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Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus antibody ELISA test kit Serum

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[#LSY-30011] Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus antibody ELISA test kit Serum

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LSY-30011 | Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus antibody ELISA test kit Serum, 96 wells/kit
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(1) Characterization of avian influenza virus attachment patterns to human and pig tissues.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30111851
Publication Date : //
Wild birds of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses (IAVs). Occasionally, IAVs transmit and adapt to mammalian hosts, and are maintained as epidemic strains in their new hosts. Viral adaptions to mammalian hosts include altered receptor preference of host epithelial sialylated oligosaccharides from terminal α2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) towards α2,6-linked SA. However, α2,3-linked SA has been found in human respiratory tract epithelium, and human infections by avian IAVs (AIVs) have been reported. To further explore the attachment properties of AIVs, four AIVs of different subtypes were investigated on human and pig tissues using virus histochemistry. Additionally, glycan array analysis was performed for further characterization of IAVs' receptor structure tropism. Generally, AIV attachment was more abundant to human tissues than to pig tissues. The attachment pattern was very strong to human conjunctiva and upper respiratory tract, but variable to the lower respiratory tract. AIVs mainly attached to α2,3-linked SA, but also to combinations of α2,3- and α2,6-linked SA. The low attachment of these AIV isolates to pig tissues, but high attachment to human tissues, addresses the question whether AIVs in general require passage through pigs to obtain adaptions towards mammalian receptor structures.

Authors : Eriksson Per, Lindskog Cecilia, Engholm Ebbe, Blixt Ola, Waldenström Jonas, Munster Vincent, Lundkvist Åke, Olsen Björn, Jourdain Elsa, Ellström Patrik,



(2) Heterosubtypic Protections against Human-Infecting Avian Influenza Viruses Correlate to Biased Cross-T-Cell Responses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30087171
Publication Date : //
Against a backdrop of seasonal influenza virus epidemics, emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) occasionally jump from birds to humans, posing a public health risk, especially with the recent sharp increase in H7N9 infections. Evaluations of cross-reactive T-cell immunity to seasonal influenza viruses and human-infecting AIVs have been reported previously. However, the roles of influenza A virus-derived epitopes in the cross-reactive T-cell responses and heterosubtypic protections are not well understood; understanding those roles is important for preventing and controlling new emerging AIVs. Here, among the members of a healthy population presumed to have previously been infected by pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), we found that pH1N1-specific T cells showed cross- but biased reactivity to human-infecting AIVs, i.e., H5N1, H6N1, H7N9, and H9N2, which correlates with distinct protections. Through a T-cell epitope-based phylogenetic analysis, the cellular immunogenic clustering expanded the relevant conclusions to a broader range of virus strains. We defined the potential key conserved epitopes required for cross-protection and revealed the molecular basis for the immunogenic variations. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development. We revealed preexisting but biased T-cell reactivity of pH1N1 influenza virus to human-infecting AIVs, which provided distinct protections. The cross-reactive T-cell recognition had a regular pattern that depended on the T-cell epitope matrix revealed via bioinformatics analysis. Our study elucidated an overall profile of cross-reactivity to AIVs and provided useful recommendations for broad-spectrum vaccine development.

Authors : Zhao Min, Liu Kefang, Luo Jiejian, Tan Shuguang, Quan Chuansong, Zhang Shuijun, Chai Yan, Qi Jianxun, Li Yan, Bi Yuhai, Xiao Haixia, Wong Gary, Zhou Jianfang, Jiang Taijiao, Liu Wenjun, Yu Hongjie, Yan Jinghua, Liu Yingxia, Shu Yuelong, Wu Guizhen, Wu Aiping, Gao George F, Liu William J,



