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Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus antibody ELISA test kit Serum

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[#LSY-30011] Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus antibody ELISA test kit Serum


LSY-30011 | Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus antibody ELISA test kit Serum, 96 wells/kit
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(1) Genetic analysis and biological characteristics of different internal gene origin H5N6 reassortment avian influenza virus in China in 2016.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29778197
Publication Date : //
Clade of H5N6 subtype Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) has become dominant clade in South-East Asia. So far, a total of 16 cases of human infection, including 6 deaths, have been confirmed since 2014. In this study, we systematically investigated the genetic evolution and biological characteristics of these viruses. We first carried out phylogenetic and statistical analysis of all H5N6 viruses that were downloaded from Influenza Research Database, GISAID and isolates from our lab. We found that H5N6 AIVs continued to reassort with other AIVs subtypes since 2014. Among these H5N6 reassortments, four main gene types were identified: A (internal genes of H5N1-origin), B (PB2 of H6-origin, and others of H5N1-origin), C (internal genes of H9-origin) and D (PB2 of H6-origin and PB1of H3-origin, and others of H5N1). In addition, after several years of evolution, gene type D is currently the dominant gene type. To systematically compare the genetic and evolutionary characteristics and pathogenicity of these viruses, four H5N6 AIVs of different gene types were selected for further analysis. S4, XZ6, GD1602 and YZ587 virus represented gene type A, B, C and D, respectively. Their NA genes were all originated from H6 and their whole genome showed a high similarity with human isolates. All these isolates could both bind with SA-α2,3 Gal and SA-α2,6 Gal receptors. Pathogenicity test showed that these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens, while YZ587 showed the lowest virulence. Moreover, XZ6 and S4 viruses were highly pathogenic in ducks and moderately pathogenic in mice, while GD1602 and YZ587 viruses were no-pathogenic in these animals. Interestingly, GD1602 and YZ587-like viruses were responsible for 4 and 2 human infection cases in 2016, respectively. Therefore, our study showed that the YZ587 virus which has mixed internal genes, showed lower virulence in avian species and mammals compared to other genotype viruses. Overall, our findings suggest that the H5N6 avian influenza virus is undergoing constantly evolving and reassortment. Thus, our study highlights the necessary of continued surveillance of the H5N6 AIVs in birds and paying close attention to the spread of these novel reassortment viruses.

Authors : Sun Wenqiang, Li Jiaxin, Hu Jiao, Jiang Daxiu, Xing Chaonan, Zhan Tiansong, Liu Xiufan,

(2) Host-directed combinatorial RNAi improves inhibition of diverse strains of influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29775471
Publication Date : //
Influenza A virus infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and currently available prevention and treatment methods are suboptimal. In recent years, genome-wide investigations have revealed numerous host factors that are required for influenza to successfully complete its life cycle. However, only a select, small number of influenza strains were evaluated using this platform, and there was considerable variation in the genes identified across different investigations. In an effort to develop a universally efficacious therapeutic strategy with limited potential for the emergence of resistance, this study was performed to investigate the effect of combinatorial RNA interference (RNAi) on inhibiting the replication of diverse influenza A virus subtypes and strains. Candidate genes were selected for targeting based on the results of multiple previous independent genome-wide studies. The effect of single and combinatorial RNAi on the replication of 12 diverse influenza A viruses, including three strains isolated from birds and one strain isolated from seals, was then evaluated in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. After excluding overly toxic siRNA, two siRNA combinations were identified that reduced mean viral replication by greater than 79 percent in all mammalian strains, and greater than 68 percent in all avian strains. Host-directed combinatorial RNAi effectively prevents growth of a broad range of influenza virus strains in vitro, and is a potential therapeutic candidate for further development and future in vivo studies.

