compatibility between haemagglutinin and neuraminidase drives the recent emergence of novel clade H5Nx avian influenza viruses in China.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29999588
Publication Date : //
Genetic reassortments between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 subtype viruses with different neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have increased in prevalence since 2010 in wild birds and poultry from China. The HA gene slightly evolved from clade 2.3.4 to clade, raising the question of whether novel clade HA broke the balance with N1 but is matched well with NAx to drive viral epidemics. To clarify the role of compatibility between HA and NA on the prevalence of H5Nx subtypes, we constructed 10 recombinant viruses in which the clade 2.3.4 or clade HA genes were matched with different NA (N1, N2 and N8) genes and evaluated viral characteristics and pathogenicity. Combinations between clade 2.3.4 HA and N1 or between clade HA and NAx, but not between clade HA and N1, or between clade 2.3.4 HA and NAx, promoted viral growth, NA activity, thermostability, low-pH stability and pathogenicity in chicken and mice. These findings suggest that both clade 2.3.4 HA/N1 and clade HA/NAx displayed a better match, which could promote the increased prevalence of clade 2.3.4 H5N1 AIV (prior to 2010) and clade H5Nx AIV (since 2010) in China, respectively.

Authors : Qin Tao, Zhu Jingjing, Ma Ruonan, Yin Yuncong, Chen Sujuan, Peng Daxin, Liu Xiufan,

(4) Highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 Clade virus in poultry in Cameroon, 2016-2017.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29985640
Publication Date : //
In May 2016, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of the subtype A/H5N1 was detected in Cameroon in an industrial poultry farm at Mvog-Betsi, Yaounde (Centre region), with a recorded sudden increase of deaths among chickens, and an overall mortality rate of 75%. The virus spread further and caused new outbreaks in some parts of the country. In total, 21 outbreaks were confirmed from May 2016 to March 2017 (6 in the Centre, 6 in the West, 8 in the South and 1 in the Adamaoua regions). This resulted in an estimated total loss of 138,252 birds (44,451 death due to infection and 93,801 stamped out). Only domestic birds (chicken, ducks and geese) were affected both in farms as well as in poultry markets. The outbreaks occurred in three waves, the first from May-June 2016, the second in September 2016 and last wave in March 2017. The topology of the phylogeny based on the HA gene segment indicated that the causative H5N1 viruses fall within the genetic clade, sharing a same group with the A/H5N1 viruses collected in Niger in 2015 and 2016. More importantly, the gene constellation of four representative viruses showed evidence of H5N1/H9N2 intra-clade reassortment. Additional epidemiological and genetic data from affected countries in West Africa are needed to better trace the origin, spread and evolution of A/H5N1 in Cameroon.

Authors : Wade Abel, Taïga , Fouda Mama Andre, MaiMoussa Abari, Jean Marc Feussom Kameni, Njouom Richard, Vernet Marie-Astrid, Djonwe Gaston, Mballa Etoundi, Kazi Jean Phillipe, Nenkam Robert, Poueme Namegni Rodrigue, Bamanga Hamadou, Casimir Ndongo K M, Lebreton Mathew, Nwobegahay Julius, Fusaro Alice, Zecchin Bianca, Milani Adelaide, Gaston Meyebe, Chepnda Vitalis R, Dickmu Jumbo Simon, Souley Abdoulkadiri, Aboubakar Yaya, Fotso Kamnga Zephyrin, Couo Konrad, Atkam Hamman, Dauphin Gwenaelle, Wiersma Lidewij, Bebay Charles, Nzietchueng Serge, Vincent Tanya, Biaou Cyprien, Mbacham Wilfred, Monne Isabella, Cattoli Giovanni,