(3) Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza A Virus Spreads Efficiently in Human Primary Monocyte-Derived Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30065728
Publication Date : //
Influenza A viruses cause recurrent epidemics and occasional global pandemics. Wild birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A virus from where the virus can be transmitted to poultry or to mammals including humans. Mortality among humans in the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infection is even 60%. Despite intense research, there are still open questions in the pathogenicity of the H5N1 virus in humans. To characterize the H5N1 virus infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸs) and dendritic cells (DCs), we used human isolates of highly pathogenic H5N1/2004 and H5N1/1997 and low pathogenic H7N9/2013 avian influenza viruses in comparison with a seasonal H3N2/1989 virus. We noticed that the H5N1 viruses have an overwhelming ability to replicate and spread in primary human immune cell cultures, and even the addition of trypsin did not equalize the infectivity of H7N9 or H3N2 viruses to the level seen with H5N1 virus. H5N1 virus stocks contained more often propagation-competent viruses than the H7N9 or H3N2 viruses. The data also showed that human DCs and Mɸs maintain 1,000- and 10,000-fold increase in the production of infectious H5N1 virus, respectively. Both analyzed highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses showed multi-cycle infection in primary human DCs and Mɸs, whereas the H3N2 and H7N9 viruses were incapable of spreading in immune cells. Interestingly, H5N1 virus was able to spread extremely efficiently despite the strong induction of antiviral interferon gene expression, which may in part explain the high pathogenicity of H5N1 virus infection in humans.

Authors : Westenius Veera, Mäkelä Sanna M, Julkunen Ilkka, Österlund Pamela,



(4) Genetic evidence supports sporadic and independent introductions of subtype H5 low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses from wild birds to domestic poultry in North America.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30045988
Publication Date : //
Wild bird-origin influenza A viruses (IAVs or avian influenza) have led to sporadic outbreaks among domestic poultry in the United States (US) and Canada, resulting in economic losses through the implementation of costly containment practices and destruction of birds. We used evolutionary analyses of virus sequence data to determine that 78 H5 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) isolated from domestic poultry in the US and Canada during 2001-2017 resulted from 18 independent virus introductions from wild birds. Within the wild bird reservoir, the hemagglutinin gene segments of H5 LPAIVs exist primarily as two co-circulating genetic sublineages, and our findings suggest the H5 gene segments flow within each migratory bird flyway and among adjacent flyways, with limited exchange between the non-adjacent Atlantic and Pacific Flyways. Phylogeographic analyses provided evidence that IAVs from dabbling ducks and swans/geese contributed to emergence of viruses among domestic poultry. H5 LPAIVs isolated from commercial farm poultry (i.e. turkey) were descended from a single introduction typically remain a single genotype, whereas those from live bird markets sometimes led to multiple genotypes, reflecting the potential for reassortment with other IAVs circulating within live bird markets. H5 LPAIV introduced from wild birds to domestic poultry represent economic threats to the U.S. poultry industry, and our data suggest that such introductions have been sporadic, controlled effectively through production monitoring and a stamping-out policy, and are, therefore, unlikely to result in sustained detections in commercial poultry operations. Integration of viral genome sequencing into influenza surveillance for wild birds and domestic poultry can elucidate evolutionary pathways of economically costly poultry pathogens. Evolutionary analyses of H5 LPAIVs detected in domestic poultry in US and Canada during 2001-2017 suggest that these viruses originated from repeated introductions of IAVs from wild birds, followed by various degrees of reassortment. Reassortment was observed where biosecurity was low and there were opportunities for more than one virus to circulate existed (e.g. congregations of birds from different premises such as live bird markets). None of the H5 lineages identified were maintained long term in domestic poultry, suggesting that management strategies have been effective in minimizing the impacts of virus introductions on US poultry production.

