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Avian Marek's disease virus antibody ELISA kit Serum

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[#LSY-30016] Avian Marek's disease virus antibody ELISA kit Serum


LSY-30016 | Avian Marek's disease virus antibody ELISA kit Serum, 96 wells/kit
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(1) Virus-Induced Immunosuppression in Chickens.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30339511
Publication Date : //
A healthy immune system is a cornerstone for poultry production. Any factor diminishing the immune responses will affect production parameters and increase cost. There are numerous factors, infectious and noninfectious, causing immunosuppression (IS) in chickens. This paper reviews the three viral diseases that most commonly induce IS or subclinical IS in chickens: Marek's disease virus (MDV), chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), as well as the interactions among them. MDV-induced IS (MDV-IS) affects both humoral and cellular immune responses. It is very complex, poorly understood, and in many cases underdiagnosed. Vaccination protects against some but not all aspects of MDV-IS. CIAV induces apoptosis of the hemocytoblasts resulting in anemia, hemorrhages, and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. It also causes apoptosis of thymocytes and dividing T lymphocytes, affecting T helper functions, which are essential for antibody production and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) functions. Control of CIAV is based on vaccination of breeders and maternal antibodies (MAbs). However, subclinical IS can occur after MAbs wane. IBDV infection affects the innate immune responses during virus replication and humoral immune responses as a consequence of the destruction of B-cell populations. Vaccines with various levels of attenuation are used to control IBDV. Interactions with MAbs and residual virulence of the vaccines need to be considered when designing vaccination plans. The interaction between IBDV, CIAV, and MDV is critical although underestimated in many cases. A proper control of IBDV is a must to have proper humoral immune responses needed to control CIAV. Equally, long-term control of MDV is not possible if chickens are coinfected with CIAV, as CIAV jeopardizes CTL functions critical for MDV control.

Authors : Gimeno I M, Schat K A,

(2) Unraveling the role of B cells in the pathogenesis of an oncogenic avian herpesvirus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30337483
Publication Date : //
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that causes immunosuppression, paralysis, and deadly lymphomas in chickens. In infected animals, B cells are efficiently infected and are thought to amplify the virus and transfer it to T cells. MDV subsequently establishes latency in T cells and transforms CD4 T cells, resulting in fatal lymphomas. Despite many years of research, the exact role of the different B and T cell subsets in MDV pathogenesis remains poorly understood, mostly due to the lack of reverse genetics in chickens. Recently, Ig heavy chain J gene segment knockout (JH-KO) chickens lacking mature and peripheral B cells have been generated. To determine the role of these B cells in MDV pathogenesis, we infected JH-KO chickens with the very virulent MDV RB1B strain. Surprisingly, viral load in the blood of infected animals was not altered in the absence of B cells. More importantly, disease and tumor incidence in JH-KO chickens was comparable to wild-type animals, suggesting that both mature and peripheral B cells are dispensable for MDV pathogenesis. Intriguingly, MDV efficiently replicated in the bursa of Fabricius in JH-KO animals, while spread of the virus to the spleen and thymus was delayed. In the absence of B cells, MDV readily infected CD4 and CD8 T cells, allowing efficient virus replication in the lymphoid organs and transformation of T cells. Taken together, our data change the dogma of the central role of B cells, and thereby provide important insights into MDV pathogenesis.

Authors : Bertzbach Luca D, Laparidou Maria, Härtle Sonja, Etches Robert J, Kaspers Bernd, Schusser Benjamin, Kaufer Benedikt B,