(5) Evaluation of the potential defensive strategy against Influenza A in cell line models.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29946435
Publication Date : //
Influenza virus can cause both seasonal infections and unpredictable pandemics. Rapidly evolving avian H5N1 and  H7N9 viruses have a potential pandemic threat for humans. Since avian Influenza can be transmitted by domestic birds, serving as a key link between wild birds and humans, an effective measure to control the influenza transmission would be eradication of the infection in poultry. It is known that the virus penetrates into the cell through binding with the terminal oligosaccharides - sialic acids (SA) - on the cell surfaces. Removal of SA might be a potential antiviral strategy. An approach to developing chicken lines that are resistant to influenza viruses could be the creation of genetically modified birds. Thus it is necessary to select a gene that provides defense to influenza. Here we have expressed in cells a range of exogenous sialidases and estimated their activity and specificity towards SA residues. Several bacterial, viral and human sialidases were tested. We adopted bacterial sialidases from and for expression on the cell surface by fusing catalytic domains with transmembrane domains. We also selected Influenza A/PuertoRico/8/34/H1N1 neuraminidase and human membrane sialidase ( ) genes. Lectin binding assay was used for estimation of a α (2,3)-sialylation level by fluorescent microscopy and FACS.   We compared sialidases from bacteria, Influenza virus and human. Sialidases from and Influenza A neuraminidase effectively cleaved α (2-3)-SA receptors. Viral neuraminidase demonstrated a higher activity. Sialidases from and did not show any activity against α (2-3) SA under physiological conditions. : Our results demonstrated that sialidases with different specificity and activity can be selected as genes providing antiviral defence. Combining chosen sialidases with different activity together with tissue-specific promoters would provide an optimal level of desialylation. Tissue specific expression of the sialidases could protect domestic birds from infection.

Authors : Antonova Ekaterina, Glazova Olga, Gaponova Anna, Eremyan Aykaz, Grebenkina Natalya, Zvereva Svetlana, Volkova Natalya, Volchkov Pavel,

(6) Avian influenza surveillance in domestic waterfowl and environment of live bird markets in Bangladesh, 2007-2012.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29925854
Publication Date : //
Avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic strains, pose severe economic, animal and public health concerns. We implemented live bird market surveillance in Bangladesh to identify the subtypes of avian influenza A viruses in domestic waterfowl and market environments. We collected waterfowl samples monthly from 4 rural sites from 2007 to 2012 and environmental samples from 4 rural and 16 urban sites from 2009 to 2012. Samples were tested through real-time RT-PCR, virus culture, and sequencing to detect and characterize avian influenza A viruses. Among 4,308 waterfowl tested, 191 (4.4%) were positive for avian influenza A virus, including 74 (1.9%) avian influenza A/H5 subtype. The majority (99%, n = 73) of the influenza A/H5-positive samples were from healthy appearing waterfowl. Multiple subtypes, including H1N1, H1N3, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N1, H4N2, H4N6, H5N1 (clades 2.2.2,,, H5N2, H6N1, H7N9, H9N2, H11N2 and H11N3, H11N6 were detected in waterfowl and environmental samples. Environmental samples tested positive for influenza A viruses throughout the year. Avian influenza viruses, including H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes were also identified in backyard and small-scale raised poultry. Live bird markets could be high-risk sites for harboring the viruses and have the potential to infect naive birds and humans exposed to them.

Authors : Khan Salah Uddin, Gurley Emily S, Gerloff Nancy, Rahman Md Z, Simpson Natosha, Rahman Mustafizur, Haider Najmul, Chowdhury Sukanta, Balish Amanda, Zaman Rashid Uz, Nasreen Sharifa, Chandra Das Bidhan, Azziz-Baumgartner Eduardo, Sturm-Ramirez Katharine, Davis C Todd, Donis Ruben O, Luby Stephen P,

(7) Avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreaks in different poultry farm types in Egypt: the effect of vaccination, closing status and farm size.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29914481
Publication Date : //
The Avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus is endemic in poultry in Egypt. The winter of 2014/2015 was particularly worrying as new clusters of HPAI A (H5N1) virus emerged, leading to an important number of AI A (H5N1) outbreaks in poultry farms and sporadic human cases. To date, few studies have investigated the distribution of HPAI A (H5N1) outbreaks in Egypt in relation to protective / risk factors at the farm level, a gap we intend to fill. The aim of the study was to analyse passive surveillance data that were based on observation of sudden and high mortality of poultry or drop in duck or chicken egg production, as a basis to better understand and discuss the risk of HPAI A (H5N1) presence at the farm level in large parts of the Nile Delta.