Authors : Li Lei, Bowman Andrew S, DeLiberto Thomas J, Killian Mary L, Krauss Scott, Nolting Jacqueline M, Torchetti Mia Kim, Ramey Andrew M, Reeves Andrew B, Stallknecht David E, Webby Richard J, Wan Xiu-Feng,



(5) A novel European H5N8 influenza A virus has increased virulence in ducks but low zoonotic potential.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30026505
Publication Date : //
We investigated in a unique setup of animal models and a human lung explant culture biological properties, including zoonotic potential, of a representative 2016 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8, clade 2.3.4.4 group B (H5N8B), that spread rapidly in a huge and ongoing outbreak series in Europe and caused high mortality in waterfowl and domestic birds. HPAIV H5N8B showed increased virulence with rapid onset of severe disease and mortality in Pekin ducks due to pronounced neuro- and hepatotropism. Cross-species infection was evaluated in mice, ferrets, and in a human lung explant culture model. While the H5N8B isolate was highly virulent for Balb/c mice, virulence and transmissibility were grossly reduced in ferrets, which was mirrored by marginal replication in human lung cultures infected ex vivo. Our data indicate that the 2016 HPAIV H5N8B is avian-adapted with augmented virulence for waterfowl, but has low zoonotic potential. The here tested combination of animal studies with the inoculation of human explants provides a promising future workflow to evaluate zoonotic potential, mammalian replication competence and avian virulence of HPAIV.

Authors : Grund Christian, Hoffmann Donata, Ulrich Reiner, Naguib Mahmoud, Schinköthe Jan, Hoffmann Bernd, Harder Timm, Saenger Sandra, Zscheppang Katja, Tönnies Mario, Hippenstiel Stefan, Hocke Andreas, Wolff Thorsten, Beer Martin,



(6) Viral shedding of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses by American robins.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30014592
Publication Date : //
American robins (Turdus migratorius) are commonly associated with farmsteads in the United States and have shown previous evidence of exposure to an H5 avian influenza A virus (IAV) near a poultry production facility affected by a highly pathogenic (HP) H5 virus in Iowa, USA during 2015. We experimentally infected American robins with three clade 2.3.4.4 HP H5 viruses (H5N2 and H5N8). A total of 22/24 American robins shed virus, and all three strains were represented. The highest virus titres shed were 10 , 10 and 10 PFU/ml, associated respectively with viruses isolated from poultry, a captive gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), and a Northern pintail (Anas acuta). Of those birds that shed, viral shedding was initiated 1 or 2 days post-infection (DPI) and shedding ceased in all birds by 7 DPI. This study adds an additional synanthropic wildlife species to a growing list of animals that can successfully replicate and shed IAVs.

Authors : Root J Jeffrey, Bosco-Lauth Angela M, Marlenee Nicole L, Bowen Richard A,



(7) Genetic characterization and pathogenic potential of H10 avian influenza viruses isolated from live poultry markets in Bangladesh.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30013138
Publication Date : //
Fatal human cases of avian-origin H10N8 influenza virus infections have raised concern about their potential for human-to-human transmission. H10 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been isolated from wild and domestic aquatic birds across Eurasia and North America. We isolated eight H10 AIVs (four H10N7, two H10N9, one H10N1, and one H10N6) from live poultry markets in Bangladesh. Genetic analyses demonstrated that all eight isolates belong to the Eurasian lineage. HA phylogenetic and antigenic analyses indicated that two antigenically distinct groups of H10 AIVs are circulating in Bangladeshi live poultry markets. We evaluated the virulence of four representative H10 AIV strains in DBA/2J mice and found that they replicated efficiently in mice without prior adaptation. Moreover, H10N6 and H10N1 AIVs caused high mortality with systemic dissemination. These results indicate that H10 AIVs pose a potential threat to human health and the mechanisms of their transmissibility should be elucidated.

Authors : El-Shesheny Rabeh, Franks John, Marathe Bindumadhav M, Hasan M Kamrul, Feeroz Mohammed M, Krauss Scott, Vogel Peter, McKenzie Pamela, Webby Richard J, Webster Robert G,