(3) The emergence of the infection of subgroup J avian leucosis virus escalated the tumour incidence in commercial Yellow chickens in Southern China in recent years.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30248239
Publication Date : //
A total of 81 clinical cases of suspected tumours were submitted to our laboratory from Yellow chicken farms in southern China during the years 2010 through 2017. The tumour-like tissue samples were closely examined for common oncogenic avian viruses in cell culture and further analysed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). During 2010-2012, Marek's disease virus (MDV) mono-infection was found to be the dominant cause of the tumour incidences (52.4%, 11/21) followed by co-infection of MDV+ALVs (19.1%, 4/21). Starting from the year 2013 the mono-infection of avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) became the dominant agent of the tumour cases (83.3%, 5/6). During the most recent four years (2014-2017), co-infections involving ALV-J and MDV or between ALV subgroups have increased (23.4% and 18.5%, respectively), but each of the co-infections was still slightly lower than the ALV-J mono-infection incidence (33.3%). In contrast to the dominant MDV mono-infection cases before 2013, more recently, the emerging ALV-J mono-infection and ALV-J co-infections were largely responsible for the occurrence of avian virus-induced tumour incidences in the commercial local Yellow breeds of chickens in southern China. These results indicate that eradication measures against ALV on all chicken farms, especially on farms with the Yellow chickens, ought to be enhanced to reverse this trend.

Authors : Li Haijuan, Wang Peikun, Lin Lulu, Shi Mengya, Gu Zhanming, Huang Teng, Mo Mei-Lan, Wei Tianchao, Zhang Huanmin, Wei Ping,

(4) Development of a sensitive and specific xMAP assay for detection of antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis and bronchitis viruses.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30241540
Publication Date : //
A serological method to simultaneously detect antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is imperative for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of antibodies titers after vaccination.

Authors : Wang Huanan, Cong Feng, Guan Jianchi, Xiao Li, Zhu Yujun, Lian Yuexiao, Huang Ren, Chen Meili, Guo Pengju,

(5) Novel protein chip for the detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30223836
Publication Date : //
Infectious bronchitis (IB) caused by the IB virus (IBV) can cause acute damage to chickens around the world. Therefore, rapid diagnosis and immune status determination are critical for controlling IBV outbreaks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been widely used in the detection of IBV antibodies in the early infection and continuous infection of IB because they are more sensitive and quicker than other diagnostic methods.

Authors : Yan Liping, Hu Jianhua, Lei Jing, Shi Zhiyu, Xiao Qian, Bi Zhenwei, Yao Lu, Li Yuan, Chen Yuqing, Fang An, Li Hui, Song Suquan, Liao Min, Zhou Jiyong,

(6) Alterations in cellular and viral microRNA and cellular gene expression in Marek's disease virus-transformed T-cell lines treated with sodium butyrate.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30184155
Publication Date : //
A shared feature of herpesviruses is their ability to enter a latent state following an initially lytic infection. Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1) is an oncogenic avian herpesvirus. Small RNA profiling studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in viral latency. Sodium butyrate treatment is known to induce herpesvirus reactivation. The present study was undertaken to determine transcriptome and miRNome changes induced by sodium butyrate in 2 MDV-transformed cell lines, RP2 and CU115. In the first 24 h post-treatment, microarray analysis of transcriptional changes in cell lines RP2 and CU115 identified 137 and 114 differentially expressed genes, respectively. Small RNA deep-sequencing analysis identified 17 cellular miRNAs that were differentially expressed. The expression of MDV-encoded miRNAs was also altered upon treatment. Many of the genes and miRNAs that are differentially expressed are involved in regulation of the cell cycle, mitosis, DNA metabolism, and lymphocyte differentiation.

Authors : Hicks Julie A, Trakooljul Nares, Liu Hsiao-Ching,

(7) Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of oncogenes from virulent serotype-1 Marek's disease virus in India.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30160143
Publication Date : //
Marek's disease (MD) is one of the most important neoplastic diseases of poultry caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic avian herpes virus, which is responsible for great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Inspite of the usage of HVT and bivalent vaccines in the poultry flocks, MD continues to be a major threat to the poultry industry in India. In the present study, MD outbreaks were reported in poultry farms from different regions of Andhra Pradesh, India. The postmortem examination of dead birds showed presence of lymphomas in different visceral organs suggestive of virulent oncogenic MDVs. Histopathological examination revealed infiltration of pleomorphic lymphoblastoid cells typical of MD. The blood and tissue samples were collected and PCR was standardized targeting a 132 bp tandem repeat region specific for serotype-1 MD viruses. Further, the characterization of the oncogenes i.e. Meq and viral interleukin 8 (vIL-8) was carried out by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence analysis of Meq gene of different clinical cases from India revealed >99 % homology with RB1B (very virulent) and GA (virulent) strains and that of vIL-8 gene showed >99 % identity with virulent strains LS and LMS. Phylogenetic analysis of oncogenes was carried out with other available sequences in the GenBank. Finally, we conclude that MDV strains obtained in the present outbreaks in India could be designated as virulent or very virulent pathotypes based on nucleotide, amino acid and phylogenetic analysis of the viruses.

