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Avian Marek's disease virus antibody ELISA kit Serum

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[#LSY-30016] Avian Marek's disease virus antibody ELISA kit Serum

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LSY-30016 | Avian Marek's disease virus antibody ELISA kit Serum, 96 wells/kit
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(1) Characterizaton of gamma delta T cells in Marek's disease virus (Gallid herpesvirus 2) infection of chickens.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :30014858
Publication Date : //
Immunity against Marek's disease (MD), caused by Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), in chickens is mediated by both innate and adaptive responses. The present study evaluated the effects of GaHV-2 infection on distribution and frequency of γδ T cells in tissues, as well as their expression of cytokines. We found that the infected chickens had significantly higher number of γδ T cells in their spleens by 10 and 21 days post-infection (d.p.i.) and nearly 100% of these γδ T cells were CD8 at 21 d.p.i. Conversely, the number of γδ T cells in the cecal tonsils of GaHV-2-infected birds decreased compared to uninfected birds. Splenic γδ T cells had up-regulated expression of interferon-γ early in infection followed by simultaneous gene expression of interleukin-10 during the later phases. In conclusion, these results suggest a potential role for γδ T cells in host response to GaHV-2 and further elucidate the underlying immunological mechanisms of interactions between this virus and its host.

Authors : Laursen Adrianna M S, Kulkarni Raveendra R, Taha-Abdelaziz Khaled, Plattner Brandon L, Read Leah R, Sharif Shayan,



(2) Characterization of Marek's disease virus and phylogenetic analyses of gene from an outbreak in poultry in Meghalaya of Northeast India.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29911149
Publication Date : //
The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus from the lesions and histopathology of organs associated with mortality in Kuroiler (dual purpose variety of poultry developed and marketed by Keggfarms Pvt. Ltd, India) birds suspected of Marek's disease. Among 1047 birds from two farms of different location with 5.5 and 34% mortality, two types of lesion were observed in post mortem examination; tumors in vital organs-liver, spleen, kidney, lung and ovaries and generalized small nodular tumour in the abdominal cavity. Molecular characterization based on detection of gene showed the presence of Marek's disease virus (MDV) from tissues and cell culture adapted isolates in Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell lines. Histopathological examination revealed multinucleated immature lymphoid cells infiltration in the organs. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates based on gene showed the isolates belongs to cluster I genotype of MDV. This is for the first time the MDV virus is characterized from an outbreak in the poultry flock in farmer's field affecting production in Meghalaya state of North east India.

Authors : Puro Kekungu-U, Bhattacharjee Uttaran, Baruah Samprity, Sen Arnab, Das Samir, Ghatak Sandeep, Doley Sunil, Sanjukta Rajkumari, Shakuntala Ingudam,



(3) Spotlight on avian pathology: Marek's disease.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29882420
Publication Date : //
Marek's disease (MD), characterised by rapid-onset lymphoid tumours, immunosuppression and paralysis, is one of the most widespread economically important diseases of poultry world-wide. Caused by the highly contagious Marek's disease virus, control of MD is mainly achieved through vaccination with live attenuated vaccines, although improvements in genetic resistance have also been an important component of disease control. Despite the overall success of the vaccination policy in controlling MD in the last 40 years, continuous evolution of virulence and emergence of hypervirulent pathotypes remains the major challenge for sustainable control of this disease.

Authors : Nair Venugopal,



(4) 3 SB-1 strain as a recombinant viral vector for poultry vaccination.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29872549
Publication Date : //
Live herpesvirus-vectored vaccines are widely used in veterinary medicine to protect against many infectious diseases. In poultry, three strains of herpesvirus vaccines are used against Marek's disease (MD). However, of these, only the herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully developed and used as a recombinant vaccine vector to induce protection against other avian viral diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) or avian influenza (AI). Although effective when administered individually, recombinant HVT vectors have limitations when combined in multivalent vaccines. Thus there is a need for developing additional viral vectors that could be combined with HVT in inducing protection against multiple avian diseases in multivalent vaccines. 3 (GaHV3) strain SB-1 is widely used by the poultry industry as bivalent vaccine in combination with HVT to exploit synergistic effects against MD. Here, we report the development and application of SB-1 as a vaccine vector to express the VP2 capsid antigen of IBD virus. A VP2 expression cassette was introduced into the SB-1 genome at three intergenic locations (UL3/UL4, UL10/UL11 and UL21/UL22) using recombineering methods on the full-length pSB-1 infectious clone of the virus. We show that the recombinant SB-1 vectors expressing VP2 induced neutralising antibody responses at levels comparable to that of commercial HVT-based VAXXITEK vaccine. Birds vaccinated with the experimental recombinant SB-1 vaccine were protected against clinical disease after challenge with the very virulent UK661 IBDV isolate, demonstrating its value as an efficient viral vector for developing multivalent vaccines against avian diseases.