(8) Compatibility between haemagglutinin and neuraminidase drives the recent emergence of novel clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx avian influenza viruses in China.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29999588
Publication Date : //
Genetic reassortments between highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 subtype viruses with different neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have increased in prevalence since 2010 in wild birds and poultry from China. The HA gene slightly evolved from clade 2.3.4 to clade 2.3.4.4, raising the question of whether novel clade 2.3.4.4 HA broke the balance with N1 but is matched well with NAx to drive viral epidemics. To clarify the role of compatibility between HA and NA on the prevalence of H5Nx subtypes, we constructed 10 recombinant viruses in which the clade 2.3.4 or clade 2.3.4.4 HA genes were matched with different NA (N1, N2 and N8) genes and evaluated viral characteristics and pathogenicity. Combinations between clade 2.3.4 HA and N1 or between clade 2.3.4.4 HA and NAx, but not between clade 2.3.4.4 HA and N1, or between clade 2.3.4 HA and NAx, promoted viral growth, NA activity, thermostability, low-pH stability and pathogenicity in chicken and mice. These findings suggest that both clade 2.3.4 HA/N1 and clade 2.3.4.4 HA/NAx displayed a better match, which could promote the increased prevalence of clade 2.3.4 H5N1 AIV (prior to 2010) and clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx AIV (since 2010) in China, respectively.

Authors : Qin Tao, Zhu Jingjing, Ma Ruonan, Yin Yuncong, Chen Sujuan, Peng Daxin, Liu Xiufan,



(9) A 627K variant in the PB2 protein of H9 subtype influenza virus in wild birds.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29999583
Publication Date : //
Wild birds are gaining increasing attention as gene-mixing reservoirs for influenza viruses. To investigate the molecular properties of the viruses isolated and epidemiological analysis of H9N2 subtype AIV in wild birds, we studied samples obtained over two years (2014-2015) from wetlands in Anhui province, China.

Authors : Ge Ye, Yao Qiucheng, Chai Hongliang, Hua Yuping, Deng Guohua, Hualan Chen,



(10) [Analysis of 15 cases of avian influenza virus (H7N9) infection].[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29996349
Publication Date : //
To describe the clinical, chest imaging, pathological manifestations and therapeutic experience of human infection with A/H7N9 virus. The features of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with A/H7N9 virus in Taizhou, Jiangsu Province were retrospectively analyzed. The 15 patients with confirmed viral pneumonia included 12 males and 3 females, with a median age of 61 years(ranging from 33 to 81 years). Twelve patients had a history of exposure to the poultry trading places, or direct contact with ill/dead avian, while 3 patients denied exposure or contact. The most common initial symptoms were fever, coughing, and respiratory distress. The illness progressed rapidly to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Lab tests showed normal (8 cases) or decreased (7 cases)white blood cell count , decreased (13 cases) lymphocyte count and proportion , increased creatine kinase (CK, 12 cases) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 15 cases), and respiratory failure (13 cases). Chest radiographic examination showed that the most common features were inflammatory infiltration in the lung, with partial consolidation. The average time of the diagnosis with influenza viral nucleic acid and onset of an oral anti-influenza drug were 7.1 days and 6.5 days. All patients were treated by antiviral drugs (oral oseltamivir 150 mg q12 h and/or intravenous paramivir 600 mg qd), with mechanical ventilation in 9 cases, glucocorticoid therapy in 5 cases (intravenous methylprednisolone in 3 and dexamethasone in 2 patients), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in 2 cases, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in 6 cases, and artificial liver therapy in 1 case. The pulmonary pathology was observed from post-mortem biopsy for 2 fatal cases. Patient 1 had diffuse alveolar damage with inflammatory exudation, hyaline membrane formation, and cellular infiltration. Patient 2 had widened alveolar septum, lymphocyte and monocyte cell infiltration in the alveolar septa, and interstitial fibrous proliferation. Nine patients were discharged, and 6 died. Patients with influenza A/H7N9 virus mostly presented with fever, cough, and were prone to progression to viral pneumonia. Once acute respiratory distress and important organ dysfunction occurred, the fatality rate was higher. Early diagnosis and rational treatment were critical for better outcomes.

Authors : Yu W Q, Ding M D, Dai G H, Gu C J, Xue L, Chen Y, Zhou D M, Xian J C, Xu H T,