Authors : Estrin Michael A, Hussein Islam T M, Puryear Wendy B, Kuan Anne C, Artim Stephen C, Runstadler Jonathan A,

(3) Induction of influenza-specific local CD8 T-cells in the respiratory tract after aerosol delivery of vaccine antigen or virus in the Babraham inbred pig.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29772011
Publication Date : //
There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is being actively explored as a method to administer vaccine antigens. Current animal models used to study respiratory pathogens suffer from anatomical disparity with humans. The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume. It may also be an important vector in the birds to human infection cycle. A major drawback of the current pig model is the inability to analyze antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, which are critical to respiratory immunity. Here we address this knowledge gap using an established in-bred pig model with a high degree of genetic identity between individuals, including the MHC (Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)) locus. We developed a toolset that included long-term in vitro pig T-cell culture and cloning and identification of novel immunodominant influenza-derived T-cell epitopes. We also generated structures of the two SLA class I molecules found in these animals presenting the immunodominant epitopes. These structures allowed definition of the primary anchor points for epitopes in the SLA binding groove and established SLA binding motifs that were used to successfully predict other influenza-derived peptide sequences capable of stimulating T-cells. Peptide-SLA tetramers were constructed and used to track influenza-specific T-cells ex vivo in blood, the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Aerosol immunization with attenuated single cycle influenza viruses (S-FLU) induced large numbers of CD8+ T-cells specific for conserved NP peptides in the respiratory tract. Collectively, these data substantially increase the utility of pigs as an effective model for studying protective local cellular immunity against respiratory pathogens.

Authors : Tungatt Katie, Dolton Garry, Morgan Sophie B, Attaf Meriem, Fuller Anna, Whalley Thomas, Hemmink Johanneke D, Porter Emily, Szomolay Barbara, Montoya Maria, Hammond John A, Miles John J, Cole David K, Townsend Alain, Bailey Mick, Rizkallah Pierre J, Charleston Bryan, Tchilian Elma, Sewell Andrew K,

(4) Avian influenza viruses in wild birds: virus evolution in a multi-host ecosystem.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29769347
Publication Date : //
Wild ducks and gulls are the major reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIVs). The mechanisms that drive AIV evolution are complex at sites where various duck and gull species from multiple flyways breed, winter or stage. The Republic of Georgia is located at the intersection of three migratory flyways: Central Asian Flyway, East Asian/East African Flyway and Black Sea/Mediterranean Flyway. For six consecutive years (2010-2016), we collected AIV samples from various duck and gull species that breed, migrate and overwinter in Georgia. We found substantial subtype diversity of viruses that varied in prevalence from year to year. Low pathogenic (LP)AIV subtypes included H1N1, H2N3, H2N5, H2N7, H3N8, H4N2, H6N2, H7N3, H7N7, H9N1, H9N3, H10N4, H10N7, H11N1, H13N2, H13N6, H13N8, H16N3, plus two H5N5 and H5N8 highly pathogenic (HP)AIVs belonging to clade Whole genome phylogenetic trees showed significant host species lineage restriction for nearly all gene segments and significant differences for LPAIVs among different host species in observed reassortment rates, as defined by quantification of phylogenetic incongruence, and in nucleotide diversity. Hemagglutinin clade H5N8 viruses, circulated in Eurasia during 2014-2015 did not reassort, but analysis after its subsequent dissemination during 2016-2017 revealed reassortment in all gene segments except NP and NS. Some virus lineages appeared to be unrelated to AIVs in wild bird populations in other regions with maintenance of local AIV viruses in Georgia, whereas other lineages showed considerable genetic inter-relationship with viruses circulating in other parts of Eurasia and Africa, despite relative under-sampling in the area.Waterbirds (e.g., gulls/ducks) are natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and have been shown to mediate dispersal of AIV at inter-continental scales during seasonal migration. The segmented genome of influenza viruses enables viral RNA from different lineages to mix or re-assort when two viruses infect the same host. Such reassortant viruses have been identified in most major human influenza pandemics and several poultry outbreaks. Despite their importance, we have only recently begun to understand AIV evolution and reassortment in their natural host reservoirs. This comprehensive study illustrates of AIV evolutionary dynamics within a multi-host ecosystem at a stop-over site where three major migratory flyways intersect. Our analysis of this ecosystem over a six-year period provides a snapshot of how these viruses are linked to global AIV populations. Understanding the evolution of AIVs in the natural host is imperative to both mitigating the risk of incursion into domestic poultry and potential risk to mammalian hosts including humans.

