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Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus antibody ELISA test kit Serum

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[#LSY-30011] Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus antibody ELISA test kit Serum


LSY-30011 | Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus antibody ELISA test kit Serum, 96 wells/kit
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(1) Detection of reassortant avian influenza A (H11N9) virus in wild birds in China.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30338936
Publication Date : //
Human infectious avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N9 emerged in China in 2013. The N9 gene of H7N9, which has the ability to cause death in humans, originated from an H11N9 influenza strain circulating in wild birds. To investigate the frequency and distribution of the N9 gene of the H11N9 and H7N9 influenza virus circulating in wild birds between 2006 and 2015, 35,604 samples were collected and tested. No H7N9 but four strains of the H11N9 subtype AIV were isolated, and phylogenetic analyses showed that the four H11N9 viruses were intra-subtype and inter-subtype reassortant viruses. A sequence analysis revealed that all six internal genes of A/wild bird/Anhui/L306/2014 (H11N9) originated from an H9N2 AIV isolated in Korea. The H9N2 strain, which is an inner gene donor reassorted with other subtypes, is a potential threat to poultry and even humans. it is necessary to increase monitoring of the emergence and spread of H11N9 AIV in wild birds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Authors : Ge Ye, Yao Qiucheng, Wang Xianfu, Chai Hongliang, Deng Guohua, Chen Hualan, Hua Yuping,

(2) The roles of migratory and resident birds in local avian influenza infection dynamics.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30337766
Publication Date : //
Migratory birds are an increasing focus of interest when it comes to infection dynamics and the spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, we lack detailed understanding migratory birds' contribution to local AIV prevalence levels and their downstream socio-economic costs and threats.To explain the potential differential roles of migratory and resident birds in local AIV infection dynamics, we used a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model. We investigated five (mutually non- exclusive) mechanisms potentially driving observed prevalence patterns: 1) a pronounced birth pulse (e.g. the synchronised annual influx of immunologically naïve individuals), 2) short-term immunity, 3) increase of susceptible migrants, 4) differential susceptibility to infection (i.e. transmission rate) for migrants and residents, and 5) replacement of migrants during peak migration.SIR models describing all possible combinations of the five mechanisms were fitted to individual AIV infection data from a detailed longitudinal surveillance study in the partially migratory mallard duck (). During autumn and winter, the local resident mallard community also held migratory mallards that exhibited distinct AIV infection dynamics.Replacement of migratory birds during peak migration in autumn was found to be the most important mechanism driving the variation in local AIV infection patterns. This suggests that a constant influx of migratory birds, likely immunological naïve to locally circulating AIV strains, is required to predict the observed temporal prevalence patterns and the distinct differences in prevalence between residents and migrants.. Our analysis reveals a key mechanism that could explain the amplifying role of migratory birds in local avian influenza virus infection dynamics; the constant flow and replacement of migratory birds during peak migration. Aside from monitoring efforts, in order to achieve adequate disease management and control in wildlife - with knock-on effects for livestock and humans, - we conclude that it is crucial, in future surveillance studies, to record host demographical parameters such as population density, timing of birth and turnover of migrants.

Authors : Lisovski Simeon, van Dijk Jacintha G B, Klinkenberg Don, Nolet Bart A, Fouchier Ron A M, Klaassen Marcel,

(3) Creating Disease Resistant Chickens: A Viable Solution to Avian Influenza?[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30326625
Publication Date : //
Influenza A virus (IAV) represents an ongoing threat to human and animal health worldwide. The generation of IAV-resistant chickens through genetic modification and/or selective breeding may help prevent viral spread. The feasibility of creating genetically modified birds has already been demonstrated with the insertion of transgenes that target IAV into the genomes of chickens. This approach has been met with some success in minimising the spread of IAV but has limitations in terms of its ability to prevent the emergence of disease. An alternate approach is the use of genetic engineering to improve host resistance by targeting the antiviral immune responses of poultry to IAV. Harnessing such resistance mechanisms in a "genetic restoration" approach may hold the greatest promise yet for generating disease resistant chickens. Continuing to identify genes associated with natural resistance in poultry provides the opportunity to identify new targets for genetic modification and/or selective breeding. However, as with any new technology, economic, societal, and legislative barriers will need to be overcome before we are likely to see commercialisation of genetically modified birds.