Authors : Prathibha Y, Sreedevi B, Kumar N Vinod, Srilatha C H,

(8) Characterizaton of gamma delta T cells in Marek's disease virus (Gallid herpesvirus 2) infection of chickens.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30014858
Publication Date : //
Immunity against Marek's disease (MD), caused by Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), in chickens is mediated by both innate and adaptive responses. The present study evaluated the effects of GaHV-2 infection on distribution and frequency of γδ T cells in tissues, as well as their expression of cytokines. We found that the infected chickens had significantly higher number of γδ T cells in their spleens by 10 and 21 days post-infection (d.p.i.) and nearly 100% of these γδ T cells were CD8 at 21 d.p.i. Conversely, the number of γδ T cells in the cecal tonsils of GaHV-2-infected birds decreased compared to uninfected birds. Splenic γδ T cells had up-regulated expression of interferon-γ early in infection followed by simultaneous gene expression of interleukin-10 during the later phases. In conclusion, these results suggest a potential role for γδ T cells in host response to GaHV-2 and further elucidate the underlying immunological mechanisms of interactions between this virus and its host.

Authors : Laursen Adrianna M S, Kulkarni Raveendra R, Taha-Abdelaziz Khaled, Plattner Brandon L, Read Leah R, Sharif Shayan,

(9) Induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) during Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29979959
Publication Date : //
Marek's disease (MD) is a pathology of chickens associated with paralysis, immune suppression, and the rapid formation of T-cell lymphomas. MD is caused by the herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus (MDV). We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways during MDV infection of cells in culture and lymphocytes in vivo. MDV strains activate the UPR as measured by increased mRNA expression of GRP78/BiP with concomitant XBP1 splicing and induction of its target gene, EDEM1. Cell culture replication of virulent, but not vaccine MDVs, activated the UPR at late in infection. Pathotype-associated UPR activation was induced to a greater level by a vv + MDV. Discrete UPR activation was observed during MDV in vivo infection, with the level of UPR modulation being affected by the MDV oncoprotein Meq. Finally, ATF6 was found to be activated in vv + MDV-induced primary lymphomas, suggesting a possible role in tumor progression.

Authors : Neerukonda Sabari Nath, Katneni Upendra K, Bott Matthew, Golovan Serguei P, Parcells Mark S,

(10) Characterization of Marek's disease virus and phylogenetic analyses of gene from an outbreak in poultry in Meghalaya of Northeast India.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29911149
Publication Date : //
The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus from the lesions and histopathology of organs associated with mortality in Kuroiler (dual purpose variety of poultry developed and marketed by Keggfarms Pvt. Ltd, India) birds suspected of Marek's disease. Among 1047 birds from two farms of different location with 5.5 and 34% mortality, two types of lesion were observed in post mortem examination; tumors in vital organs-liver, spleen, kidney, lung and ovaries and generalized small nodular tumour in the abdominal cavity. Molecular characterization based on detection of gene showed the presence of Marek's disease virus (MDV) from tissues and cell culture adapted isolates in Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell lines. Histopathological examination revealed multinucleated immature lymphoid cells infiltration in the organs. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates based on gene showed the isolates belongs to cluster I genotype of MDV. This is for the first time the MDV virus is characterized from an outbreak in the poultry flock in farmer's field affecting production in Meghalaya state of North east India.

Authors : Puro Kekungu-U, Bhattacharjee Uttaran, Baruah Samprity, Sen Arnab, Das Samir, Ghatak Sandeep, Doley Sunil, Sanjukta Rajkumari, Shakuntala Ingudam,