Authors : Venkatesh Divya, Poen Marjolein J, Bestebroer Theo M, Scheuer Rachel D, Vuong Oanh, Chkhaidze Mzia, Machablishvili Anna, Mamuchadze Jimsher, Ninua Levan, Fedorova Nadia B, Halpin Rebecca A, Lin Xudong, Ransier Amy, Stockwell Timothy B, Wentworth David E, Kriti Divya, Dutta Jayeeta, van Bakel Harm, Puranik Anita, Slomka Marek J, Essen Steve, Brown Ian H, Fouchier Ron A M, Lewis Nicola S,

(5) Evaluation of kefir as a potential probiotic on growth performance, serum biochemistry and immune responses in broiler chicks.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29767062
Publication Date : //
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of milk or molasses kefir as a probiotic on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one-d-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The following treatments were applied: 1) a basal diet (C) and normal drinking water, 2) 2% milk kefir in drinking water, 3) 2% molasses kefir in drinking water, and 4) the diet C supplemented with commercial probiotic. At d 42, eight birds per treatment were killed for determination of carcass traits. Broilers at 28 days of age were bled for measuring antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), at 30 days of age for antibody titers against sheep red blood cell (SRBC), and at 42 days of age for biochemical analysis. Supplementing 2% milk kefir increased body weight of broilers at 28 and 42 days of age ( < 0.05). Supplementing 2% molasses kefir improved feed conversation ratio (FCR) of broilers during growth period ( < 0.05), but FCR of broilers in other periods was not affected. Daily feed intake, internal organ weights, and carcass traits were not influenced by the treatments except for small intestine and ceca length. Small intestinal length significantly decreased in broilers supplemented with milk and molasses kefir ( < 0.05). Molasses kefir supplementation significantly ( < 0.05) increased antibody titer against SRBC at 31 days of age but other immune related parameters were not statistically different among treatments. Biochemical parameters including serum protein, albumin, and triglyceride concentrations were not statistically ( > 0.05) influenced. Broilers supplemented with molasses kefir, had a significantly lower concentration of serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 42 days of age ( < 0.05). In conclusion, the results indicated that inclusion of 2% milk kefir in drinking water would improve growth performance of broiler chickens.

Authors : Toghyani Majid, Mosavi Seyed Kazem, Modaresi Mehrdad, Landy Nasir,

(6) Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Exposure Risk Assessment in Australian Commercial Chicken Farms.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29755987
Publication Date : //
This study investigated the pathways of exposure to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus among Australian commercial chicken farms and estimated the likelihood of this exposure occurring using scenario trees and a stochastic modeling approach following the World Organization for Animal Health methodology for risk assessment. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature and an on-farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 among Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales and Queensland. Outputs from the models revealed that the probability of a first LPAI virus exposure to a chicken in an Australian commercial chicken farms from one wild bird at any point in time is extremely low. A comparative assessment revealed that across the five farm types (non-free-range meat chicken, free-range meat chicken, cage layer, barn layer, and free range layer farms), free-range layer farms had the highest probability of exposure (7.5 × 10; 5% and 95%, 5.7 × 10-0.001). The results indicate that the presence of a large number of wild birds on farm is required for exposure to occur across all farm types. The median probability of direct exposure was highest in free-range farm types (5.6 × 10 and 1.6 × 10 for free-range layer and free-range meat chicken farms, respectively) and indirect exposure was highest in non-free-range farm types (2.7 × 10, 2.0 × 10, and 1.9 × 10 for non-free-range meat chicken, cage layer, and barn layer farms, respectively). The probability of exposure was found to be lowest in summer for all farm types. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the proportion of waterfowl among wild birds on the farm, the presence of waterfowl in the range and feed storage areas, and the prevalence of LPAI in wild birds are the most influential parameters for the probability of Australian commercial chicken farms being exposed to avian influenza (AI) virus. These results highlight the importance of ensuring good biosecurity on farms to minimize the risk of exposure to AI virus and the importance of continuous surveillance of LPAI prevalence including subtypes in wild bird populations.

Authors : Scott Angela Bullanday, Toribio Jenny-Ann, Singh Mini, Groves Peter, Barnes Belinda, Glass Kathryn, Moloney Barbara, Black Amanda, Hernandez-Jover Marta,