Authors : Looi Fong Yang, Baker Michelle L, Townson Thomas, Richard Mathilde, Novak Ben, Doran Tim J, Short Kirsty R,

(4) Dynamics of the 2004 avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in Thailand: The role of duck farming, sequential model fitting and control.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30314780
Publication Date : //
The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus persists in many countries and has been circulating in poultry, wild birds. In addition, the virus has emerged in other species and frequent zoonotic spillover events indicate that there remains a significant risk to human health. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of the disease in the poultry industry to develop a more comprehensive knowledge of the risks of transmission and to establish a better distribution of resources when implementing control. In this paper, we develop a set of mathematical models that simulate the spread of HPAI H5N1 in the poultry industry in Thailand, utilising data from the 2004 epidemic. The model that incorporates the intensity of duck farming when assessing transmision risk provides the best fit to the spatiotemporal characteristics of the observed outbreak, implying that intensive duck farming drives transmission of HPAI in Thailand. We also extend our models using a sequential model fitting approach to explore the ability of the models to be used in "real time" during novel disease outbreaks. We conclude that, whilst predictions of epidemic size are estimated poorly in the early stages of disease outbreaks, the model can infer the preferred control policy that should be deployed to minimise the impact of the disease.

Authors : Retkute Renata, Jewell Chris P, Van Boeckel Thomas P, Zhang Geli, Xiao Xiangming, Thanapongtharm Weerapong, Keeling Matt, Gilbert Marius, Tildesley Michael J,

(5) Passive inhalation of dry powder influenza vaccine formulations completely protects chickens against H5N1 lethal viral challenge.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30312742
Publication Date : //
Bird to human transmission of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) poses a significant risk of triggering a flu pandemic in the human population. Therefore, vaccination of susceptible poultry during an HPAIV outbreak might be the best remedy to prevent such transmissions. To this end, suitable formulations and an effective mass vaccination method that can be translated to field settings needs to be developed. Our previous study in chickens has shown that inhalation of a non-adjuvanted dry powder influenza vaccine formulation during normal breathing results in partial protection against lethal influenza challenge. The aim of the present study was to improve the effectiveness of pulmonary vaccination by increasing the vaccine dose deposited in the lungs and by the use of suitable adjuvants. Two adjuvants, namely, Bacterium-like Particles (BLP) and Advax, were spray freeze dried with influenza vaccine into dry powder formulations. Delivery of dry formulations directly at the syrinx revealed that BLP and Advax had the potential to boost either systemic or mucosal immune responses or both. Upon passive inhalation of dry influenza vaccine formulations in an optimized set-up, BLP and Advax/BLP adjuvanted formulations induced significantly higher systemic immune responses than the non-adjuvanted formulation. Remarkably, all vaccinated animals not only survived a lethal influenza challenge, but also did not show any shedding of challenge virus except for two out of six animals in the Advax group. Overall, our results indicate that passive inhalation is feasible, effective and suitable for mass vaccination of chickens if it can be adapted to field settings.

Authors : Tomar Jasmine, Biel Carin, de Haan Cornelis A M, Rottier Peter J M, Petrovsky Nikolai, Frijlink Henderik W, Huckriede Anke, Hinrichs Wouter L J, Peeters Ben,

(6) Identifying key bird species and geographical hotspots of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in China.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30305184
Publication Date : //
In China since the first human infection of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was identified in 2013, it has caused serious public health concerns due to its wide spread and high mortality rate. Evidence shows that bird migration plays an essential role in global spread of avian influenza viruses. Accordingly, in this paper, we aim to identify key bird species and geographical hotspots that are relevant to the transmission of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in China.

Authors : Shi Benyun, Zhan Xiao-Ming, Zheng Jin-Xin, Qiu Hongjun, Liang Dan, Ye Yan-Ming, Yang Guo-Jing, Liu Yang, Liu Jiming,

(7) Isolation and characterization of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of clade in Russia.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30296682
Publication Date : //
In 2016-2017, several subtypes of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus were isolated on the territory of Russia. In the autumn of 2016, during the avian influenza virus surveillance in the territory of the Kamchatka region of Russia the HPAI A(H5N5) influenza virus was isolated. Then, during 2016-2017, multiple outbreaks among wild birds and poultry caused by HPAI A(H5N8) avian influenza virus were recorded in European part of Russia. At the end of 2017, an outbreak among poultry caused by HPAI A(H5N2) influenza virus was recorded in the European part of Russia. Phylogenetic analysis of HA of the A(H5N5), A(H5N8), A(H5N2) showed the strains belong to the clade b. All isolated strains were antigenically closely related to candidate vaccine viruses of clade and showed high virulence in mice. Genetic analysis revealed presence of genetic markers potentially related to high virulence in mice in all studied viruses.