Authors : Artois Jean, Ippoliti Carla, Conte Annamaria, Dhingra Madhur S, Alfonso Pastor, Tahawy Abdelgawad El, Elbestawy Ahmed, Ellakany Hany F, Gilbert Marius,

(8) Induction of Cross-Clade Antibody and T-Cell Responses by a Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Based Influenza A(H5N1) Vaccine in a Randomized Phase 1/2a Clinical Trial.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29912453
Publication Date : //
High-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses continue to circulate in poultry and wild birds and occasionally infect humans, sometimes with fatal outcomes. Development of vaccines is a priority to prepare for potential pandemics but is complicated by antigenic variation of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin. We report the immunological profile induced by human immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the hemagglutinin gene of influenza A(H5N1) virus A/Vietnam/1194/04 (rMVA-H5).

Authors : de Vries Rory D, Altenburg Arwen F, Nieuwkoop Nella J, de Bruin Erwin, van Trierum Stella E, Pronk Mark R, Lamers Mart M, Richard Mathilde, Nieuwenhuijse David F, Koopmans Marion P G, Kreijtz Joost H C M, Fouchier Ron A M, Osterhaus Albert D M E, Sutter Gerd, Rimmelzwaan Guus F,


Pubmed ID :29900780
Publication Date : //
  An outbreak of HPAIV H5N1 in Nakhon Sawan province, Thailand, in 2004 caused sporadic deaths of Asian openbill storks ( Anastomus oscitans). An investigation was undertaken to determine if this virus occurs and circulates in wild birds in Nakhon Sawan province. Following the outbreak, a widespread serosurvey was conducted using the hemagglutination inhibition assay and microneutralization assay to detect antibodies against AIV H5. From 2007 to 2014, blood was collected from a total of 753 wild birds, representing 10 orders and 44 species. The results reveal that 10 serum samples were positive for AIV H5 antibodies. These seropositive results, found in the orders Ciconiiformes and Anseriformes, demonstrate that waterfowl serve as a reservoir host of AIV. Moreover, the seroprevalences in streak-eared bulbul showed habitat sharing with waterfowl or duck.

Authors : Poltep Kanaporn, Ketchim Natthaphat, Paungpin Weena, Prompiram Phirom, Sedwisai Poonyapat, Chamsai Tatiyanuch, Puthavathana Pilaipan, Ratanakorn Parntep,

(10) Mitigation strategies to reduce the generation and transmission of airborne highly pathogenic avian influenza virus particles during processing of infected poultry.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29891217
Publication Date : //
Airborne transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses has occurred among poultry and from poultry to humans during home or live-poultry market slaughter of infected poultry, and such transmission has been experimentally reproduced. In this study, we investigated simple, practical changes in the processing of H5N1 virus-infected chickens to reduce infectious airborne particles and their transmission. Our findings suggest that containing the birds during the killing and bleeding first step by using a disposable plastic bag, a commonly available cooking pot widely used in Egypt (halla), or a bucket significantly reduces generation of infectious airborne particles and transmission to ferrets. Similarly, lack of infectious airborne particles was observed when processing vaccinated chickens that had been challenged with HPAI virus. Moreover, the use of a mechanical defeatherer significantly increased total number of particles in the air compared to manual defeathering. This study confirms that simple changes in poultry processing can efficiently mitigate generation of infectious airborne particles and their transmission to humans.

Authors : Bertran Kateri, Clark Andrew, Swayne David E,