Authors : Sadigh Yashar, Powers Claire, Spiro Simon, Pedrera Miriam, Broadbent Andrew, Nair Venugopal,



(5) Gga-miR-130b-3p inhibits MSB1 cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and its downregulation in MD tumor is attributed to hypermethylation.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29849932
Publication Date : //
Marek's disease is an oncogenic and lymphoproliferative disease of chickens caused by Marek's disease virus. Hypermethylation or hypomethylation of CpG islands in gene promoter region are involved in the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed differential methylation levels of upstream region of gga-miR-130b-3p gene between Marek's disease virus-infected tumorous and non-infected spleens. Around the upstream 1 kb of gga-miR-130b-3p gene, two amplicons were designed that covered 616 bp. There were forty-eight CpG sites in this region. CpG sites in this region presented higher methylation level in tumorous spleens compared with that in non-infected ones. There were eight CpG sites significantly hypermethylated in tumorous spleens. The expression level of three DNA methyltransferases including DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b increased and the expression level of Tet ten-eleven translocation protein 2 remarkably decreased in tumorous spleens. Hypermethylation in the upstream region of gga-miR-130b-3p gene might be a direct reason for its downregulation in MD tumorous tissues. Moreover, cell proliferation of Marek's disease lymphoblastoid cell line MDCC-MSB1 was remarkably inhibited at 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h post-gga-miR-130b-3p-agomir transfection. The transwell migration assay indicated cell number of migration was significantly lower in miRNA agomir transfection group. Matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9 are involved in tumor invasion, and their protein levels were significantly downregulated at 72 h post-miRNA-agomir transfection. Collectively, these results indicated that hypermethylation in upstream region of gga-miR-130b-3p gene contributed to its downregulation in tumorous tissues. Gga-miR-130b-3p plays an inhibitory role in lymphomatous cell transformation.

Authors : Zhao Chunfang, Li Xin, Han Bo, Qu Lujiang, Liu Changjun, Song Jiuzhou, Lian Ling, Yang Ning,



(6) Application of CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing System on MDV-1 Genome for the Study of Gene Function.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29794970
Publication Date : //
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a member of alphaherpesviruses associated with Marek's disease, a highly contagious neoplastic disease in chickens. Complete sequencing of the viral genome and recombineering techniques using infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of Marek's disease virus genome have identified major genes that are associated with pathogenicity. Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing have given opportunities for precise editing of the viral genome for identifying pathogenic determinants. Here we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing approaches to delete the and genes from the CVI988 vaccine strain of MDV. This powerful technology will speed up the MDV gene function studies significantly, leading to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MDV pathogenesis.

Authors : Zhang Yaoyao, Tang Na, Sadigh Yashar, Baigent Susan, Shen Zhiqiang, Nair Venugopal, Yao Yongxiu,



(7) Isolation and characterization of subgroup J Avian Leukosis virus associated with hemangioma in commercial Hy-Line chickens.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29788333
Publication Date : //
There was an outbreak of hemangioma associated with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) between 2006 and 2010 in China in commercial layer chickens. Recently, severe hemangiomas broke out in Hy-Line layer chickens on a poultry farm in 2017 where ALV was eradicated earlier. Six isolates of ALV-J, named SDAU1701-SDAU1706, were characterized by virus isolation and sequence analysis of the complete proviral genomes. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J was identified by an immunofluorescence assay with monoclonal antibody JE9, whereas Marek's disease virus or reticuloendotheliosis virus was not detected. Sequence analysis of the complete proviral genome revealed that there was 96.0-99.6% identity between each other and had a homology of 94.6-96.0% when compared with the reference strain. The six isolates formed one distinct lineage separate from the reference sequences in a phylogenetic-tree, which suggested that there were several genetic differences between these groups. Homology analysis of the env, pol, and gag genes of the six isolates showed that the env gene was more variable, especially the gp85 protein, which shared only 88.2-91.9% identity with the reference strains. Sequence comparisons of the gp85 protein indicated that 19 sites were different from those in the NX0101 and HPRS-103 strains inducing myeloid leukosis; among our strains, five mutations were identical to those in the viruses causing hemangioma. Four other distinctive mutations were detected in our six isolates. This study reminds us that the surveillance of viral eradication should be conducted continuously on a farm where ALVs were eradicated. To prevent the prevalence of ALVs, more attention should be paid to daily monitoring.