Authors : Marchenko V, Goncharova N, Susloparov I, Kolosova N, Gudymo A, Svyatchenko S, Danilenko A, Durymanov A, Gavrilova E, Maksyutov R, Ryzhikov A,

(8) Isolation and genetic characterization of H13N8 low pathogenic avian influenza virus from migratory birds in eastern China.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30291732
Publication Date : //
Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) is an important zoonotic pathogen. Migratory birds are the natural reservoir for all 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes of LPAIV. Surveillance of LPAIV in migratory waterfowl and poultry is important for animal and public health. An understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of LPAI viruses in their reservoirs is beneficial for routine surveillance projects. Here, we report the isolation of an H13N8 LPAIV from black-tailed gulls in eastern China. Full genome sequences of this isolate were determined. Genetic analysis of the HA and NA segments of this isolate showed that this H13N8 LPAIV was derived from the Eurasian lineage. Additionally, we speculate that this H13N8 LPAIV was a reassortant between the North American and Eurasian lineages. Interestingly, we identified amino acid motifs responsible for increased virulence or transmission of influenza viruses in mammals. We also found weak but measurable hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against H13N8 virus in serum samples collected from chickens. These results suggest that continued surveillance for LPAI viruses in migratory birds and poultry is required. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Authors : Yu Zhijun, Gao Yuwei, He Hongbin, Zhao Yongkun, Yuan Xiaoyuan, Cheng Kaihui,

(9) Development and comparison of two H5N8 influenza A vaccine candidate strains.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30291503
Publication Date : //
Avian influenza viruses circulating in birds have caused outbreaks of infection in poultry and humans, thereby threatening public health. Recently, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus (H5N8) of clade emerged in Korea and other countries and caused multiple outbreaks in domestic and wild birds, with concerns for human infection. To combat HPAI viral infections, novel vaccines are likely to be the most effective approach. Therefore, in this study, we generated H5N8 vaccine candidate viruses based on a Korean isolate (A/broiler duck/Korea/Buan2/2014). The vaccine candidate viruses were 2:6 reassortants expressing the two surface glycoproteins of A/broiler duck/Korea/Buan2/2014 on an A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) backbone generated by using an eight-plasmid-based reverse genetics system with or without replacement of the multi-basic amino acid cleavage motif (MBCM, a crucial pathogenic factor in HPAI virus) with a bi-basic amino acid cleavage motif (BBCM) in their HA. An H5N8 vaccine candidate virus containing the BBCM showed attenuated pathogenesis in embryonated eggs and exhibited less virulence in the infected mice compared with the wild H5N8 virus containing an MBCM. Vaccination with an inactivated preparation of the vaccine candidate virus protected mice from lethal H5N8 viral challenge. This is the first report of the development and evaluation of H5N8 vaccine strains (with an MBCM or BBCM) of HA clade as vaccine candidates. Our findings suggest that H5N8 strains with a BBCM instead of an MBCM might be considered for H5N8 vaccine seed virus development or as a reference vaccine against H5N8 viral strains.

Authors : Lee Mi-Seon, Jang Eun Young, Cho Junhyung, Kim Kisoon, Lee Chan Hee, Yi Hwajung,

(10) Survey of Arctic Alaskan Wildlife For Influenza A Antibodies: Limited Evidence For Exposure of Mammals.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30289331
Publication Date : //
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are maintained in wild waterbirds and have the potential to infect a broad range of species, including wild mammals. The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska supports a diverse suite of species, including waterfowl that are common hosts of IAVs. Mammals co-occur with geese and other migratory waterbirds during the summer breeding season, providing a plausible mechanism for interclass transmission of IAVs. To estimate IAV seroprevalence and identify the subtypes to which geese, loons, Arctic foxes ( Vulpes lagopus), caribou ( Rangifer tarandus), and polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) are potentially exposed, we used a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to screen for antibodies to IAVs in samples collected during spring and summer of 2012-16. Apparent IAV seroprevalence using the bELISA was 50.7% in geese (range by species: 46.1-52.8%), 9.2% in loons, (range by species: 3.4-20.0%), and 0.4% in Arctic foxes. We found no evidence for exposure to IAVs in polar bears or caribou by either assay. Among geese, we estimated detection probability from replicate bELISA analyses to be 0.92 and also found good concordance (>85%) between results from bELISA and HI assays, which identified antibodies reactive to H1, H6, and H9 subtype IAVs. In contrast, the HI assay detected antibodies in only one of seven loon samples that were positive by bELISA; that sample had low titers to both H4 and H5 IAV subtypes. Our results provide evidence that a relatively high proportion of waterbirds breeding on the Arctic Coastal Plain are exposed to IAVs, although it is unknown whether such exposure occurs locally or on staging or wintering grounds. In contrast, seroprevalence of IAVs in concomitant mammals is apparently low.

Authors : Van Hemert Caroline, Spivey Timothy J, Uher-Koch Brian D, Atwood Todd C, Sinnett David R, Meixell Brandt W, Hupp Jerry W, Jiang Kaijun, Adams Layne G, Gustine David D, Ramey Andrew M, Wan Xiu-Feng,