(7) Serological Evidence for Influenza A Virus Exposure in Wild Birds in Trinidad & Tobago.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29747454
Publication Date : //
Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV) and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has generated high levels of public health concern. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) is positioned along the wintering route of migratory birds from the Americas; every year, many species of wild birds stopover on the islands of T&T, potentially carrying AIVs and exposing local populations of wild and domestic birds, including commercial poultry, to infection. The aim of this study was to trap, sample, and test as many wild bird species as possible to see whether they were actively infected or previously exposed to AIV. A total of 38 wild birds were trapped, sampled, and tested for IAV RNA, antibodies specific for influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) and antibodies that were specific for H5 and H7 subtypes. Five of the samples tested antibody positive for IAV, while three of these samples had positive titres (≥16) for the H5 subtype, indicating that they were likely to have been previously infected with an H5 IAV subtype. One of the samples tested positive for IAV (M gene) RNA. These results highlight the potential threat that is posed by wild birds to backyard and commercial poultry in T&T and emphasise the importance of maintaining high levels of biosecurity on poultry farms, ensuring that domestic and wild birds are not in direct or indirect contact. The results also underline the need to carry out routine surveillance for AIV in domestic and wild birds in T&T and the wider Caribbean region.

Authors : Brown Jordan Arianne, Narang Darshan, Essen Steve C, Brookes Sharon M, Brown Ian H, Oura Christopher,

(8) Migratory Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus Transmit H5N1 Virus between China and Mongolia: Combination Evidence from Satellite Tracking and Phylogenetics Analysis.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29728621
Publication Date : //
In late 2014, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hereafter HPAI) H5N1 outbreak infected whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering at the Sanmenxia Reservoir area, China, and raised concerns about migratory linkages between wintering and breeding grounds of whooper swans. In this study, 61 swans were satellite tracked from 2013 to 2016 to determine the spatial association of their migration routes and H5N1 outbreaks, and 3596 fecal samples were collected along the migration routes for virology testing. Swans departed the wintering grounds and migrated along the Yellow River, and flew over the Yin Mountains in China. The Brownian bridge movement model showed there was a high degree of spatiotemporal overlap between the core use area along the spring migration pathway and historical H5N1 events in China and Mongolia from 2005 to 2015. The H5N1 strain was isolated and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the HA gene sequence generated is genetically similar to that of the epidemic strain at a previous wintering site (the Sanmenxia Reservoir area) along its flyway. Our results identified a previously unknown migratory link of whooper swans in central China with Mongolia and confirmed that the swans could carry the HPAI H5N1 virus during migration, resulting in long-distance transmission.

Authors : Li Shuhong, Meng Weiyue, Liu Dongping, Yang Qiqi, Chen Lixia, Dai Qiang, Ma Tian, Gao Ruyi, Ru Wendong, Li Yunfeng, Yu Pengbo, Lu Jun, Zhang Guogang, Tian Huaiyu, Chai Hongliang, Li Yanbing,

(9) Experimental infection of H5N1 and H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Northern Pintail (Anas acuta).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29726612
Publication Date : //
The wide geographic spread of Eurasian Goose/Guangdong lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade viruses by wild birds is of great concern. In December 2014, an H5N8 HPAI clade Group A ( virus was introduced to North America. Long-distance migratory wild aquatic birds between East Asia and North America, such as Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), were strongly suspected of being a source of intercontinental transmission. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity, infectivity and transmissibility of an H5N8 HPAI clade virus in Northern Pintails and compared the results to that of an H5N1 HPAI clade virus. All of Northern Pintails infected with either H5N1 or H5N8 virus lacked clinical signs and mortality, but the H5N8 clade virus was more efficient at replicating within and transmitting between Northern Pintails than the H5N1 clade virus. The H5N8-infected birds shed high titre of viruses from oropharynx and cloaca, which in the field supported virus transmission and spread. This study highlights the role of wild waterfowl in the intercontinental spread of some HPAI viruses. Migratory aquatic birds should be carefully monitored for the early detection of H5 clade and other HPAI viruses.

Authors : Kwon J-H, Lee D-H, Swayne D E, Noh J-Y, Yuk S-S, Jeong S, Lee S-H, Woo C, Shin J-H, Song C-S,

(10) Characterization of an Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Strain Isolated from Dove in Southern China.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29724842
Publication Date : //
We report here the complete genome sequence of strain H9N2, an avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from dove in Guangxi, China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it was a novel reassortant AIV derived from chicken, duck, and wild bird. This finding provides useful information for understanding the H9N2 subtype of AIV circulating in southern China.

Authors : Li Dan, Li ZhengTing, Xie Zhixun, Li Meng, Xie Zhiqin, Liu Jiabo, Xie Liji, Deng Xianwen, Luo Sisi,