Authors : Meng Fanfeng, Li Qiuchen, Zhang Yubiao, Cui Zhizhong, Chang Shuang, Zhao Peng,



(8) Synergistic Viral Replication of Marek's Disease Virus and Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J is Responsible for the Enhanced Pathogenicity in the Superinfection of Chickens.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29783672
Publication Date : //
Superinfection of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) causes lethal neoplasia and death in chickens. However, whether there is synergism between the two viruses in viral replication and pathogenicity has remained elusive. In this study, we found that the superinfection of MDV and ALV-J increased the viral replication of the two viruses in RNA and protein level, and synergistically promoted the expression of IL-10, IL-6, and TGF-β in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). Moreover, MDV and ALV-J protein expression in dual-infected cells detected by confocal laser scanning microscope appeared earlier in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and caused more severe cytopathy than single infection, suggesting that synergistically increased MDV and ALV-J viral-protein biosynthesis is responsible for the severe cytopathy. In vivo, compared to the single virus infected chickens, the mortality and tumor formation rates increased significantly in MDV and ALV-J dual-infected chickens. Viral loads of MDV and ALV-J in tissues of dual-infected chickens were significantly higher than those of single-infected chickens. Histopathology observation showed that more severe inflammation and tumor cells metastases were present in dual-infected chickens. In the present study, we concluded that synergistic viral replication of MDV and ALV-J is responsible for the enhanced pathogenicity in superinfection of chickens.

Authors : Zhou Jing, Zhao Guo-Liang, Wang Xiao-Man, Du Xu-Sheng, Su Shuai, Li Chen-Gui, Nair Venugopal, Yao Yong-Xiu, Cheng Zi-Qiang,



(9) Use of real-time PCR to rule out Marek's disease in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy.[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29745244
Publication Date : //
This article reports nine cases of neurological disease in brown layer pullets that occured in various European countries between 2015 and 2018. In all cases, the onset of neurological clinical signs was at 4-8 weeks of age and they lasted up to 22 weeks of age. Enlargement of peripheral nerves was the main lesion observed in all cases. Histopathological evaluation of nerves revealed oedema with moderate to severe infiltration of plasma cells. Marek's disease (MD) was ruled out by real-time PCR as none of the evaluated tissues had a high load of oncogenic MD virus (MDV) DNA, characteristics of MD. Based on the epidemiological data (layers with clinical signs starting at 5-8 weeks of age), gross lesions (peripheral nerve enlargement with a lack of tumours in other organs), histopathological lesions (oedema and infiltration of plasma cells), and no evidence of high load of MDV DNA, we concluded that those cases were due to peripheral neuropathy (PN). PN is an autoimmune disease easily misdiagnosed as MD, leading to a costly enforcement of the vaccination protocol. Additional vaccination against MD does not protect against PN and could worsen the clinical signs by over-stimulating the immune system. Differential diagnosis between PN and MD should always be considered in cases of neurological disease with enlargement of peripheral nerves as the only gross lesion. This case report shows for the first time how real-time PCR to detect oncogenic MDV is a very valuable tool in the differential diagnosis of PN and MD.

Authors : Gall Sesny, Kőrösi László, Cortes Aneg L, Delvecchio Andrea, Prandini Francesco, Mitsch Peter, Gimeno Isabel M,



(10) Central Nervous System B-cell Lymphoma in a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus).[TOP]

Pubmed ID :29698076
Publication Date : //
An adult bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) presented for nystagmus and an inability to fly. On physical examination, the eagle was open-mouth breathing and tachycardic at 200 beats per minute, had a wrinkled cere and sunken eyes, and was an estimated 10% dehydrated. Additionally, the eagle was extremely weak, with neurologic abnormalities including bilateral proprioceptive deficits, nystagmus, and no pupillary light reflex in the left eye. Despite aggressive treatment, the eagle continued to decline rapidly and subsequently died. On histologic examination, diffuse and widespread infiltration of neoplastic lymphocytes was present in the brain, optic nerves, and pecten. Immunohistochemical PAX-5 labeling confirmed B-cell lymphoma confined to the eye and nervous system. Test results for select avian retroviruses, Marek's disease, West Nile virus, avian influenza viruses, and Mycoplasma were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B-cell lymphoma in a bald eagle. Although rare, this condition is a differential diagnosis in cases of neurologic or ocular diseases in birds.

Authors : Visser Marike, Walz Heather, Shrader Stephanie, Koehler Jey, Bellah Jamie,